DNA Structure Warm Up 2

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| By John Mitchell
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John Mitchell
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Quizzes Created: 100 | Total Attempts: 132,373
Questions: 20 | Attempts: 109

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DNA Structure Warm Up 2 - Quiz

Welcome to the electronic classroom frontier of the 21st century. This warm up 2 will concentrate questions on the DNA Structure and the scientists involved in the research.
As "fill-in" questions appear during the bell ringers, please enter your answers using all lower case letters. Unless, the HINT has provided you with new instructions.
This warm up has an unlimited number of attempts to better serve your LEARNING and TEST-TAKING skills. Also, each attempt of the warm up generates new questions.
I wish you the very best and earn Read morehigh marks on this warm up.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Identify the American biologists that teamed with a British graduate student from Cambridge University in the 1950's?

    • A.

      Alfred Nobel

    • B.

      James Watson

    • C.

      Francis Crick

    • D.

      Oswald Avery

    • E.

      Martha Chase

    Correct Answer
    B. James Watson
    Explanation
    James Watson is the correct answer because he is an American biologist who collaborated with a British graduate student from Cambridge University in the 1950s. This collaboration led to the discovery of the structure of DNA, for which Watson, along with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962.

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  • 2. 

    Which team of biologists received the nobel peace in 1962, for the work on the DNA molecule?

    • A.

      Crick and Watson

    • B.

      Franklin and Avery

    • C.

      Chase and Hershey

    • D.

      Franklin and Crick

    Correct Answer
    A. Crick and Watson
    Explanation
    Crick and Watson received the Nobel Prize in 1962 for their work on the DNA molecule. They were able to determine the structure of DNA, specifically the double helix, which provided crucial insight into the mechanism of DNA replication and the transmission of genetic information. This discovery revolutionized the field of genetics and laid the foundation for modern molecular biology.

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  • 3. 

    Each DNA nucleotide consists of a five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because each DNA nucleotide is composed of three main components: a five-carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. These components combine to form the basic building blocks of DNA, which are then arranged in a specific sequence to encode genetic information.

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  • 4. 

    A _____ bond holds the nitrogenous bases together.

    • A.

      Ionic

    • B.

      Polar

    • C.

      Hydrogen

    • D.

      Metallic

    • E.

      Covalent

    • F.

      Polar covalent

    Correct Answer
    C. Hydrogen
    Explanation
    Hydrogen bonds hold the nitrogenous bases together. Hydrogen bonding occurs when a hydrogen atom is attracted to a highly electronegative atom, such as oxygen or nitrogen, in a different molecule. In DNA, hydrogen bonds form between the nitrogenous bases adenine and thymine, as well as between guanine and cytosine. These bonds are relatively weak compared to covalent bonds, but they play a crucial role in stabilizing the structure of DNA and allowing for the separation of the two DNA strands during replication and transcription.

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  • 5. 

    Adenine, a nitrogenous base is classified as a(n)_____.

    • A.

      Nucleic acid

    • B.

      Pyrimidine

    • C.

      Protein

    • D.

      Purine

    • E.

      Carbohydrate

    Correct Answer
    D. Purine
    Explanation
    Adenine, a nitrogenous base, is classified as a purine. Purines are one of the two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleic acids, the other being pyrimidines. Adenine is a key component of DNA and RNA molecules, forming base pairs with thymine in DNA or uracil in RNA. Proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids are all important biomolecules, but in this case, the correct classification for adenine is purine.

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  • 6. 

    Guanine, a nitrogenous base is classified as a(n)_____.

    • A.

      Nucleic acid

    • B.

      Pyrimidine

    • C.

      Protein

    • D.

      Purine

    • E.

      Carbohydrate

    Correct Answer
    D. Purine
    Explanation
    Guanine is classified as a purine because it is a nitrogenous base that is found in DNA and RNA molecules. Purines are one of the two types of nitrogenous bases, along with pyrimidines, that make up the building blocks of nucleic acids. Proteins and carbohydrates are not classified as nitrogenous bases and do not play a role in the structure of nucleic acids. Therefore, the correct classification for guanine is purine.

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  • 7. 

    Thymine, a nitrogenous base is classified as a(n)_____.

    • A.

      Nucleic acid

    • B.

      Pyrimidine

    • C.

      Protein

    • D.

      Purine

    • E.

      Carbohydrate

    Correct Answer
    B. Pyrimidine
    Explanation
    Thymine is classified as a pyrimidine because it is one of the four nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. Pyrimidines are a type of organic compound that consists of a six-membered ring structure, and thymine specifically pairs with adenine in DNA. Nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, are composed of these nitrogenous bases, along with a sugar and a phosphate group. Proteins and carbohydrates are not directly related to the classification of thymine.

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  • 8. 

    Cytosine, a nitrogenous base is classified as a(n)_____.

    • A.

      Nucleic acid

    • B.

      Pyrimidine

    • C.

      Protein

    • D.

      Purine

    • E.

      Carbohydrate

    Correct Answer
    B. Pyrimidine
    Explanation
    Cytosine is classified as a pyrimidine because it is one of the two types of nitrogenous bases found in DNA and RNA. Pyrimidines have a single-ring structure, and cytosine specifically pairs with guanine in DNA and RNA molecules. Nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, are composed of these nitrogenous bases, along with sugars and phosphate groups. Proteins, purines, and carbohydrates are not directly related to the classification of cytosine as a pyrimidine.

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  • 9. 

    Erwin Chargaff observed that one purine and one pyrimidine composes a nitrogenous base pair. Which pair below are correctly bonded?

    • A.

      Adenine : Cytosine

    • B.

      Adenine : Guanine

    • C.

      Adenine : Thymine

    • D.

      Adenine : Adenine

    Correct Answer
    C. Adenine : Thymine
    Explanation
    Erwin Chargaff's observation states that a purine (adenine or guanine) always bonds with a pyrimidine (thymine or cytosine) in a DNA molecule. Adenine and thymine are correctly bonded as they form a purine-pyrimidine base pair. Adenine forms two hydrogen bonds with thymine, creating a stable bond between the two nucleotides.

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  • 10. 

    Erwin Chargaff observed that one purine and one pyrimidine composes a nitrogenous base pair. Which pair below are correctly bonded?

    • A.

      Adenine : Cytosine

    • B.

      Adenine : Guanine

    • C.

      Cytosine : Thymine

    • D.

      Guanine : Cytosine

    Correct Answer
    D. Guanine : Cytosine
    Explanation
    Erwin Chargaff observed that one purine and one pyrimidine compose a nitrogenous base pair. The correct bonding is between Guanine and Cytosine because Guanine is a purine and Cytosine is a pyrimidine. This pairing follows Chargaff's observation and the rules of base pairing in DNA.

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  • 11. 

    Complete the base sequence of the following: Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, Cytosine.

    • A.

      Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, Thymine, Adenine, Guanine,

    • B.

      Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Guanine

    • C.

      Uracil, Adenine, Thymine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine

    • D.

      Thymine, Cytosine, Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine, Guanine

    Correct Answer
    B. Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Guanine
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Thymine, Cytosine, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Guanine. This is the correct completion of the base sequence based on the given pattern. The sequence follows the order of the nitrogenous bases in DNA, with Adenine always pairing with Thymine and Guanine always pairing with Cytosine. Therefore, the next base after Thymine is Cytosine, followed by Adenine, Cytosine, and finally, Guanine twice.

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  • 12. 

    Adenine has _____ ring structure.

    • A.

      Single

    • B.

      Double

    • C.

      Triple

    • D.

      Six

    Correct Answer
    B. Double
    Explanation
    Adenine has a double ring structure. The molecule consists of a pyrimidine ring fused with an imidazole ring, resulting in a double ring structure. This double ring structure is characteristic of adenine and distinguishes it from other nucleobases like cytosine, thymine, and uracil, which have a single ring structure. The double ring structure of adenine is important as it plays a crucial role in its function as one of the four nucleobases in DNA and RNA.

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  • 13. 

    Guanine has _____ ring structure.

    • A.

      Single

    • B.

      Double

    • C.

      Triple

    • D.

      Six

    Correct Answer
    B. Double
    Explanation
    Guanine has a double ring structure. It is one of the four nucleobases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, cytosine, and thymine (or uracil in RNA). Guanine is classified as a purine base, and its double ring structure consists of a six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring. This double ring structure is important for the base-pairing interactions that occur in DNA and RNA, contributing to the stability and function of these molecules.

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  • 14. 

    Thymine has _____ ring structure.

    • A.

      Single

    • B.

      Double

    • C.

      Triple

    • D.

      Six

    Correct Answer
    A. Single
    Explanation
    Thymine has a single ring structure.

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  • 15. 

    Cytosine has _____ ring structure.

    • A.

      Single

    • B.

      Double

    • C.

      Triple

    • D.

      Six

    Correct Answer
    A. Single
    Explanation
    Cytosine has a single ring structure. This means that it consists of only one ring in its molecular structure.

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  • 16. 

    What piece of information did Franklin and Wilkins have that helped Watson and Crick determine the double helix structure of DNA?

    • A.

      X-ray diffraction photographs

    • B.

      C.A.T. Scans

    • C.

      Ultraviolet photographs

    • D.

      LASER photographs

    • E.

      Bases have chemical signature

    Correct Answer
    A. X-ray diffraction photographs
    Explanation
    Franklin and Wilkins had X-ray diffraction photographs which provided crucial information about the structure of DNA. X-ray diffraction is a technique used to study the arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice, and it can reveal the overall shape and dimensions of a molecule. By analyzing the X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA taken by Franklin and Wilkins, Watson and Crick were able to deduce the double helix structure of DNA, with its characteristic spiral shape and base pairing. This discovery revolutionized our understanding of genetics and laid the foundation for modern molecular biology.

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  • 17. 

    Name the three parts of a nucleotide. (NOTE: this is a multiple answer question.)

    • A.

      Sugar

    • B.

      Phosphate

    • C.

      Nitrogenous base

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sugar
    B. Phosphate
    C. Nitrogenous base
    Explanation
    A nucleotide is composed of three main parts: sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogenous base. The sugar component is a five-carbon sugar molecule, typically ribose or deoxyribose. The phosphate group consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms. The nitrogenous base can be one of four types: adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine. These three parts together form the basic building blocks of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA.

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  • 18. 

    Given a short base sequence of DNA, provide the complementary base pairs. A-C-T-G-C-A-A-G-T  (NOTE: Please use the format in your answer.)

    Correct Answer(s)
    T-G-A-C-G-T-T-C-A
    Explanation
    The given base sequence is A-C-T-G-C-A-A-G-T. To find the complementary base pairs, we need to match each base with its complementary base. A pairs with T, C pairs with G, T pairs with A, and G pairs with C. Therefore, the complementary base pairs for the given sequence are T-G-A-C-G-T-T-C-A.

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  • 19. 

    State the base-pairing rules in DNA. (NOTE: there are two (2) correct answers.)

    • A.

      Guanine and Cytosine Pair

    • B.

      Thymine and Adenine Pair

    • C.

      Guanine and Adenine Pair

    • D.

      Thymine and Uracil Pair

    • E.

      Uracil and Guanine Pair

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Guanine and Cytosine Pair
    B. Thymine and Adenine Pair
    Explanation
    The base-pairing rules in DNA state that Guanine (G) pairs with Cytosine (C), and Thymine (T) pairs with Adenine (A). This means that in a DNA molecule, if one strand has a G, the other strand will have a C opposite it, and if one strand has a T, the other strand will have an A opposite it. This complementary base pairing is essential for DNA replication and the transmission of genetic information.

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  • 20. 

    If 5.50 picograms of DNA could be extracted from a certain number of human muscle cells, about how many picograms of DNA could be extracted from the same number of human gamete cells?

    • A.

      2.75

    • B.

      5.50

    • C.

      16.5

    • D.

      22.0

    • E.

      27.5

    Correct Answer
    A. 2.75
    Explanation
    The question is asking about the amount of DNA that could be extracted from human gamete cells compared to human muscle cells. Since gamete cells are reproductive cells, they have half the amount of DNA compared to somatic cells like muscle cells. Therefore, if 5.50 picograms of DNA can be extracted from muscle cells, we can expect to extract half of that amount, which is 2.75 picograms, from gamete cells.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 19, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    John Mitchell
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