Chemistry Chapter 13: States Of Matter Review

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Chemistry Chapter 13: States Of Matter Review - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What does number 5 represent?

    • A.

      Adding Heat

    • B.

      Subtracting Heat

    Correct Answer
    A. Adding Heat
    Explanation
    The number 5 represents adding heat.

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  • 2. 

    Describes the behavior of matter in terms of particles in motion.

    • A.

      Kinetic Theory

    • B.

      Kinetic Energy Theory

    • C.

      Kinetic-Molecular Theory

    • D.

      Molecular Energy Theory

    Correct Answer
    C. Kinetic-Molecular Theory
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Kinetic-Molecular Theory. This theory explains the behavior of matter by considering that it is composed of particles (atoms or molecules) in constant motion. It states that these particles are constantly colliding with each other and the walls of their container, resulting in the observable properties of matter such as temperature, pressure, and volume. The theory also explains concepts like the ideal gas law and the relationship between temperature and the average kinetic energy of particles.

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  • 3. 

    KE = 1/2mv This formula is the correct formula for the Kinetic-Molecular Theory.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    KE = 1/2mv^2
    is the correct formula. (v^2)

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  • 4. 

    Measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter.

    Correct Answer
    Temperature
    Temp
    Explanation
    Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter. It is a quantitative measure of how hot or cold an object is. The higher the temperature, the faster the particles are moving and the more kinetic energy they possess. Temperature is commonly measured using various scales such as Celsius, Fahrenheit, or Kelvin. "Temp" is a commonly used abbreviation for temperature.

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  • 5. 

    Ability to do work of cause change.

    Correct Answer
    Energy
    Explanation
    Energy is the ability to do work or cause change. It is the capacity of a system to perform tasks or exert forces on other objects. Energy can exist in various forms such as kinetic, potential, thermal, electrical, and chemical. It is essential for all processes and activities in the universe, from the movement of objects to the functioning of living organisms. Without energy, no work can be done, and no changes can occur. Therefore, the given correct answer is "Energy."

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  • 6. 

    No kinetic energy is lost.

    • A.

      Diffusion

    • B.

      Elastic Collision

    • C.

      Effusion

    • D.

      Facilitated Diffusion

    Correct Answer
    B. Elastic Collision
    Explanation
    In an elastic collision, there is no loss of kinetic energy. This means that the total kinetic energy of the system before the collision is equal to the total kinetic energy after the collision. In an elastic collision, the objects involved bounce off each other without any deformation or energy loss. Therefore, the statement "No kinetic energy is lost" accurately describes an elastic collision.

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  • 7. 

    Diffusion of particles through a small opening.

    Correct Answer
    Effusion
    Efusion
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Effusion". Effusion refers to the process of particles passing through a small opening or a porous barrier. It occurs when there is a difference in pressure on either side of the barrier, causing the particles to move from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure. On the other hand, "Efusion" is not a recognized term and does not have any specific meaning in the context of particle diffusion.

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  • 8. 

    Movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until ____________ is reached. 1. Name the term that this definition is referring to. 2. Fill in the blank. Your answer format should be _______, _______ (First word comma second word)

    Correct Answer
    Diffusion, Equilibrium
    Diffusion,Equilibrium
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "Diffusion, Equilibrium." Diffusion refers to the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Equilibrium is the state reached when the concentration of particles is equal throughout the area.

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  • 9. 

    The rate of diffusion mainly depends on the mass of the particles involved.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The rate of diffusion mainly depends on the mass of the particles involved. This is because larger particles have a slower rate of diffusion compared to smaller particles. The mass of the particles affects their speed and ability to move through a medium. Smaller particles have less mass and therefore can move more quickly and easily through the medium, resulting in a faster rate of diffusion. On the other hand, larger particles have more mass and move slower, leading to a slower rate of diffusion.

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  • 10. 

    Smaller particles diffuse slower than heavier particles.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Small particles diffuse more rapidly than larger particles.

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  • 11. 

    Graham's Law of _________ states that the rate of ______ for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of it's molar mass.

    • A.

      Effusion

    • B.

      Diffusion

    • C.

      Partial Pressure

    • D.

      Osmosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Effusion
    Explanation
    Graham's Law of Effusion states that the rate of effusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass. This means that lighter gases will effuse or escape through a small opening at a faster rate compared to heavier gases. The rate of effusion is determined by the speed and mass of the gas particles, with lighter gases having higher speeds and lower molar masses, resulting in faster effusion.

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  • 12. 

    This formula is used for comparing the ____________ rates for 2 gases.

    Correct Answer
    Diffusion
    Explanation
    This formula is used for comparing the diffusion rates for 2 gases. Diffusion is the process by which molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The formula allows us to calculate and compare the rates at which different gases diffuse.

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  • 13. 

    If you have Ammonia and Chloric Acid, which will diffuse slower?

    • A.

      Ammonia

    • B.

      Chloric Acid

    Correct Answer
    B. Chloric Acid
    Explanation
    Chloric Acid will diffuse SLOWER.

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  • 14. 

    Instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.

    Correct Answer
    Barometer
    A Barometer
    Explanation
    A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. It consists of a long glass tube filled with mercury or another liquid, with one end closed and the other end open. The closed end is placed in the atmosphere, and as the atmospheric pressure changes, it causes the liquid in the tube to rise or fall. By measuring the height of the liquid, the atmospheric pressure can be determined. Therefore, a barometer is the correct instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure.

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  • 15. 

    Pascals are the SI units for ______.

    Correct Answer
    Pressure
    Explanation
    Pascals are the SI units for pressure. Pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area, and it is measured in pascals (Pa). This unit is named after Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to the study of fluid mechanics and pressure. The pascal is a small unit of pressure, with 1 pascal equal to 1 newton per square meter. It is commonly used in various fields such as physics, engineering, and meteorology to quantify the intensity of force exerted on a surface.

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  • 16. 

    Abbreviation for atmosphere.

    Correct Answer
    Atm
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Atm" because it is the widely accepted and commonly used abbreviation for the word "atmosphere". In scientific and meteorological contexts, "Atm" is used to represent the unit of pressure equal to the average atmospheric pressure at sea level. It is important to use standardized abbreviations to ensure clear and efficient communication in various fields, including science and engineering.

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  • 17. 

    Abbreviation for millimeters of mercury.

    Correct Answer
    mmHg
    Explanation
    The abbreviation mmHg stands for millimeters of mercury. This unit is commonly used to measure pressure, especially in the context of blood pressure. It represents the height of a column of mercury that can be supported by atmospheric pressure. The abbreviation mmHg is derived from the Latin word "hydrargyrum," which means mercury.

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  • 18. 

    According to Dalton's law of Partial Pressure, you have a total of 112 grams, one gas with 30g mass, and 2 gases with 20g mass. What other gases are not eligible for this gas mixture?

    • A.

      2 gases with 21g mass.

    • B.

      1 gas with 42g mass.

    • C.

      3 gases with 7g mass.

    • D.

      1 gas 15g mass, 1 gas 6g mass, and 2 gases 10g mass.

    Correct Answer
    D. 1 gas 15g mass, 1 gas 6g mass, and 2 gases 10g mass.
    Explanation
    According to Dalton's law of Partial Pressure, the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual gas. In this case, the total mass of the gases is 112 grams, with one gas having a mass of 15g, another gas having a mass of 6g, and two gases having a mass of 10g each. Since the question asks for the gases that are not eligible for the gas mixture, the answer is the combination of these gases: 1 gas with 15g mass, 1 gas with 6g mass, and 2 gases with 10g mass.

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  • 19. 

    How many particles are in 1 liter? Write your answer like: x^1

    Correct Answer
    10^22
    Explanation
    There are 10^22 particles in 1 liter.

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  • 20. 

    Force per unit area. Gas particles exert _______ when they collide with the walls of their container.

    Correct Answer
    Pressure
    Explanation
    Gas particles exert pressure when they collide with the walls of their container. Pressure is defined as the force per unit area, meaning that it is the amount of force exerted by the gas particles divided by the area over which the force is distributed. Therefore, the correct answer is pressure.

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  • 21. 

    Intermolecular Forces are....

    • A.

      Forces beside molecules

    • B.

      Forces between molecules

    • C.

      Forces of molecules

    • D.

      Forces inside molecules

    Correct Answer
    B. Forces between molecules
    Explanation
    Intermolecular forces refer to the attractive or repulsive forces that exist between molecules. These forces are responsible for holding molecules together in a liquid or solid state. They are weaker than the intramolecular forces that hold atoms together within a molecule. The correct answer, "forces between molecules," accurately describes the nature of these intermolecular forces.

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  • 22. 

    The three types of intermolecular forces:

    • A.

      Dispersion, Dipole, Oxygen

    • B.

      Diffusion, Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen

    • C.

      Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen

    • D.

      Diffusion, Di-Di pole, Hydrogen

    Correct Answer
    C. Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Dispersion, Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen. Intermolecular forces are the forces of attraction between molecules. Dispersion forces are the weakest intermolecular forces and occur between all molecules. Dipole-dipole forces occur between polar molecules and are stronger than dispersion forces. Hydrogen bonding is a special type of dipole-dipole force that occurs when a hydrogen atom is bonded to a highly electronegative atom such as oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine. These forces are the strongest intermolecular forces.

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  • 23. 

    Dispersion forces are the weakest bonds. They also are the only ________ bonds.

    Correct Answer
    Temporary
    Explanation
    Dispersion forces, also known as London dispersion forces, are the weakest type of intermolecular bonds. These forces occur between nonpolar molecules and are caused by temporary fluctuations in electron distribution, leading to temporary dipoles. Due to their temporary nature, dispersion forces are the only type of bonds that are not permanent or long-lasting.

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  • 24. 

    Energy required to increases the surface strength of a liquid by a given amount.

    Correct Answer
    Surface Tension
    Tension
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Surface Tension. Surface tension is the energy required to increase the surface strength of a liquid by a given amount. It is a property of liquids that arises due to the cohesive forces between the molecules at the surface. These cohesive forces cause the surface of a liquid to behave like a stretched elastic sheet, resulting in a higher surface tension. Tension, on the other hand, is a more general term that refers to the state of being stretched or strained. While tension can be present in various contexts, surface tension specifically describes the property of liquids.

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  • 25. 

    A substance that increases surface tension.

    Correct Answer
    Surfactant
    A Surfactant
    Explanation
    Surfactant is a substance that increases surface tension. It is a compound that contains both hydrophilic (water-loving) and hydrophobic (water-repelling) parts. When added to a liquid, such as water, surfactants align themselves at the liquid-air interface, reducing the surface tension. This allows the liquid to spread more easily and form a thin film on surfaces. Surfactants are commonly used in detergents, soaps, and cleaning products to help remove dirt and oils by lowering the surface tension of water, enabling it to penetrate and lift away contaminants.

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  • 26. 

    Graph of pressure versus temperature that shows in which phase a substance exists under different condition of temperature and pressure. A ________ diagram.

    Correct Answer
    Phase
    Phase Diagram
    Explanation
    A phase diagram is a graph that shows the different phases (solid, liquid, gas) in which a substance exists under different conditions of temperature and pressure. It helps us understand the relationship between these variables and allows us to determine at which temperature and pressure a substance will undergo phase changes. The correct answer is "Phase Diagram" because it accurately describes the graph that represents the phases of a substance.

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  • 27. 

    Phase diagrams typically have _____ regions.

    Correct Answer
    3
    Three
    Explanation
    Phase diagrams typically have three regions. This is because phase diagrams represent the different phases or states of a substance (such as solid, liquid, and gas) at different combinations of temperature and pressure. The three regions in a phase diagram correspond to the three phases of the substance. The boundaries between these regions represent the conditions at which phase transitions occur. Therefore, it is common for phase diagrams to have three distinct regions to represent the solid, liquid, and gas phases.

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  • 28. 

    Point where a substance can be considered three different phases. A ______ point.

    Correct Answer
    Triple
    Triple Point
    Explanation
    A substance can be considered three different phases at a point called the triple point. At this point, the substance exists in equilibrium between its solid, liquid, and gas phases. It is the unique combination of temperature and pressure at which all three phases can coexist.

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  • 29. 

    This is the formula for the __________________. (three words)

    Correct Answer
    Rate of Effusion
    Rate of Efusion
    Rate of Effussion
    Rate of Efussion
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Rate of Effusion." This formula is used to calculate the rate at which a gas escapes through a small opening. It is based on Graham's Law of Effusion, which states that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass.

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