Philosopher Test 2 For J&e

23 Questions | Total Attempts: 332

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Philosopher Test 2 For J&e

There have been some great philosophers throughout history and most learners can still cite their works up to today, one of the most famous philosophers is Karl Marx. Take up this philosopher test 2 for j&e and see how knowledgeable you are when it comes to the topic. Try it out and all the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    The 18th century philosophers argued for the existence of a number of________ that were understood as limitations impacting the treatment of citizens by government or political authorities.
    • A. 

      Negative rights

    • B. 

      Positive rights

    • C. 

      Neutral rights

    • D. 

      A and C

  • 2. 
    The universality/absoluteness of moral rights has its roots in the tradition of:
    • A. 

      Implied law

    • B. 

      Procedural law

    • C. 

      Formal law

    • D. 

      Natural law

  • 3. 
    What is a classic example of the difference between consequentialism and Kantian moral philosophies that James Rachels refers to?
    • A. 

      The case of the ethical conundrum

    • B. 

      The case of the inquiring statesman

    • C. 

      The case of the ethical murderer

    • D. 

      The case of the inquiring murderer

  • 4. 
    Kant's second variation of the categorical imperative argued that we should: "act so as to treat ________, whether in your own person or that of any other, as an end and never a means only."
    • A. 

      Humanity

    • B. 

      Actions

    • C. 

      A and B

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 5. 
    The aim of ________ is to prevent an individual offender from committing future wrongdoings by instilling in the individual fear of punitive consequences.
    • A. 

      General deterrence

    • B. 

      Specific deterrence

    • C. 

      Reform

    • D. 

      Disablement

  • 6. 
    The position of ________ argues that there are certain rules that must be followed no matter what consequences may befall an individual, a group, a social institution, and/or society more generally.
    • A. 

      James Rachels

    • B. 

      Immanuel Kant

    • C. 

      W.D. Ross

    • D. 

      Jeremy Bentham

  • 7. 
    The ________ begins with the natural law assumption that there is a certain universal moral order that exists apart from social, cultural, and historical conditions.
    • A. 

      Ethics of human rights

    • B. 

      Ethics of living

    • C. 

      Theory of life

    • D. 

      Theory of human rights

  • 8. 
    For Kant, a ________ law meant a rule that would be followed by everyone, all of the time.
    • A. 

      Primary

    • B. 

      Moral

    • C. 

      Binding

    • D. 

      Universal

  • 9. 
    Under prima facie duties, when two duties conflict we should choose to follow the duty which is more:
    • A. 

      Imperative

    • B. 

      Categorical

    • C. 

      Theological

    • D. 

      Rights-based

  • 10. 
    ________ argue that what matters morally is whether our actions conform to the relevant duties and absolute moral laws.
    • A. 

      Kantian ethics

    • B. 

      Prima facie duties

    • C. 

      Rights-based ethics

    • D. 

      Conformity ethics

  • 11. 
    Students and practitioners of criminal justice are typically exposed to issues of ________ rights first.
    • A. 

      Implied

    • B. 

      Procedural

    • C. 

      Formal

    • D. 

      Moral

  • 12. 
    In what United States Supreme Court case were criminal suspects granted the right to be informed of their protections under the law?
    • A. 

      Terry v. Ohio

    • B. 

      Pottinger v. City of Miami

    • C. 

      Miranda v. Arizona

    • D. 

      Roe v. Wade

  • 13. 
    The ________ means that the rights of people imply duties that others must acknowledge and value.
    • A. 

      Correlativity of rights and duties

    • B. 

      Duty-rights principle

    • C. 

      Prima facie duties-rights relationship

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 14. 
    What principle states that the state should pay back the offender for her or his offense?
    • A. 

      Retribution

    • B. 

      Proportionality

    • C. 

      Desert

    • D. 

      Rehabilitation

  • 15. 
    ________ argue that there exist certain basic moral guarantees that all ethical subjects enjoy and which should not, under any circumstances, be violated.
    • A. 

      Kantian ethics

    • B. 

      Prima facie duties

    • C. 

      Rights-based ethics

    • D. 

      Utilitarian ethics

  • 16. 
    ________ rights stem from the United States Constitution or from various levels of law.
    • A. 

      Deontological

    • B. 

      Implied

    • C. 

      Formal

    • D. 

      Procedural

  • 17. 
    The idea of natural rights has its conceptual basis in a type of:
    • A. 

      Hedonism

    • B. 

      Moral universalism

    • C. 

      Psychological egoism

    • D. 

      Consequentialism

  • 18. 
    What principle states that the punishment should fit the crime?
    • A. 

      Rehabilitation

    • B. 

      Retribution

    • C. 

      Proportionality

    • D. 

      Desert

  • 19. 
    ________ argue that what matters morally is whether our actions conform to relevant duties and moral laws, though these duties can sometimes be overridden by other duties that are more significant in a given situation.
    • A. 

      Kantian ethics

    • B. 

      Prima facie duties

    • C. 

      Rights-based ethics

    • D. 

      Consequentialist ethics

  • 20. 
    According to ________, morality amounts to doing our moral duties, which means abiding by universal moral laws without exception.
    • A. 

      Prima facie duties

    • B. 

      Kantian ethics

    • C. 

      Consequentialism

    • D. 

      Psychological egoism

  • 21. 
    ________ approaches place primary importance on duties or rules.
    • A. 

      Hedonistic

    • B. 

      Consequentialist

    • C. 

      Deontological

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 22. 
    Kant believed that the inherent worth of human beings stems from their nature as ________ creatures.
    • A. 

      God's

    • B. 

      Intelligent

    • C. 

      Rational

    • D. 

      Peaceful

  • 23. 
    What individual argued for an ethics of prima facie duties?
    • A. 

      Aristotle

    • B. 

      John Stuart Mill

    • C. 

      Immanuel Kant

    • D. 

      W.D. Ross