Chem Jan 2011 Regents

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Chem Jan 2011 Regents - Quiz

These multiple choice questions came from January 2011. Use your best judgment. . . Eliminate wrong choices and, in some cases, find the ODD MAN OUT. . . That's usually (I SAID USUALLY) the right answer.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    An orbital is a region of space where there is a high probability of finding 

    • A.

      A proton

    • B.

      An electron

    • C.

      A positron

    • D.

      A neutron

    Correct Answer
    B. An electron
    Explanation
    Electrons are found in ORBITALS. The orbitals are not rings, but rather CLOUDS where you will PROBABLY find an electron.

    Rate this question:

  • 2. 

    Which statement matches a subatomic particle with its charge? 

    • A.

      A neutron has a negative charge.

    • B.

      A proton has a negative charge.

    • C.

      A neutron has no charge.

    • D.

      A proton has no charge.

    Correct Answer
    C. A neutron has no charge.
    Explanation
    PROTONS +
    ELECTRONS -
    NEUTRONS 0

    Rate this question:

  • 3. 

    An atom of any element must contain    

    • A.

      An equal number of protons and neutrons

    • B.

      An equal number of protons and electrons

    • C.

      More electrons than neutrons

    • D.

      More electrons than protons

    Correct Answer
    B. An equal number of protons and electrons
    Explanation
    An atom has equal protons and electrons. ISOTOPES deal with neutrons. IONS have different number of electrons (which gives ions their charges).

    Rate this question:

  • 4. 

    Which statement compares the masses of two subatomic particles? 

    • A.

      The mass of an electron is greater than the mass of a proton.

    • B.

      The mass of an electron is greater than the mass of a neutron.

    • C.

      The mass of a proton is greater than the mass of an electron.

    • D.

      The mass of a proton is greater than the mass of a neutron.

    Correct Answer
    C. The mass of a proton is greater than the mass of an electron.
    Explanation
    Protons and neutrons are the same mass. Electrons have very little (almost no) mass.

    If you have any doubt, look at the TABLE O and pay attention to the mass.

    Rate this question:

  • 5. 

    The bright-line spectrum of sodium is produced when energy is 

    • A.

      Absorbed as electrons move from higher to lower electron shells

    • B.

      Absorbed as electrons move from lower to higher electron shells

    • C.

      Released as electrons move from higher to lower electron shells

    • D.

      Released as electrons move from lower to higher electron shells

    Correct Answer
    C. Released as electrons move from higher to lower electron shells
    Explanation
    Bright-line goes from HIGHER to LOWER orbitals...as you go in, the energy decreases.

    Rate this question:

  • 6. 

    The valence electrons of a germanium atom in the ground state are located in the 

    • A.

      First shell

    • B.

      Second shell

    • C.

      Third shell

    • D.

      Fourth shell

    Correct Answer
    D. Fourth shell
    Explanation
    2
    8
    18
    4...VALENCE!!!

    Rate this question:

  • 7. 

    The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing 

    • A.

      Atomic mass

    • B.

      Atomic number

    • C.

      First ionization energy

    • D.

      Selected oxidation state

    Correct Answer
    B. Atomic number
    Explanation
    ATOMIC # = PROTON...nobody get's between me and my PROTONS.

    (also, nobody knows who I am without my protons)

    Rate this question:

  • 8. 

    Which list of elements contains a metal, a metalloid, a nonmetal, and a noble gas? 

    • A.

      Be, Si, Cl, Kr

    • B.

      C,N,Ne,Ar

    • C.

      K, Fe, B, F

    • D.

      Na,Zn,As,Sb

    Correct Answer
    A. Be, Si, Cl, Kr
    Explanation
    If you learned ANYTHING from me, it was the PERIODIC TABLE. If you don't know this by now, you won't learn it. EVER.

    I WISH MR. SWERINGEN HAD A CHEM REVIEW CLASS...

    Rate this question:

  • 9. 

    The two forms of oxygen, O2(g) and O3(g), have   

    • A.

      Different molecular structures and identical properties

    • B.

      Different molecular structures and different properties

    • C.

      Identical molecular structures and identical properties

    • D.

      Identical molecular structures and different properties

    Correct Answer
    B. Different molecular structures and different properties
    Explanation
    O2 and O3 are different. O2 is oxygen and O3 is ozone. Talk about different...

    Rate this question:

  • 10. 

    The sum of the atomic masses of the atoms in one molecule of C3H6Br2 is called the 

    • A.

      Formula mass

    • B.

      Isotopic mass

    • C.

      Percent abundance

    • D.

      Percent composition

    Correct Answer
    A. Formula mass
    Explanation
    It's called the GRAM FORMULA MASS, and it's calculated by adding up the masses of every atom in the composition...FOR EXAMPLE: water is H2O...2 HYDROGEN (= 2 x 1) and 1 OXYGEN (1 x 16)...18 is the formula mass of water.

    Rate this question:

  • 11. 

    What is the total number of electron pairs shared between the two atoms in an O2 molecule? 

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    D. 4
    Explanation
    2 THINGS YOU SHOULD HAVE KNOWN:

    1. O2 is a double bond.
    2. Each bond is 2 electrons (4 total)

    Rate this question:

  • 12. 

    When an atom of lithium loses an electron, the atom becomes a 

    • A.

      Negative ion with a radius smaller than the radius of the atom

    • B.

      Negative ion with a radius larger than the radius of the atom

    • C.

      Positive ion with a radius smaller than the radius of the atom

    • D.

      Positive ion with a radius larger than the radius of the atom

    Correct Answer
    C. Positive ion with a radius smaller than the radius of the atom
    Explanation
    When a metal (in this case, a GROUP ONE METAL) loses an electron, it tends to lose not only an electron, but rather an entire orbital.

    LITHIUM BEFORE: 2-1
    LITHIUM AFTER: 2

    When you lose an orbital, you lose a little bit of the radius...

    Rate this question:

  • 13. 

    Given the balanced equation representing a reaction: 2NaCl → 2Na + Cl2 To break the bonds in NaCl, the reactant must 

    • A.

      Absorb energy

    • B.

      Create energy

    • C.

      Destroy energy

    • D.

      Release energy

    Correct Answer
    A. Absorb energy
    Explanation
    It takes money to make money, so I guess it should take energy to make energy.

    (BAD ANALOGY)

    breaking bonds takes energy...as does reading all the words that i've put out for you...

    Rate this question:

  • 14. 

    A molecular compound is formed when a chemical reaction occurs between atoms of 

    • A.

      Chlorine and sodium

    • B.

      Chlorine and yttrium

    • C.

      Oxygen and hydrogen

    • D.

      Oxygen and magnesium

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxygen and hydrogen
    Explanation
    The key word is MOLECULAR. Molecular means COVALENT bonds, and 75% of those bonds were ionic (metal + nonmetal). Only ONE was correct. AND IT WAS WATER...

    Rate this question:

  • 15. 

    Which substance can not be broken down by chemical means? 

    • A.

      Ammonia

    • B.

      Antimony

    • C.

      Methane

    • D.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    B. Antimony
    Explanation
    One is in TABLE E, one is in a fart, and the other is water. ONLY ANTIMONY (Sb) is an element. YOU CANNOT BREAK DOWN ELEMENTS.

    Rate this question:

  • 16. 

    Which two physical properties allow a mixture to be separated by chromatography? 

    • A.

      Hardness and boiling point

    • B.

      Density and specific heat capacity

    • C.

      Malleability and thermal conductivity

    • D.

      Solubility and molecular polarity

    Correct Answer
    D. Solubility and molecular polarity
    Explanation
    If something is SOLUBLE, it can travel up the paper (think Living Environment lab). If something is POLAR, it will stick to something else (again, THINK).

    Rate this question:

  • 17. 

    The solubility of KCl(s) in water depends on the    

    • A.

      Pressure on the solution

    • B.

      Rate of stirring

    • C.

      Size of the KCl sample

    • D.

      Temperature of the water

    Correct Answer
    D. Temperature of the water
    Explanation
    TABLE G. Notice how the KCl line goes up?? That's because the solubility increases with temperature.

    Rate this question:

  • 18. 

    Which sample of water contains particles having the highest average kinetic energy? 

    • A.

      25 mL of water at 95°C

    • B.

      45 mL of water at 75°C

    • C.

      75 mL of water at 75°C

    • D.

      95 mL of water at 25°C

    Correct Answer
    A. 25 mL of water at 95°C
    Explanation
    AVERAGE KINETIC ENERGY means TEMPERATURE...the highest temperature is the 95C.

    Rate this question:

  • 19. 

    Under which conditions of temperature and pressure does carbon dioxide gas behave most like an ideal gas? 

    • A.

      Low temperature and low pressure

    • B.

      Low temperature and high pressure

    • C.

      High temperature and low pressure

    • D.

      High temperature and high pressure

    Correct Answer
    C. High temperature and low pressure
    Explanation
    HIGH TEMPERATURE (particles moving fast) and LOW PRESSURE (particles are expanding) is when gases behave like an IDEAL GAS.

    Rate this question:

  • 20. 

    Which process results in a chemical change?    

    • A.

      Tearing tin foil

    • B.

      Melting an iron bar

    • C.

      Crushing an aluminum can

    • D.

      Burning magnesium ribbon

    Correct Answer
    D. Burning magnesium ribbon
    Explanation
    Nothing can be UN-DONE...except for the ribbon. Or, if you took a picture next to it.

    Rate this question:

  • 21. 

    For a chemical reaction, the heat of reaction is equal to the 

    • A.

      Potential energy of the reactants, only

    • B.

      Potential energy of the products, only

    • C.

      Potential energy of the products plus the potential energy of the reactants

    • D.

      Potential energy of the products minus the potential energy of the reactants

    Correct Answer
    D. Potential energy of the products minus the potential energy of the reactants
    Explanation
    Start MINUS finish. BTW, activation energy is how far one must roll the ball (or rock) up the hill.

    Rate this question:

  • 22. 

    Given the equation representing a system at equilibrium: At equilibrium, the concentration of    

    • A.

      SO2(g) must equal the concentration of SO3(g)

    • B.

      SO2(g) must be constant

    • C.

      O2(g) must equal the concentration of SO2(g)

    • D.

      O2(g) must be decreasing

    Correct Answer
    B. SO2(g) must be constant
    Explanation
    FORWARD must equal REVERSE.

    Rate this question:

  • 23. 

    The two isomers of butane have different    

    • A.

      Formula masses

    • B.

      Empirical formulas

    • C.

      Molecular formulas

    • D.

      Structural formulas

    Correct Answer
    A. Formula masses
    Explanation
    ISOMER means different neutrons...NEUTRONS mean a different mass...AHEM.

    Rate this question:

  • 24. 

    An oxidation-reduction reaction involves the    

    • A.

      Sharing of electrons

    • B.

      Sharing of protons

    • C.

      Transfer of electrons

    • D.

      Transfer of protons

    Correct Answer
    C. Transfer of electrons
    Explanation
    Somebody loses electrons, and somebody gains electrons...I'm just happy that I lost nothing...YET.

    Rate this question:

  • 25. 

    Which energy change occurs in an operating voltaic cell? 

    • A.

      Chemical to electrical

    • B.

      Electrical to chemical

    • C.

      Chemical to nuclear

    • D.

      Nuclear to chemical

    Correct Answer
    A. Chemical to electrical
    Explanation
    VOLTAIC CELLS involve salt bridges, Table J, and all that stuff...CHEMICAL energy gives rise to ELECTRICAL energy.

    Rate this question:

  • 26. 

    Which compound is an electrolyte?    

    • A.

      Butene

    • B.

      Propane

    • C.

      Dimethyl ether

    • D.

      Methanoic acid

    Correct Answer
    D. Methanoic acid
    Explanation
    ALL of them are organic compounds...though 3 of them are not ARRHENIUS ACIDS...

    Rate this question:

  • 27. 

    According to the Arrhenius theory, a base reacts with an acid to produce 

    • A.

      Ammonia and methane

    • B.

      Ammonia and a salt

    • C.

      Water and methane

    • D.

      Water and a salt

    Correct Answer
    D. Water and a salt
    Explanation
    BY DEFINITION: a neutralization reaction involves an Arrhenius acid + an Arrhenius base, producing water and a salt.

    Rate this question:

  • 28. 

    What is one benefit associated with a nuclear fission reaction? 

    • A.

      The products are not radioactive.

    • B.

      Stable isotopes are used as reactants.

    • C.

      There is no chance of biological exposure.

    • D.

      A large amount of energy is produced.

    Correct Answer
    D. A large amount of energy is produced.
    Explanation
    Nuclear reactions produce a GREAT DEAL of energy.

    Rate this question:

  • 29. 

    Which balanced equation represents a fusion reaction? 

    Correct Answer
    B.
    Explanation
    FUSION is when two become one.

    Rate this question:

  • 30. 

    Which radioisotope emits alpha particles?    

    • A.

      Fe-53

    • B.

      Sr-90

    • C.

      Au-198

    • D.

      Pu-239

    Correct Answer
    D. Pu-239
    Explanation
    Table N.

    Rate this question:

  • 31. 

    Which electron configuration represents the electrons of an atom in an excited state? 

    • A.

      2-1

    • B.

      2-7-4

    • C.

      2-8-7

    • D.

      2-4

    Correct Answer
    B. 2-7-4
    Explanation
    If an inner shell is not complete and an outer shell has electrons, it is EXCITED.

    Rate this question:

  • 32. 

    What is the total number of neutrons in an atom of O-18? 

    • A.

      18

    • B.

      16

    • C.

      10

    • D.

      8

    Correct Answer
    C. 10
    Explanation
    Neutrons are calculated by subtracting the atomic number (8) from the isotope number (18), which leaves 10

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  • 33. 

    What is the net charge of an ion that has 8 protons, 9 neutrons, and 10 electrons? 

    • A.

      1+

    • B.

      2+

    • C.

      1-

    • D.

      2-

    Correct Answer
    D. 2-
    Explanation
    2 more electrons than protons...which means the charge is MINUS TWO.

    Rate this question:

  • 34. 

    Which element is malleable and a good conductor of electricity at STP? 

    • A.

      Argon

    • B.

      Carbon

    • C.

      Iodine

    • D.

      Silver

    Correct Answer
    D. Silver
    Explanation
    Characteristics of METALS...NA (silver) is a metal.

    Rate this question:

  • 35. 

    Which element has chemical properties that are most similar to the chemical properties of sodium? 

    • A.

      Beryllium

    • B.

      Calcium

    • C.

      Lithium

    • D.

      Magnesium

    Correct Answer
    C. Lithium
    Explanation
    SAME GROUP = SAME PROPERTIES.

    Rate this question:

  • 36. 

    If an element, X, can form an oxide that has the formula X2O3, then element X would most likely be located on the Periodic Table in the same group as 

    • A.

      Ba

    • B.

      Cd

    • C.

      In

    • D.

      Na

    Correct Answer
    C. In
    Explanation
    Oxygen has an oxidation state of -2, while In has an oxidation state of +3...switch the numbers.

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  • 37. 

    What is the total mass of KNO3 that must be dissolved in 50. grams of H2O at 60.°C to make a saturated solution? 

    • A.

      32 g

    • B.

      53 g

    • C.

      64 g

    • D.

      106 g

    Correct Answer
    B. 53 g
    Explanation
    TRICK QUESTION: The KNO3 is dissolved in 50 g water...divide the assumed answer by TWO.

    Rate this question:

  • 38. 

    Which statement describes the general trends in electronegativity and metallic properties as the elements in Period 2 are considered in order of increasing atomic number? 

    • A.

      Both electronegativity and metallic properties decrease.

    • B.

      Both electronegativity and metallic properties increase.

    • C.

      Electronegativity decreases and metallic properties increase.

    • D.

      Electronegativity increases and metallic properties decrease.

    Correct Answer
    D. Electronegativity increases and metallic properties decrease.
    Explanation
    Electronegativity increases because the atoms get smaller...metallic properties decrease because we are moving RIGHT.

    Rate this question:

  • 39. 

    Which balanced equation represents a single- replacement reaction? 

    • A.

      Mg + 2AgNO3 → Mg(NO3)2 + 2Ag

    • B.

      2Mg+O2→2MgO

    • C.

      MgCO3 → MgO + CO2

    • D.

      MgCl2 + 2AgNO3 → 2AgCl + Mg(NO3)2

    Correct Answer
    A. Mg + 2AgNO3 → Mg(NO3)2 + 2Ag
    Explanation
    RED/OX reactions are also single-replacement reactions.

    Rate this question:

  • 40. 

    Given the balanced equation representing a reaction: Fe(s) + 2HCl(aq) → FeCl2(aq) + H2(g) This reaction occurs more quickly when powdered iron is used instead of a single piece of iron of the same mass because the powdered iron 

    • A.

      Acts as a better catalyst than the single piece of iron

    • B.

      Absorbs less energy than the single piece of iron

    • C.

      Has a greater surface area than the single piece of iron

    • D.

      Is more metallic than the single piece of iron

    Correct Answer
    C. Has a greater surface area than the single piece of iron
    Explanation
    POWDERED means more reactions.

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  • 41. 

    The temperature of a sample of water changes from 10°C to 20°C when the sample absorbs 418 joules of heat. What is the mass of the sample? 

    • A.

      1 g

    • B.

      10 g

    • C.

      100 g

    • D.

      1000 g

    Correct Answer
    B. 10 g
    Explanation
    Do the math: 418 / 10 (degrees C) =

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  • 42. 

    Given the reaction at 101.3 kilopascals and 298 K: hydrogen gas + iodine gas → hydrogen iodide gas This reaction is classified as 

    • A.

      Endothermic, because heat is absorbed

    • B.

      Endothermic, because heat is released

    • C.

      Exothermic, because heat is absorbed

    • D.

      Exothermic, because heat is released

    Correct Answer
    A. Endothermic, because heat is absorbed
    Explanation
    Consult TABLE I...this reaction is ENDOTHERMIC...

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  • 43. 

    Given the equation:     Which type of reaction is represented by this equation?    

    • A.

      Combustion

    • B.

      Esterification

    • C.

      Polymerization

    • D.

      Substitution

    Correct Answer
    C. Polymerization
    Explanation
    POLYMER is a long chain of the same thing. THIS IS A PERFECT EXAMPLE.

    Rate this question:

  • 44. 

    The graph below represents the uniform heating of a sample of a substance starting as a solid below its melting point.  Which statement describes what happens to the energy of the particles of the sample during time interval DE? 

    • A.

      Average kinetic energy increases, and potential energy remains the same.

    • B.

      Average kinetic energy decreases, and potential energy remains the same.

    • C.

      Average kinetic energy remains the same, and potential energy increases.

    • D.

      Average kinetic energy remains the same, and potential energy decreases.

    Correct Answer
    C. Average kinetic energy remains the same, and potential energy increases.
    Explanation
    No temperature change, only potential energy.

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  • 45. 

    Which molecule has a nonpolar covalent bond?    

    Correct Answer
    A.
    Explanation
    The only NONPOLAR bond is one that is bonded to itself.

    Rate this question:

  • 46. 

    Given the equation representing a reaction at equilibrium: What occurs when the concentration of H2(g) is increased? 

    • A.

      The equilibrium shifts to the left, and the concentration of N2(g) decreases.

    • B.

      The equilibrium shifts to the left, and the concentration of N2(g) increases.

    • C.

      The equilibrium shifts to the right, and the concentration of N2(g) decreases.

    • D.

      The equilibrium shifts to the right, and the concentration of N2(g) increases.

    Correct Answer
    C. The equilibrium shifts to the right, and the concentration of N2(g) decreases.
    Explanation
    Le Chatelier's principle...If you go to the right, the reactants (N2 and H2) will decrease. The reaction always goes away from the thing that was increased...and towards the thing that was decreased.

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  • 47. 

    The table below gives information about four aqueous solutions at standard pressure.  Which list of solutions is arranged in order from highest boiling point to lowest boiling point? 

    • A.

      A, B, D, C

    • B.

      A, C, B, D

    • C.

      C, D, B, A

    • D.

      D, B, C, A

    Correct Answer
    A. A, B, D, C
    Explanation
    molecular compounds have lower boiling points...C is the only molecular compound, so it should be at the END.

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  • 48. 

    What is the total number of years that must pass before only 25.00 grams of an original 100.0-gram sample of C-14 remains unchanged? 

    • A.

      2865 y

    • B.

      5730 y

    • C.

      11 460 y

    • D.

      17 190 y

    Correct Answer
    C. 11 460 y
    Explanation
    2 HALF LIVES...which means there is 2 x 5730 years that have passed.

    Rate this question:

  • 49. 

    Which radioisotope is used for diagnosing thyroid disorders? 

    • A.

      U-238

    • B.

      Pb-206

    • C.

      I-131

    • D.

      Co-60

    Correct Answer
    C. I-131
    Explanation
    Thyroids need iodine...just memorize this fact.

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