# Computer Science 1030 Chapter 1

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• 1.

### In 1642 Pascal created a mechanical device with gears and leveers. This device was capable of what kind of calculation?

• A.

• B.

• C.

• D.

Explanation
Pascal's mechanical device with gears and levers was capable of performing addition and subtraction calculations. It did not have the capability to perform multiplication or division. This device was an early form of a mechanical calculator, designed to assist with basic arithmetic operations.

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• 2.

### Leibniz built on Pascal's work by creating the Leibniz Wheel. This device was capable of what kind of calculations in addition to the ones Pascal's could do?

• A.

Subtraction

• B.

• C.

Subtraction and multiplication

• D.

Multiplication and Division

D. Multiplication and Division
Explanation
Leibniz built on Pascal's work by creating the Leibniz Wheel, which was capable of performing multiplication and division calculations in addition to the calculations that Pascal's device could do. Leibniz's innovation expanded the capabilities of mechanical calculators, allowing for more complex mathematical operations to be performed efficiently.

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• 3.

### The Jacquard loom is important in the history of computing for what innovation?

• A.

It worked like a player piano.

• B.

Reusable cards with holes held information.

• C.

It used gears and wheels for calculation.

• D.

Paper rolls with holes held information.

A. It worked like a player piano.
Explanation
The correct answer is "It worked like a player piano." The Jacquard loom is important in the history of computing because it was one of the earliest machines to use punched cards to control the weaving process. These punched cards contained patterns of holes that corresponded to specific instructions, similar to how a player piano reads rolls of paper with holes to produce music. This innovation allowed for the automation of complex weaving patterns and laid the foundation for the development of early computer programming concepts.

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• 4.

### IBM has some of its origins in what 1890 event?

• A.

The U.S. Census

• B.

The first Jacquard loom in the United States

• C.

• D.

The introduction of electricity to the United States

A. The U.S. Census
Explanation
IBM has some of its origins in the 1890 U.S. Census. During this time, the U.S. government needed a faster and more efficient way to process and analyze the massive amount of data collected in the census. This led to the development of punch card tabulating machines by Herman Hollerith, which later became the foundation for IBM. The success of these machines in data processing paved the way for the company's future innovations in computing technology.

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• 5.

### Name the four important elements of Babbage's Engine that are components of today's computer.

• A.

The stored program technique, an input device, an output device, and memory

• B.

Mechanical calculation equipment, human-powered mechanisms, punched cards, and an output device.

• C.

An input device, memory, a central processing unit, an output device

• D.

An input device, the stored program technique, a central processing unit, and an output device.

C. An input device, memory, a central processing unit, an output device
Explanation
The correct answer is an input device, memory, a central processing unit, and an output device. These four elements are essential components of today's computers. An input device allows users to input data or commands into the computer. Memory stores data and instructions for processing. The central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer, responsible for executing instructions and performing calculations. An output device displays or presents the processed information to the user. Together, these components form the foundation of modern computers.

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• 6.

### What logical elements did Charles Sanders Peirce realize electrical switches could emulate in 1880?

• A.

Epistemological calculus

• B.

Ontological algebra

• C.

Boolean algebra

• D.

Metaphysical algebra

C. Boolean algebra
Explanation
Charles Sanders Peirce realized that electrical switches could emulate logical elements using Boolean algebra in 1880. Boolean algebra is a mathematical system that deals with logical operations and binary variables, which are represented by the states of electrical switches. Peirce's realization was significant because it paved the way for the development of digital logic and modern computer systems, where electrical switches are used to represent and manipulate binary information.

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• 7.

### The U.S. military used the ENIAC computer for its intended purpose during World War II.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
During World War II, the ENIAC computer was not used by the U.S. military for its intended purpose. In fact, the ENIAC was not completed until after the war ended in 1945. It was primarily used for scientific and research purposes, particularly for calculations related to the development of atomic weapons. Therefore, the statement that the U.S. military used the ENIAC computer for its intended purpose during World War II is false.

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• 8.

### What important concept is attributed to John Von Neumann?

• A.

The large memory concept

• B.

The stored program concept

• C.

The discrete variable automation concept

• D.

The virtual memory concept

B. The stored program concept
Explanation
The stored program concept is attributed to John Von Neumann. This concept refers to the idea of storing instructions and data in the same memory, allowing programs to be written and modified easily. It revolutionized the field of computer architecture and laid the foundation for modern computing systems.

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• 9.

### What company controlled 70% or more of the computer marketplace in the '60s and '70s?

• A.

Sperry-Univac

• B.

• C.

Hollerith Machines

• D.

Microsoft

Explanation
In the 1960s and 1970s, International Business Machines (IBM) controlled 70% or more of the computer marketplace. IBM was a dominant force in the industry during this time, with their mainframe computers being widely used by businesses and organizations. Their market share and technological advancements cemented their position as the leading company in the computer industry during that period.

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• 10.

### What features of transistors made them superior for computers, compared with vacuum tubes?

• A.

They were more expensive than tubes but lasted longer and were cooler in temperature.

• B.

They didn't last as long as tubes but were less expensive.

• C.

They were cheaper and smaller than tubes.

• D.

They were cheaper, smaller, and cooler than tubes and lasted longer.

D. They were cheaper, smaller, and cooler than tubes and lasted longer.
Explanation
Transistors were superior to vacuum tubes for computers because they were cheaper, smaller, and cooler. Additionally, they lasted longer than tubes.

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• 11.

### WHat important pastry helped move your job up in the queu in second-generation software, and what third-generation software develoment made that pastry unnecessary?

• A.

Donuts and integrated circuits

• B.

• C.

Donuts and time-sharing

• D.

Donuts and virtual memory

C. Donuts and time-sharing
Explanation
In second-generation software, donuts helped move your job up in the queue. This means that if you brought donuts to the office, it would increase your chances of getting your job done faster. However, with the development of third-generation software, specifically time-sharing, this pastry became unnecessary. Time-sharing allowed multiple users to access the computer system simultaneously, eliminating the need for donuts to prioritize job completion.

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• 12.

### In hardware, the next step up from the transitor was the transmitter.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The given statement is false. The next step up from the transistor in hardware is not the transmitter. The correct answer would depend on the context and the specific advancements in hardware technology.

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• 13.

### WHat magazines can you thank for the first microcomputer?

• A.

Science and Wall Street Journal

• B.

• C.

Popular Electronics and Star Trek Monthly

• D.

New Mexico Entrepreneur and Radio Electronics

B. Popular Electronics and Radio Electronics
Explanation
Popular Electronics and Radio Electronics are the magazines that can be credited for the first microcomputer. These magazines played a significant role in popularizing and promoting the concept of microcomputers, which eventually led to the development of the first microcomputer.

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• 14.

### What important concept did the Altair use, which was borrowed by its competition, including the IBM personal computer?

• A.

The computer came in kit form.

• B.

The computer's price was \$666.

• C.

The machine had an open architecture.

• D.

The machine could be used without plugging it into a wall outlet.

C. The machine had an open architecture.
Explanation
The Altair computer had an open architecture, which means that its design and specifications were made available to the public. This allowed other companies, including IBM, to borrow and incorporate the same concept into their own computers. An open architecture allows for compatibility and interoperability between different systems and components, promoting innovation and competition in the computer industry.

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• 15.

### The Apple computer became very popular. What was its largest market, and what software made it interesting to that market?

• A.

The education market and the educational game Shape Up.

• B.

The games market and the game The Big Race

• C.

The business market and the program Lotus 1-2-3

• D.

The business market and the program VisiCalc

D. The business market and the program VisiCalc
Explanation
The correct answer is the business market and the program VisiCalc. VisiCalc was the first spreadsheet software developed for personal computers, and it revolutionized the business world by making financial analysis and forecasting much easier and more efficient. It allowed businesses to perform complex calculations and create professional-looking spreadsheets, which greatly increased productivity and decision-making capabilities. This software played a significant role in the success and popularity of Apple computers in the business market.

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• 16.

### In 1990, what software company dominated the software market, and what major product did it sell?

• A.

Lotus and Lotus 1-2-3

• B.

Bricklin and VisiCalc

• C.

Apple and the Apple Operating System

• D.

Microsoft and Word

D. Microsoft and Word
Explanation
In 1990, Microsoft dominated the software market with their major product, Word. Microsoft Word was a popular word processing software that revolutionized the way people created and edited documents. It offered a user-friendly interface, advanced formatting options, and became the industry standard for word processing. This dominance in the software market helped solidify Microsoft's position as a leading technology company.

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• 17.

### Today, Microsoft considers its major competition in operating systems to be what system?

• A.

Control Data Corporation OS

• B.

Sega Games operating system

• C.

Linux operating system

• D.

Mac OS X

D. Mac OS X
Explanation
Microsoft considers its major competition in operating systems to be Mac OS X. This is because Mac OS X is developed by Apple and has gained popularity among users, especially in the consumer market. Mac OS X offers a different user experience and a unique set of features compared to Microsoft's operating systems. As a result, Microsoft sees Mac OS X as a strong competitor in the operating system market.

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• 18.

### ARPA was created in response to what major event in world history?

• A.

World War II

• B.

The McCarthy hearings of the 1950s

• C.

The launch of Sputnik

• D.

The inability of computers to communicate with one another

C. The launch of Sputnik
Explanation
The correct answer is the launch of Sputnik. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in response to the Soviet Union's successful launch of the satellite Sputnik in 1957. This event created a sense of urgency in the United States to develop advanced technology and improve communication systems, leading to the establishment of ARPA.

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• 19.

### Name the three most likely critical large-scale develpments of the fifth generation of software develpment from this list of options:

• A.

Parallel computing, networking, and the multiple-data-stream approach

• B.

The graphical user interface, networking, and computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools

• C.

Networking, the graphical user interface, and packet switching

• D.

ARPANET, the Internet, and CASE tools

B. The grapHical user interface, networking, and computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools
• 20.

• A.

Netscape

• B.

Mosaic

• C.

Explorer

• D.

Hypertext

B. Mosaic
Explanation
Marc Andreessen released the application called Mosaic that made browsers widespread. Mosaic was one of the first web browsers with a graphical user interface, making it easier for users to navigate and access information on the internet. Its user-friendly design and features paved the way for the widespread adoption of web browsers and played a significant role in popularizing the internet among the general public.

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• Current Version
• Mar 30, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Sep 04, 2012
Quiz Created by
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