Philosopher Test 2 For J&e

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Philosopher Test 2 For J&e - Quiz

There have been some great philosophers throughout history and most learners can still cite their works up to today, one of the most famous philosophers is Karl Marx. Take up this philosopher test 2 for j&e and see how knowledgeable you are when it comes to the topic. Try it out and all the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    ________ argue that what matters morally is whether our actions conform to the relevant duties and absolute moral laws.

    • A.

      Kantian ethics

    • B.

      Prima facie duties

    • C.

      Rights-based ethics

    • D.

      Conformity ethics

    Correct Answer
    A. Kantian ethics
    Explanation
    Kantian ethics argues that what matters morally is whether our actions conform to the relevant duties and absolute moral laws. This ethical theory, developed by Immanuel Kant, emphasizes the importance of following universal moral principles and acting out of a sense of duty. It suggests that moral actions should be guided by reason and the categorical imperative, which states that one should act only according to the maxim that they can will to become a universal law. Kantian ethics focuses on the intention and motive behind actions rather than the consequences, and emphasizes the importance of treating individuals as ends in themselves rather than as means to an end.

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  • 2. 

    The position of ________ argues that there are certain rules that must be followed no matter what consequences may befall an individual, a group, a social institution, and/or society more generally.

    • A.

      James Rachels

    • B.

      Immanuel Kant

    • C.

      W.D. Ross

    • D.

      Jeremy Bentham

    Correct Answer
    B. Immanuel Kant
    Explanation
    Immanuel Kant's position argues that there are certain moral rules that should be followed regardless of the consequences. This position is known as deontological ethics, which emphasizes the importance of duty and moral obligations. According to Kant, actions should be guided by moral principles that are based on reason and universalizability, rather than on the potential outcomes or consequences. This means that even if following these rules leads to negative consequences for an individual, group, or society, they should still be followed because they are morally right.

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  • 3. 

    The universality/absoluteness of moral rights has its roots in the tradition of:

    • A.

      Implied law

    • B.

      Procedural law

    • C.

      Formal law

    • D.

      Natural law

    Correct Answer
    D. Natural law
    Explanation
    The correct answer is natural law. The universality/absoluteness of moral rights is grounded in the tradition of natural law. Natural law is a theory that suggests that there are inherent moral principles that exist independently of human laws or customs. These principles are believed to be universal and apply to all individuals regardless of cultural or societal differences. Natural law is often associated with the idea that certain rights are fundamental and cannot be violated, providing a basis for the concept of human rights.

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  • 4. 

    What is a classic example of the difference between consequentialism and Kantian moral philosophies that James Rachels refers to?

    • A.

      The case of the ethical conundrum

    • B.

      The case of the inquiring statesman

    • C.

      The case of the ethical murderer

    • D.

      The case of the inquiring murderer

    Correct Answer
    D. The case of the inquiring murderer
    Explanation
    The case of the inquiring murderer is a classic example of the difference between consequentialism and Kantian moral philosophies. In this case, a murderer comes to your door and asks if your friend is inside. According to consequentialism, the morally right action would be to lie and protect your friend, as it would result in the best consequences (saving a life). However, according to Kantian moral philosophy, lying is always morally wrong, regardless of the consequences. Therefore, in this case, a consequentialist would argue for lying, while a Kantian would argue for telling the truth.

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  • 5. 

    The 18th century philosophers argued for the existence of a number of________ that were understood as limitations impacting the treatment of citizens by government or political authorities.

    • A.

      Negative rights

    • B.

      Positive rights

    • C.

      Neutral rights

    • D.

      A and C

    Correct Answer
    A. Negative rights
    Explanation
    The 18th-century philosophers argued for the existence of negative rights that were understood as limitations impacting the treatment of citizens by government or political authorities. Negative rights refer to the rights that protect individuals from government interference, such as the right to freedom of speech, religion, and privacy. These philosophers believed that individuals should be free from government intrusion and that the government's role should be limited to protecting these negative rights. Positive rights, on the other hand, involve entitlements to certain benefits or resources provided by the government, which is not mentioned in the question. Neutral rights is not a commonly recognized term in political philosophy. Therefore, the correct answer is negative rights.

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  • 6. 

    Students and practitioners of criminal justice are typically exposed to issues of ________ rights first.

    • A.

      Implied

    • B.

      Procedural

    • C.

      Formal

    • D.

      Moral

    Correct Answer
    B. Procedural
    Explanation
    The correct answer is procedural. Students and practitioners of criminal justice are typically exposed to issues of procedural rights first. This is because procedural rights refer to the legal protections and processes that individuals are entitled to during criminal proceedings, such as the right to a fair trial, the right to legal representation, and the right to due process. Understanding and upholding these rights is crucial in the criminal justice system to ensure that individuals are treated fairly and justly throughout the legal process.

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  • 7. 

    Kant's second variation of the categorical imperative argued that we should: "act so as to treat ________, whether in your own person or that of any other, as an end and never a means only."

    • A.

      Humanity

    • B.

      Actions

    • C.

      A and B

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Humanity
    Explanation
    Kant's second variation of the categorical imperative states that we should treat humanity as an end and never merely as a means. This means that we should not use people as tools or objects to achieve our own goals, but rather we should respect their dignity and value as individuals. By treating humanity as an end, we acknowledge the intrinsic worth and autonomy of each person, and uphold their rights and well-being. This principle emphasizes the importance of ethical behavior and promotes a sense of fairness, equality, and respect for all individuals.

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  • 8. 

    For Kant, a ________ law meant a rule that would be followed by everyone, all of the time.

    • A.

      Primary

    • B.

      Moral

    • C.

      Binding

    • D.

      Universal

    Correct Answer
    D. Universal
    Explanation
    Kant believed that a universal law is a rule that should be followed by everyone, at all times. This means that the law applies to all individuals universally, without any exceptions or variations. Kant's moral philosophy emphasized the importance of moral principles that are universally applicable and binding, as they provide a consistent and objective basis for ethical decision-making. Therefore, the term "universal" aligns with Kant's understanding of a law that is valid for all individuals, regardless of personal preferences or circumstances.

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  • 9. 

    Under prima facie duties, when two duties conflict we should choose to follow the duty which is more:

    • A.

      Imperative

    • B.

      Categorical

    • C.

      Theological

    • D.

      Rights-based

    Correct Answer
    A. Imperative
    Explanation
    Under prima facie duties, when two duties conflict, we should choose to follow the duty which is more imperative. This means that we should prioritize the duty that is more urgent, important, or morally binding. The imperative duty takes precedence over other duties in such situations. This concept is based on the idea that some duties have a stronger moral weight than others, and therefore should be prioritized when conflicting with other duties.

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  • 10. 

    The aim of ________ is to prevent an individual offender from committing future wrongdoings by instilling in the individual fear of punitive consequences.

    • A.

      General deterrence

    • B.

      Specific deterrence

    • C.

      Reform

    • D.

      Disablement

    Correct Answer
    B. Specific deterrence
    Explanation
    Specific deterrence is the aim of preventing an individual offender from committing future wrongdoings by instilling fear of punitive consequences in that individual. This approach focuses on deterring the specific offender from engaging in criminal behavior again, rather than deterring others in society. It aims to discourage the individual by making them realize the negative consequences they will face if they continue to commit crimes. This can be achieved through various means such as imprisonment, probation, or rehabilitation programs tailored to the individual's needs.

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  • 11. 

    The ________ begins with the natural law assumption that there is a certain universal moral order that exists apart from social, cultural, and historical conditions.

    • A.

      Ethics of human rights

    • B.

      Ethics of living

    • C.

      Theory of life

    • D.

      Theory of human rights

    Correct Answer
    A. Ethics of human rights
    Explanation
    The ethics of human rights begins with the natural law assumption that there is a certain universal moral order that exists apart from social, cultural, and historical conditions. This means that human rights are not subjective or culturally relative, but rather based on fundamental principles that apply to all individuals regardless of their background or circumstances. This perspective emphasizes the inherent dignity and worth of every human being, and the obligation to protect and promote their rights and freedoms.

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  • 12. 

    The ________ means that the rights of people imply duties that others must acknowledge and value.

    • A.

      Correlativity of rights and duties

    • B.

      Duty-rights principle

    • C.

      Prima facie duties-rights relationship

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Correlativity of rights and duties
    Explanation
    The term "correlativity of rights and duties" refers to the idea that individuals have certain rights, but these rights also come with corresponding duties that others must recognize and respect. This concept recognizes that rights cannot exist in isolation and that individuals have a responsibility to fulfill their duties in order to maintain a harmonious society.

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  • 13. 

    In what United States Supreme Court case were criminal suspects granted the right to be informed of their protections under the law?

    • A.

      Terry v. Ohio

    • B.

      Pottinger v. City of Miami

    • C.

      Miranda v. Arizona

    • D.

      Roe v. Wade

    Correct Answer
    C. Miranda v. Arizona
    Explanation
    In Miranda v. Arizona, the United States Supreme Court ruled that criminal suspects must be informed of their rights, including the right to remain silent and the right to an attorney. This landmark case established the "Miranda rights" that are now read to suspects upon arrest, ensuring that they are aware of their protections under the law.

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  • 14. 

    What principle states that the punishment should fit the crime?

    • A.

      Rehabilitation

    • B.

      Retribution

    • C.

      Proportionality

    • D.

      Desert

    Correct Answer
    C. Proportionality
    Explanation
    The principle of proportionality states that the punishment should fit the crime. This means that the severity of the punishment should be directly related to the severity of the offense committed. It is based on the idea that justice is best served when the punishment is proportionate to the harm caused by the crime. This principle ensures fairness and prevents excessive or inadequate punishment.

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  • 15. 

    ________ argue that there exist certain basic moral guarantees that all ethical subjects enjoy and which should not, under any circumstances, be violated.

    • A.

      Kantian ethics

    • B.

      Prima facie duties

    • C.

      Rights-based ethics

    • D.

      Utilitarian ethics

    Correct Answer
    C. Rights-based ethics
    Explanation
    Rights-based ethics argue that there exist certain basic moral guarantees that all ethical subjects enjoy and which should not, under any circumstances, be violated. This ethical framework emphasizes the importance of individual rights and believes that every person has inherent rights that must be respected and protected. It focuses on the belief that individuals have a right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, among other fundamental rights, and that these rights should not be infringed upon.

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  • 16. 

    What principle states that the state should pay back the offender for her or his offense?

    • A.

      Retribution

    • B.

      Proportionality

    • C.

      Desert

    • D.

      Rehabilitation

    Correct Answer
    A. Retribution
    Explanation
    Retribution is the principle that states that the state should pay back the offender for their offense. This principle believes in punishment as a form of revenge or retaliation, aiming to inflict suffering on the offender to balance the harm caused by their actions. It is based on the idea that the punishment should fit the crime and that offenders deserve to be punished for their wrongdoing. Proportionality, desert, and rehabilitation are not principles that advocate for the state to pay back the offender for their offense.

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  • 17. 

    ________ rights stem from the United States Constitution or from various levels of law.

    • A.

      Deontological

    • B.

      Implied

    • C.

      Formal

    • D.

      Procedural

    Correct Answer
    C. Formal
    Explanation
    Formal rights refer to the rights that are derived from the United States Constitution or other levels of law. These rights are explicitly stated and protected by legal documents and are enforceable by the legal system. They provide individuals with specific entitlements and protections, ensuring that their rights are recognized and upheld. This term is used to distinguish these rights from other types of rights that may be implied or derived from other sources.

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  • 18. 

    ________ argue that what matters morally is whether our actions conform to relevant duties and moral laws, though these duties can sometimes be overridden by other duties that are more significant in a given situation.

    • A.

      Kantian ethics

    • B.

      Prima facie duties

    • C.

      Rights-based ethics

    • D.

      Consequentialist ethics

    Correct Answer
    B. Prima facie duties
    Explanation
    Prima facie duties argue that what matters morally is whether our actions conform to relevant duties and moral laws, though these duties can sometimes be overridden by other duties that are more significant in a given situation. This suggests that there are certain moral obligations that we have, but these obligations can be flexible depending on the specific circumstances. Prima facie duties prioritize the importance of adhering to moral laws and duties, but recognize that there may be exceptions or situations where other duties take precedence.

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  • 19. 

    What individual argued for an ethics of prima facie duties?

    • A.

      Aristotle

    • B.

      John Stuart Mill

    • C.

      Immanuel Kant

    • D.

      W.D. Ross

    Correct Answer
    D. W.D. Ross
    Explanation
    W.D. Ross argued for an ethics of prima facie duties. Prima facie duties are moral obligations that are binding unless overridden by another duty. Ross believed that there are several basic moral principles that guide our actions, such as fidelity, reparation, gratitude, and justice. These duties are not absolute, but rather, they must be weighed against each other in specific situations. Ross emphasized the importance of context and the need to balance conflicting duties when making ethical decisions.

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  • 20. 

    ________ approaches place primary importance on duties or rules.

    • A.

      Hedonistic

    • B.

      Consequentialist

    • C.

      Deontological

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Deontological
    Explanation
    Deontological approaches prioritize duties or rules as the primary factor in moral decision-making. This means that the rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by whether it aligns with a set of moral principles or obligations. Unlike consequentialist approaches that focus on the outcomes or consequences of an action, deontological ethics emphasize the inherent moral value of actions themselves. In this perspective, the consequences of an action are not as important as the adherence to moral duties or rules.

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  • 21. 

    According to ________, morality amounts to doing our moral duties, which means abiding by universal moral laws without exception.

    • A.

      Prima facie duties

    • B.

      Kantian ethics

    • C.

      Consequentialism

    • D.

      Psychological egoism

    Correct Answer
    B. Kantian ethics
    Explanation
    According to Kantian ethics, morality amounts to doing our moral duties, which means abiding by universal moral laws without exception. Kant believed that moral actions are those that are done out of a sense of duty and are guided by principles that can be universally applied. This approach emphasizes the importance of moral obligations and the idea that actions should be guided by reason rather than personal desires or consequences.

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  • 22. 

    Kant believed that the inherent worth of human beings stems from their nature as ________ creatures.

    • A.

      God's

    • B.

      Intelligent

    • C.

      Rational

    • D.

      Peaceful

    Correct Answer
    C. Rational
    Explanation
    Kant believed that the inherent worth of human beings stems from their nature as rational creatures. This means that humans possess the ability to reason, think critically, and make moral judgments. According to Kant, it is our rationality that sets us apart from other creatures and gives us the capacity to act in accordance with moral principles. This belief in human rationality forms the basis for Kant's moral philosophy, which emphasizes the importance of acting out of duty and following universal moral laws.

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  • 23. 

    The idea of natural rights has its conceptual basis in a type of:

    • A.

      Hedonism

    • B.

      Moral universalism

    • C.

      Psychological egoism

    • D.

      Consequentialism

    Correct Answer
    B. Moral universalism
    Explanation
    The idea of natural rights is based on the belief that certain rights are inherent to all individuals, regardless of cultural or societal norms. Moral universalism supports this concept by asserting that there are objective moral principles that apply universally to all human beings. This aligns with the idea of natural rights, as it suggests that these rights are not subjective or culturally determined, but rather universally applicable to all individuals.

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