Clic Cosmetology: Infection Control: Principles And Practice (Part 1)

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Clic Cosmetology: Infection Control: Principles And Practice (Part 1) - Quiz

This covers the nature of various organisms, how they relate to disease, and how their spread can be prevented in the salon. These quizzes cover bacteria, viruses, how pathogens enter the body, parasites, immunity, principles of prevention, universal precautions, and the professional image.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    One-celled microorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics; some are harmful, some harmless; also known as microbes or germs.

    Explanation
    Bacteria are one-celled microorganisms that exhibit characteristics of both plants and animals. They can be harmful or harmless, and are commonly referred to as microbes or germs. Bacteria play a crucial role in various ecological processes, such as nutrient cycling, but some species can also cause diseases in humans and other organisms. Therefore, understanding bacteria and their behavior is important for both public health and environmental studies.

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  • 2. 

    The science that deals with the study of microorganisms called bacteria.

    Explanation
    Bacteriology is the science that specifically focuses on the study of microorganisms known as bacteria. It involves the examination, identification, and classification of bacteria, as well as the understanding of their structure, physiology, genetics, and ecological roles. Bacteriology plays a crucial role in various fields, including medicine, agriculture, and environmental science, as it helps in the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections, the development of antibiotics, and the study of microbial ecosystems.

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  • 3. 

    Communicable by infection from one person to another person or from one infected body part to another.

    Explanation
    The term "infectious" refers to a condition or disease that can be transmitted from one person to another or from one infected body part to another. This means that the infection can spread through direct contact, such as touching or kissing, or through indirect contact, such as sharing contaminated objects or being exposed to airborne particles. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is "Infectious."

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  • 4. 

    The science that deals with microorganisms and their effects on other forms of life.

    Explanation
    Microbiology is the science that focuses on the study of microorganisms and their impact on other living organisms. This field examines various aspects of microorganisms, including their structure, function, classification, and interactions with their environment. Microbiology plays a crucial role in understanding diseases caused by microorganisms, developing treatments, and exploring their beneficial applications in areas such as medicine, agriculture, and industry.

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  • 5. 

    Microscopic plant or animal cell.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Microorganism, Microorganisms." This answer is correct because microorganisms refer to microscopic organisms, which can include both plant and animal cells. These organisms are too small to be seen with the naked eye and can only be observed under a microscope. Therefore, the term "microorganism" encompasses both microscopic plant and animal cells.

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  • 6. 

    A vegetable or animal organism that lives on or in another organism and draws its nourishment from that organism.

    Explanation
    The term "parasite" refers to a vegetable or animal organism that lives on or in another organism and obtains its nourishment from that organism. It is a type of relationship where one organism benefits at the expense of another. The plural form of "parasite" is "parasites," which indicates multiple organisms that exhibit this behavior.

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  • 7. 

    Any of the various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms.

    Explanation
    Toxin refers to any of the various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms. These substances are harmful and can cause adverse effects on living organisms. They are typically produced by bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms as a defense mechanism or to aid in their survival. Toxins can affect different parts of the body and can lead to various symptoms and illnesses, depending on the specific toxin and the organism it affects. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is Toxin.

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  • 8. 

    The study of viruses and viral diseases.

    Explanation
    Virology is the study of viruses and viral diseases. It involves examining the structure, classification, and behavior of viruses, as well as their interactions with host organisms. Virologists investigate how viruses infect cells, replicate, and cause diseases. They also study the immune response to viral infections and develop methods for diagnosing and treating viral diseases. By understanding the nature of viruses and their mechanisms, virology plays a crucial role in preventing and controlling viral outbreaks, developing vaccines, and advancing our knowledge of infectious diseases.

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  • 9. 

    A submicroscopic structure capable of infesting almost all plants and animals, including bacteria, infectious agent that lives only by penetrating cells and becoming part of them.

    Explanation
    Viruses are submicroscopic structures that can infect almost all plants and animals, including bacteria. They are infectious agents that rely on penetrating cells and becoming a part of them in order to survive. Viruses are known for their ability to cause various diseases in living organisms.

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  • 10. 

    Helpful or harmless; not disease producing organisms which perform many useful functions such as decomposing garbage and improving soil fertility are what?

    • A.

      Nonpathogenic

    • B.

      Pathogenic

    • C.

      Parasites

    • D.

      Saprophytes

    Correct Answer
    A. Nonpathogenic
    Explanation
    In the human body, nonpathogenic bacteria help metabolize food, protect against infectious microorganisms, and stimulate immune response.

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  • 11. 

    Bacteria that are harmful and can cause disease when they invade plant or animal tissue.

    • A.

      Pathogenic

    • B.

      Nonpathogenic

    • C.

      Saprophytes

    • D.

      Parasites

    Correct Answer
    A. Pathogenic
    Explanation
    It is because of pathogenic bacteria that salons and cosmetology schools must maintain certain sanitary standards.

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  • 12. 

    Saphrophytes are a type of nonpathogenic bacteria that lives on dead matter.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Saprophytes are indeed a type of nonpathogenic bacteria that live on dead matter. They obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic material, such as dead plants and animals. This process is essential for the recycling of nutrients in ecosystems. Therefore, the statement that saprophytes are a type of nonpathogenic bacteria that lives on dead matter is true.

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  • 13. 

    Round-shaped bacteria that appear singly or in three different groups.

    • A.

      Cocci

    • B.

      Bacilli

    • C.

      Spirilla

    Correct Answer
    A. Cocci
    Explanation
    Staphylococci, Streptococci, and Diplococci are the three groups.

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  • 14. 

    Short, rod-shaped bacteria. They are the most common bacteria and produce diseases such as tetanus (lockjaw), typhoid fever, tuberculosis, and diphtheria.

    • A.

      Spirilla

    • B.

      Cocci

    • C.

      Bacilli

    Correct Answer
    C. Bacilli
    Explanation
    Bacilli are short, rod-shaped bacteria that are the most common type of bacteria. They are known for causing various diseases such as tetanus, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, and diphtheria. This explanation provides a clear description of bacilli and their association with diseases without explicitly stating that it is the correct answer.

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  • 15. 

    Spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria. They are subdivided into subgroups, such as Treponema pallida, which causes syphilis, or Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease.

    • A.

      Cocci

    • B.

      Spirilla

    • C.

      Bacilli

    Correct Answer
    B. Spirilla
    Explanation
    Spirilla are spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria, which are subdivided into subgroups such as Treponema pallida, the bacteria that causes syphilis, and Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria that causes Lyme disease. This suggests that the correct answer is Spirilla.

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  • 16. 

    Pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like a bunch of grapes. They cause abscesses, pustules, and boils.

    • A.

      Staphylococci

    • B.

      Streptococci

    • C.

      Diplococci

    Correct Answer
    A. Staphylococci
    Explanation
    Staphylococci are pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters, resembling a bunch of grapes. They are responsible for causing various infections such as abscesses, pustules, and boils. Streptococci, on the other hand, are bacteria that grow in chains, while diplococci are bacteria that grow in pairs. Therefore, the correct answer is Staphylococci.

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  • 17. 

    Pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads. They cause infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning.

    • A.

      Diplococci

    • B.

      Streptococci

    • C.

      Staphylococci

    Correct Answer
    B. Streptococci
    Explanation
    Streptococci are pus-forming bacteria that are arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads. They are known to cause infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning. Streptococci are a type of bacteria that are commonly found in the throat and skin of humans. They can cause a range of infections, from mild to severe, depending on the strain and the individual's immune response. Streptococci are often treated with antibiotics to eliminate the infection and prevent further complications.

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  • 18. 

    Spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia.

    • A.

      Streptococci

    • B.

      Diplococci

    • C.

      Staphylococci

    Correct Answer
    B. Diplococci
    Explanation
    Diplococci is the correct answer because it refers to spherical bacteria that grow in pairs. This type of bacteria is known to cause diseases such as pneumonia. Streptococci and Staphylococci are also types of spherical bacteria, but they do not grow in pairs like diplococci do. Therefore, diplococci is the most appropriate answer based on the given information.

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  • 19. 

    Different bacteria move in different ways. Cocci rarely show active ______. They are transmitted in the air, in dust, or within the substance in which they settle.

    Correct Answer
    Motility
    Self movement
    Explanation
    Cocci bacteria are known for their lack of active movement, or motility. Instead, they are typically transmitted through the air, in dust particles, or within the substance they settle in. This means that they rely on external factors, such as air currents or contact, to spread and infect new environments or hosts.

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  • 20. 

    Bacilli and spirilla are both motile and use slender, hairlike extensions, known as _________, or cilia, for locomotion.

    Correct Answer
    Flagella
    Flagellum
    Explanation
    Bacilli and spirilla are both motile and use slender, hairlike extensions, known as flagella or flagellum, for locomotion. Flagella are whip-like structures that protrude from the cell and help in movement. Bacilli are rod-shaped bacteria, while spirilla are spiral-shaped bacteria. Both types of bacteria have flagella or flagellum to assist in their movement.

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  • 21. 

    Bacterial Growth and Reproduction: During the active stage, bacteria grow and reproduce. When they reach their largest size, they divide into two new cells. This division is called ________. The cells that are formed are called daughter cells. When conditions are unfavorable, bacteria die or become inactive.

    Correct Answer
    Mitosis
    Explanation
    Mitosis is the correct answer because it is the process of cell division in which a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells. In the context of bacterial growth and reproduction, when bacteria reach their largest size, they undergo mitosis and divide into two new cells, known as daughter cells. This process allows bacteria to increase their population and continue their life cycle.

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  • 22. 

    Bacterial Growth and Reproduction: Certain bacteria, such as the anthrax and tetanus bacilli, form spherical spores with tough outer coverings during their ______  _______. The purpose is to be able to withstand periods of famine, dryness, and unsuitable temperatures. In this stage, spores can be blown about and are not harmed by disinfectants, heat, or cold.

    Correct Answer
    Inactive stage
    Spore-forming stage
    Explanation
    During their spore-forming stage, certain bacteria like anthrax and tetanus bacilli form spherical spores with tough outer coverings. This allows them to enter an inactive stage where they can withstand periods of famine, dryness, and unsuitable temperatures. In this stage, the spores can be blown about and are not harmed by disinfectants, heat, or cold.

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  • 23. 

    Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis, a rod-shaped bacteria that was long thought to be relatively harmless, caused a huge outbreak in California in the ______ industry.

    Correct Answer
    Pedicure
    Explanation
    In 2000, an infection caused by this bacteria affected over 100 clients who had recieved pedicures in the same salon. The source of the infection was traced to the whirlpool foot spas that had built up debris from failure to follow the manufacturer's cleaning instructions.

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  • 24. 

    An __________ occurs when body tissues are invaded by disease-causing or pathogenic bacteria.

    • A.

      Infection

    • B.

      Illness

    • C.

      Disease

    Correct Answer
    A. Infection
    Explanation
    There can be no bacteria infection without the presence of pathogenic bacteria.

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  • 25. 

    The presence of pus means the affected area isn't going to get infected because the body is cleansing itself.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The presence of pus is a sign of infection. Pus is a fluid product of inflammation and contains white blood cells and the debris of dead cells, tissue elements, and bacteria.

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  • 26. 

    What infection is confined to a particular part of the body and is indicated by a lesion containing pus, such as a pimple or abscess?

    • A.

      Local

    • B.

      General

    • C.

      Chronic

    • D.

      Acute

    Correct Answer
    A. Local
    Explanation
    A local infection is confined to a specific area of the body and is characterized by a lesion containing pus, such as a pimple or abscess. This means that the infection is limited to a particular part of the body and does not spread to other areas.

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  • 27. 

    What infection results when the bloodstream carries the bacteria or virus and their toxins to all parts of the body? Syphilis is an example.

    • A.

      Chronic

    • B.

      General

    • C.

      Local

    • D.

      Acute

    Correct Answer
    B. General
    Explanation
    When the bloodstream carries bacteria or viruses and their toxins to all parts of the body, it results in a general infection. This means that the infection is not localized to a specific area but affects the entire body. Syphilis is an example of a general infection that can spread throughout the body via the bloodstream.

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  • 28. 

    Disease having a rapid onset, severe symptoms, and a short course or duration.

    • A.

      Acute disease

    • B.

      Infectious disease

    • C.

      Congenital disease

    • D.

      Contagious disease

    • E.

      Chronic disease

    Correct Answer
    A. Acute disease
    Explanation
    An acute disease is characterized by a sudden onset, severe symptoms, and a short duration. This means that the disease develops quickly, with symptoms appearing suddenly and being intense. The course of the disease is also short, meaning that it lasts for a relatively brief period of time. Acute diseases can be caused by various factors such as infections, injuries, or exposure to toxins. Examples of acute diseases include the common cold, influenza, and appendicitis.

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  • 29. 

    Disease of long duration, usually mild but recurring.

    • A.

      Contagious disease

    • B.

      Infectious disease

    • C.

      Chronic disease

    • D.

      Acute disease

    • E.

      Congenital disease

    Correct Answer
    C. Chronic disease
    Explanation
    A chronic disease refers to a medical condition that lasts for a long duration, usually mild but recurring. Unlike acute diseases that have a sudden onset and short duration, chronic diseases persist over time. They may not be contagious or infectious, and can instead be caused by factors such as genetics, lifestyle choices, or environmental factors. Chronic diseases require ongoing management and treatment to control symptoms and prevent further complications.

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  • 30. 

    Disease that exists at birth.

    • A.

      Chronic disease

    • B.

      Acute disease

    • C.

      Congenital disease

    • D.

      Infectious disease

    • E.

      Contagious disease

    Correct Answer
    C. Congenital disease
    Explanation
    A congenital disease is a type of disease that is present at birth. It is caused by genetic or environmental factors that affect the development of the fetus during pregnancy. Congenital diseases can range from mild to severe and may affect various parts of the body. Unlike acute or infectious diseases, which can occur at any point in life, congenital diseases are specifically present from the time of birth. They are not necessarily chronic or contagious, although they can be.

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  • 31. 

    Disease that is communicable or transmittable by contact.

    • A.

      Congenital disease

    • B.

      Acute disease

    • C.

      Chronic disease

    • D.

      Contagious disease

    • E.

      Infectious disease

    Correct Answer
    D. Contagious disease
    Explanation
    Contagious disease refers to a disease that can be transmitted or spread from one person to another through direct contact. This can occur through physical touch, respiratory droplets, or other means of contact. Unlike infectious diseases, which can also be transmitted but may not necessarily require direct contact, contagious diseases specifically require contact for transmission. Therefore, contagious disease is the most appropriate term to describe a disease that is communicable or transmittable by contact.

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  • 32. 

    Disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms or viruses that are easily spread.

    • A.

      Chronic disease

    • B.

      Infectious disease

    • C.

      Contagious disease

    • D.

      Congenital disease

    • E.

      Acute disease

    Correct Answer
    B. Infectious disease
    Explanation
    An infectious disease is caused by pathogenic microorganisms or viruses that can easily spread from one person to another. This type of disease is characterized by its ability to be transmitted through various means such as direct contact, airborne particles, or contaminated surfaces. Examples of infectious diseases include the flu, tuberculosis, and COVID-19. Unlike chronic diseases, which are long-lasting and often develop over time, infectious diseases are typically acute and have a more rapid onset. Contagious disease is another term that can be used interchangeably with infectious disease to describe the same concept. Congenital disease, on the other hand, refers to conditions that are present at birth.

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  • 33. 

    Illness resulting from conditions associated with employment, such as coming in contact with certain chemicals or tints.

    • A.

      Parasitic disease

    • B.

      Occupational disease

    • C.

      Pathogenic disease

    • D.

      Seasonal disease

    • E.

      Systemic disease

    Correct Answer
    B. Occupational disease
    Explanation
    An occupational disease refers to an illness that is caused by or directly related to the conditions of one's employment. This can include exposure to certain chemicals or tints in the workplace. Unlike other types of diseases, such as parasitic, pathogenic, seasonal, or systemic diseases, an occupational disease specifically stems from the hazards and risks present in a particular work environment.

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  • 34. 

    Disease caused by vegetable or animal parasites, such as pediculosis and ringworm.

    • A.

      Systemic disease

    • B.

      Pathogenic disease

    • C.

      Parasitic disease

    • D.

      Venereal disease

    • E.

      Seasonal disease

    Correct Answer
    C. Parasitic disease
    Explanation
    Parasitic disease refers to a disease caused by vegetable or animal parasites, such as pediculosis and ringworm. These parasites invade and live in the body of the host, causing harm and resulting in various symptoms and health issues. This type of disease is distinct from systemic disease, which affects the entire body, and pathogenic disease, which is caused by pathogens. It is also different from venereal disease, which is transmitted through sexual contact, and seasonal disease, which occurs during specific seasons.

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  • 35. 

    Disease produced by disease-causing bacteria, such as staphylococcus and stretococcus (pus-forming bacteria), or viruses.

    • A.

      Venereal disease

    • B.

      Seasonal disease

    • C.

      Pathogenic disease

    • D.

      Parasitic disease

    • E.

      Occupational disease

    Correct Answer
    C. Pathogenic disease
    Explanation
    Pathogenic disease refers to a disease caused by disease-causing bacteria or viruses. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are examples of bacteria that can cause diseases such as skin infections, pneumonia, and strep throat. Viruses can also cause pathogenic diseases, such as the flu or COVID-19. Therefore, pathogenic disease is the correct answer as it encompasses both bacteria and viral infections.

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  • 36. 

    Disease influenced by the weather.

    • A.

      Occupational disease

    • B.

      Systemic disease

    • C.

      Acute disease

    • D.

      Parasitic disease

    • E.

      Seasonal disease

    Correct Answer
    E. Seasonal disease
    Explanation
    Seasonal disease refers to a disease that occurs during specific seasons or times of the year. These diseases are influenced by changes in weather patterns, such as temperature, humidity, and rainfall. Seasonal diseases are often caused by viruses or allergens that thrive in certain environmental conditions. For example, the flu is more common during the winter months when people spend more time indoors and are in close proximity to each other. Hay fever, on the other hand, is a seasonal allergy that is triggered by pollen in the spring and fall.

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  • 37. 

    Disease that affects the body generally, often due to under or over-functioning of the internal glands.

    • A.

      Congenital disease

    • B.

      Infectious disease

    • C.

      Venereal disease

    • D.

      Systemic disease

    • E.

      Parasitic disease

    Correct Answer
    D. Systemic disease
    Explanation
    A systemic disease refers to a condition that affects the entire body, usually as a result of the malfunctioning of internal glands. This means that the disease is not localized to a specific organ or system, but rather has widespread effects throughout the body. Systemic diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetic abnormalities, autoimmune disorders, or hormonal imbalances. They often require comprehensive medical management and treatment to address the underlying cause and alleviate symptoms.

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  • 38. 

    Contagious disease commonly acquired by contact with an infected person during sexual intercourse, characterized by sores and rashes on the skin.

    • A.

      Infectious disease

    • B.

      Contagious disease

    • C.

      Systemic disease

    • D.

      Chronic disease

    • E.

      Venereal disease

    Correct Answer
    E. Venereal disease
    Explanation
    Venereal disease is the correct answer because it fits the description provided in the question. It is a contagious disease that is commonly acquired through sexual intercourse and is characterized by sores and rashes on the skin. Venereal disease is a term that encompasses various sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis, gonorrhea, and herpes.

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  • 39. 

    Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods, chemicals or other normally harmless substances.

    • A.

      Epidemic

    • B.

      Inflammation

    • C.

      Allergy

    • D.

      Disease

    Correct Answer
    C. Allergy
    Explanation
    Allergy is the correct answer because it refers to the reaction caused by extreme sensitivity to certain substances that are typically harmless. This sensitivity can lead to symptoms such as inflammation or other allergic reactions. An allergy is not a disease itself, but it is a condition that can cause various health issues when exposed to allergens.

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  • 40. 

    Abnormal condition of all or part of the body, organ, or mind that makes it incapable of carrying on normal function.

    • A.

      Inflammation

    • B.

      Allergy

    • C.

      Disease

    • D.

      Epidemic

    Correct Answer
    C. Disease
    Explanation
    A disease is an abnormal condition that affects the body, organ, or mind and impairs its ability to function normally. It can manifest in various ways and can be caused by a variety of factors such as infections, genetic abnormalities, or environmental factors. Inflammation and allergy are specific responses of the body to certain stimuli, while an epidemic refers to the rapid spread of a disease within a specific population. Therefore, disease is the correct answer as it encompasses a broader range of abnormal conditions affecting the body.

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  • 41. 

    Appearance of a disease that simultaneously attacks a large number of persons living in a particular locality.

    • A.

      Disease

    • B.

      Allergy

    • C.

      Epidemic

    • D.

      Inflammation

    Correct Answer
    C. Epidemic
    Explanation
    An epidemic refers to the sudden outbreak of a disease that affects a significant number of people in a specific area or community at the same time. In this scenario, the appearance of a disease that simultaneously attacks a large number of individuals in a particular locality aligns with the definition of an epidemic.

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  • 42. 

    Condition of some part of the body as a protective response to injury, irritation, or infection, characterized by redness, heat, pain, and swelling.

    • A.

      Epidemic

    • B.

      Inflammation

    • C.

      Disease

    • D.

      Allergy

    Correct Answer
    B. Inflammation
    Explanation
    Inflammation is the correct answer because it is a condition of the body that occurs as a protective response to injury, irritation, or infection. It is characterized by symptoms such as redness, heat, pain, and swelling.

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  • 43. 

    Any condition or disease that makes an indicated treatment or medication inadvisable.

    • A.

      Contraindication

    • B.

      Objective symptoms

    • C.

      Prognosis

    • D.

      Subjective symptoms

    Correct Answer
    A. Contraindication
    Explanation
    A contraindication refers to any condition or disease that makes a specific treatment or medication not advisable. In other words, it is a factor that suggests that a particular treatment may be harmful or ineffective for a patient. It is important for healthcare professionals to consider contraindications before prescribing any treatment or medication to ensure the safety and well-being of the patient.

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  • 44. 

    Foretelling of the probable course of a disease.

    • A.

      Contraindication

    • B.

      Hypothesis

    • C.

      Diagnosis

    • D.

      Prognosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Prognosis
    Explanation
    Prognosis refers to the prediction or estimation of the likely outcome or course of a disease. It involves forecasting the future progression of the illness, including the chances of recovery, potential complications, and the expected overall outcome. It is an essential aspect of medical practice as it helps healthcare professionals and patients plan and make informed decisions regarding treatment options and care.

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  • 45. 

    Determination of the nature of a disease from its symptoms.

    • A.

      Hypothesis

    • B.

      Diagnosis

    • C.

      Prognosis

    • D.

      Contraindication

    Correct Answer
    B. Diagnosis
    Explanation
    Diagnosis is the correct answer because it refers to the process of determining the nature of a disease from its symptoms. In medical practice, doctors analyze the symptoms a patient presents with in order to make a diagnosis and identify the specific disease or condition that is causing those symptoms. This is an essential step in providing appropriate treatment and care for the patient. Hypothesis refers to a proposed explanation or prediction that needs to be tested, prognosis refers to the predicted outcome of a disease, and contraindication refers to a factor that makes a particular treatment or procedure inadvisable.

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  • 46. 

    Symptoms that are visible, such as pimples, pustules, or inflammation.

    • A.

      Objective symptoms

    • B.

      Acute symptoms

    • C.

      Subjective symptoms

    • D.

      Aggravated symptoms

    Correct Answer
    A. Objective symptoms
    Explanation
    Objective symptoms refer to visible signs or physical manifestations of a condition that can be observed or measured by a healthcare professional. In the context of the given question, symptoms such as pimples, pustules, or inflammation are visible signs that can be objectively observed by a healthcare provider. These symptoms can be objectively assessed and diagnosed, as opposed to subjective symptoms that rely on the patient's perception or description of their symptoms. Objective symptoms are important in medical diagnosis and treatment planning as they provide concrete evidence of a condition.

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  • 47. 

    Symptoms that can be felt, such as itching, burning or pain.

    • A.

      Aggravated symptoms

    • B.

      Objective symptoms

    • C.

      Subjective symptoms

    • D.

      Acute symptoms

    Correct Answer
    C. Subjective symptoms
    Explanation
    Subjective symptoms refer to symptoms that can only be felt or experienced by the individual experiencing them. These symptoms are not easily measurable or observed by others. In the given context, symptoms such as itching, burning or pain are subjective because they are personal experiences that cannot be objectively measured or observed by others.

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  • 48. 

    Science that investigates modifications of the functions and changes in structure caused by disease.

    • A.

      Etiology

    • B.

      Virology

    • C.

      Pathology

    • D.

      Microbiology

    Correct Answer
    C. Pathology
    Explanation
    Pathology is the correct answer because it is the science that investigates modifications of functions and changes in structure caused by disease. It focuses on understanding the causes and mechanisms of diseases, including their development, progression, and effects on the body. Pathologists study the changes that occur at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels to diagnose and understand diseases. They analyze samples, perform autopsies, and use various techniques to identify and characterize diseases. Pathology plays a crucial role in medical research, patient diagnosis, and treatment planning.

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  • 49. 

    Study of the causes of disease and their mode of operation.

    • A.

      Virology

    • B.

      Microbiology

    • C.

      Etiology

    • D.

      Pathology

    Correct Answer
    C. Etiology
    Explanation
    Etiology is the study of the causes of disease and their mode of operation. It focuses on understanding the factors and mechanisms that lead to the development of diseases. This field of study helps in identifying the root causes of diseases, such as genetic, environmental, or lifestyle factors, which is crucial for prevention, treatment, and control of various illnesses.

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