Congenital Heart Disease MCQ Quiz With Answer

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Congenital Heart Disease MCQ Quiz With Answer - Quiz


Congenital heart disease is one or more problems with the heart’s structure that is present since birth. Take this congenital heart disease MCQ quiz with answers and your knowledge. Congenital suggests that you were born with the defect. These illnesses can cause life-threatening consequences in a person’s body. The most common reason for congenital heart disease is large chromosomes. This quiz will test you on congenital heart disease. Good luck.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Atherosclerosis is a type of:

    • A.

      Stroke

    • B.

      Heart attack

    • C.

      Arteriosclerosis

    • D.

      Coronary heart disease

    Correct Answer
    C. Arteriosclerosis
    Explanation
    Arteriosclerosis is the correct answer because atherosclerosis is a specific type of arteriosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis refers to the thickening and hardening of the arterial walls, while atherosclerosis specifically involves the buildup of plaque within the arteries. Atherosclerosis can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as heart attacks and strokes, but it is a subtype of arteriosclerosis.

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  • 2. 

    Congenital heart disease can be:

    • A.

      Asymptomatic at birth

    • B.

      Associated with immunodeficiency

    • C.

      Easily detected on routine neonatal examination

    • D.

      Cyanotic or acyanotic

    • E.

      Seen more commonly in low birth weight babies

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Asymptomatic at birth
    B. Associated with immunodeficiency
    D. Cyanotic or acyanotic
    E. Seen more commonly in low birth weight babies
    Explanation
    Often asymptomatic, at least until pulmonary resistance falls and the duct closes. Digeorge syndrome (22q) consists of cellular immunodeficiency (related to the thymus) and is associated with coarctation. Routine neonatal examination misses about 50% of cases. Cyanotic vs. cyanotic is the easiest way to think about the many different conditions. Mean birth weight is reduced for all cardiac conditions except transposition.

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  • 3. 

    The differential of a collapsed, cyanotic baby include:

    • A.

      Sepsis

    • B.

      Inborn error of metabolism

    • C.

      Severe respiratory distress

    • D.

      Non-accidental injury

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sepsis
    B. Inborn error of metabolism
    C. Severe respiratory distress
    D. Non-accidental injury
    Explanation
    All may be accompanied by hypoperfusion, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, or acidosis. A big liver may suggest heart failure, or else an inborn error of glucose metabolism, or else a hyperinflated chest. A high pCO2 suggests respiratory failure. A low pCO2 suggests respiratory compensation for metabolic acidosis. Subconjunctival or retinal hemorrhages suggest NAI.

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  • 4. 

    An ECG in tricuspid atresia shows:

    • A.

      Left axis deviation

    • B.

      Right axis deviation

    Correct Answer
    A. Left axis deviation
    Explanation
    Most forms of congenital heart disease show right axis deviation and right heart strain. In TA, the right ventricle is bypassed, and the left ventricle ends up doing all the work.

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  • 5. 

    Immediate management of a collapsed baby with a duct-dependent cardiac lesion includes:

    • A.

      Intubation and ventilation

    • B.

      Correction of hypoglycemia

    • C.

      Intravenous fluid bolus

    • D.

      ECG

    • E.

      IV prostaglandin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Intubation and ventilation
    B. Correction of hypoglycemia
    C. Intravenous fluid bolus
    E. IV prostaglandin
    Explanation
    Positive pressure ventilation enhances cardiac output, so it is beneficial even in the absence of respiratory disease. A fluid bolus is often beneficial even in the presence of an obstructive cardiac defect to increase preload - but should be considered an emergency measure pending treatment with inotropes and prostaglandin. Prostaglandin is the definitive treatment, but other supportive treatments, e.g., correction of hypoglycemia, are also important.

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  • 6. 

    For a well-baby with a murmur at the routine neonatal examination:

    • A.

      Saturations should be checked.

    • B.

      An ECG should be checked.

    • C.

      Trained nurses/midwives are as good as doctors at assessing.

    • D.

      A sternal or subxiphoid heave should be looked for

    • E.

      Parents should be warned that symptoms of heart disease may present before the 6 weeks follow up.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Saturations should be checked.
    C. Trained nurses/midwives are as good as doctors at assessing.
    D. A sternal or subxiphoid heave should be looked for
    Explanation
    A new study from Sweden in BMJ suggests routine pulse oximetry is helpful in increasing sensitivity without too many extra false positives. ECG, and CXR may be abnormal but do not change management (echo for definitive diagnosis). Trained nurses/midwives are just as good as doctors in studies from centers where they perform routine neonatal checks. A heave implies a cardiac defect rather than an innocent murmur. Congenital cardiac disease can become symptomatic before the 6-week appointment, but given the very high false-positive rate, parents should be reminded that any concerns in general about their baby should be directed without hesitation to their community midwife, health visitor, or GP; to mention a murmur then talk about symptoms of heart failure specifically is likely to cause anxiety.

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  • 7. 

    Fallot's tetralogy:

    • A.

      Is so called because there are 4 diagnostic features

    • B.

      May have pulmonary atresia

    • C.

      Shows overriding of the aorta

    • D.

      Features first described by Étienne-Louis Fallot in 1888

    • E.

      Is characterized by spells

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Is so called because there are 4 diagnostic features
    B. May have pulmonary atresia
    C. Shows overriding of the aorta
    E. Is characterized by spells
    Explanation
    Pulmonary stenosis is the cardinal feature, but in its most extreme manifestation, there may be full atresia. Overriding of the aorta, along with VSD and right ventricular hypertrophy, are the other features that make up the 4 part description. Numerous descriptions of these features were made before Fallot's more comprehensive description, including one by Scotland's own William Hunter. "Spells" are episodes of pulmonary artery spasm causing acute hypoxia.

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  • 8. 

    A patent ductus arteriosus:

    • A.

      Can be a cause of heart failure but may also be life-saving

    • B.

      Causes a left-to-right shunt

    • C.

      Is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage, and necrotizing enterocolitis

    • D.

      Is normal on day 14 of life

    • E.

      In preterms is due to lack of endothelial cushions, hypoxia and high pulmonary resistance

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Can be a cause of heart failure but may also be life-saving
    C. Is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage, and necrotizing enterocolitis
    E. In preterms is due to lack of endothelial cushions, hypoxia and high pulmonary resistance
    Explanation
    PDA may produce heart failure if there is a significant left to right shunt. On the other hand, if there is an obstructive cardiac defect, e.g., hypoplastic left heart, perfusion of the organs may be dependent on it. The direction of the shunt depends on the pressure difference between the left and right: Normally, this will be greater on the left but may be reversed if there is pulmonary hypertension, e.g., due to birth asphyxia. The duct normally closes in the first week of life.

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  • 9. 

    Chest x-ray:

    • A.

      May show pulmonary oedema in congenital heart disease

    • B.

      Always shows an enlarged heart in heart failure

    • C.

      May show a characteristic heart shadow in transposition of the great arteries called "egg on a string."

    • D.

      May show a characteristic heart shadow in Tetralogy called "moon in june."

    • E.

      May show pulmonary oligaemia in congenital heart disease

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. May show pulmonary oedema in congenital heart disease
    C. May show a characteristic heart shadow in transposition of the great arteries called "egg on a string."
    E. May show pulmonary oligaemia in congenital heart disease
    Explanation
    Pulmonary edema is a feature of left ventricular failure. If this is progressive over a few days, then the heart tends to dilate; however, in acute cases, this may not occur. Pulmonary oligaemia (dark lung fields) may be seen in pulmonary atresia/stenosis. The heart in Tetralogy is described as "boot-shaped."

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  • 10. 

    The following statements are true:

    • A.

      The Blalock - Taussig shunt is a procedure performed to alleviate poor pulmonary blood flow.

    • B.

      Taussig was a woman

    • C.

      Taussig was a deaf cardiologist

    • D.

      Taussig was dyslexic

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. The Blalock - Taussig shunt is a procedure performed to alleviate poor pulmonary blood flow.
    B. Taussig was a woman
    C. Taussig was a deaf cardiologist
    D. Taussig was dyslexic
    Explanation
    The Blalock - Taussig shunt is a procedure performed to alleviate poor pulmonary blood flow. Taussig being a woman, a deaf cardiologist, and dyslexic are additional facts about her, but they are not directly related to the procedure itself.

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