Chapter 9 Lifespan Development

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Chapter 9 Lifespan Development - Quiz

Quiz derived from material in 5th edition of Hockenbury & Hockenbury; chapter 9 (lifespan development)


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The stage of development before birth is called_______________

    • A.

      Germinal period

    • B.

      Prenatal stage

    • C.

      Fetal period

    • D.

      Embryonic period

    Correct Answer
    B. Prenatal stage
    Explanation
    The stage of development before birth is referred to as the prenatal stage. This stage encompasses the entire period from conception to birth and includes the germinal period, embryonic period, and fetal period. During the prenatal stage, the fetus undergoes significant growth and development, with major organ systems forming and becoming functional. It is a crucial period for the baby's development and is influenced by various factors such as maternal health, nutrition, and environmental exposures.

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  • 2. 

    List the three periods of the prenatal stage:

    Correct Answer
    zygotic,embryonic,fetal
    Explanation
    The three periods of the prenatal stage are zygotic, embryonic, and fetal. The zygotic period is the first stage, beginning at fertilization when the zygote is formed. The embryonic period follows, during which the embryo develops major organs and body systems. Finally, the fetal period occurs when the fetus grows and matures until birth. These three periods represent the different stages of prenatal development, with each stage having distinct characteristics and milestones.

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  • 3. 

    The first two weeks of the prenatal state is called the ____________ period

    • A.

      Embryonic

    • B.

      Fetal

    • C.

      Germinal

    Correct Answer
    C. Germinal
    Explanation
    During the first two weeks of the prenatal state, the developing organism is referred to as the germinal period. This is the initial stage of pregnancy, starting from fertilization and ending with implantation of the fertilized egg into the uterine wall. During this period, rapid cell division occurs and the zygote develops into a blastocyst. The germinal period is crucial as it sets the stage for further development of the embryo and fetus.

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  • 4. 

    Period during which the zygote undergoes rapid cell division before becoming implanted on the wall of the mother's uterus.

    • A.

      Germinal

    • B.

      Embryonic

    • C.

      Prenatal

    • D.

      Fetal

    Correct Answer
    A. Germinal
    Explanation
    The period during which the zygote undergoes rapid cell division before becoming implanted on the wall of the mother's uterus is known as the germinal period. During this stage, the zygote develops into a blastocyst and undergoes multiple cell divisions, forming a mass of cells. This period is crucial for the development of the embryo and the formation of important structures such as the placenta. Once the blastocyst is implanted in the uterus, it enters the embryonic stage.

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  • 5. 

    The _____________ period begins with week 3 and extends through week 8 of prenatal development.

    • A.

      Embryonic

    • B.

      Germinal

    • C.

      Zygotic

    Correct Answer
    A. Embryonic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is embryonic. The embryonic period is a stage in prenatal development that begins with week 3 and extends through week 8. During this period, the embryo undergoes significant growth and development, with the formation of major organs and body systems. This is a crucial stage for the development of the baby, as it is when the foundation for the body's structures and functions is established. The germinal period refers to the first two weeks of prenatal development, while the zygotic period is not a recognized term in prenatal development.

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  • 6. 

    Prenatal period during which rapid growth and intensive cell differentiation, the organs major systems of the body form. The initial development of the sex organs is also triggered.

    • A.

      Germinal

    • B.

      Embryonic

    • C.

      Fetal

    Correct Answer
    B. Embryonic
    Explanation
    During the embryonic period, rapid growth and intensive cell differentiation occur, leading to the formation of major systems and organs in the body. This includes the initial development of the sex organs. The germinal period refers to the period immediately after fertilization, while the fetal period is characterized by the growth and maturation of existing organs and systems. Therefore, the correct answer is embryonic.

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  • 7. 

    The umbilical cord is housed in the_______________

    • A.

      Placenta

    • B.

      Teratogens

    • C.

      Amniotic sac

    • D.

      Embryo

    Correct Answer
    C. Amniotic sac
    Explanation
    The umbilical cord is housed in the amniotic sac. The amniotic sac is a fluid-filled membrane that surrounds and protects the developing embryo or fetus during pregnancy. It provides a cushioning effect and helps maintain a stable and protective environment for the growing baby. The umbilical cord, which connects the baby to the placenta, is contained within the amniotic sac and is responsible for supplying nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus.

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  • 8. 

    The third month heralds the beginning of the ________ period.

    • A.

      Fetal

    • B.

      Germinal

    • C.

      Prenatal

    • D.

      Embryonic

    Correct Answer
    A. Fetal
    Explanation
    The third month is significant in pregnancy as it marks the transition from the embryonic stage to the fetal stage. During this time, the major organs and body systems of the developing baby begin to form and function. Therefore, the correct answer is "fetal" because it accurately describes the period of development that begins in the third month of pregnancy.

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  • 9. 

    The strange situation procedure is associated with which psychologist?

    • A.

      Jean Piaget

    • B.

      Mary D. salter Ainsworth

    • C.

      Eric Erikson

    • D.

      Lev Vygotsky

    Correct Answer
    B. Mary D. salter Ainsworth
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Mary D. Salter Ainsworth. The strange situation procedure is a research method developed by Ainsworth to assess attachment patterns between infants and their caregivers. It involves observing the child's behavior in a series of situations, including separations and reunions with the caregiver. Ainsworth's research made significant contributions to the understanding of attachment theory and the different attachment styles that infants may develop.

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  • 10. 

    Developmental psychologist Jay Belsky showed that infants under a year old were more likely to demonstrate _______ attachment if the experienced over 30 hours of day care per week.

    • A.

      Secure

    • B.

      No

    • C.

      Insecure

    • D.

      Extreme

    Correct Answer
    C. Insecure
    Explanation
    Infants under a year old who experienced over 30 hours of day care per week were more likely to demonstrate insecure attachment. This suggests that spending a significant amount of time in day care may negatively impact the development of secure attachment in infants.

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  • 11. 

    According to psychologist ____________________, children progress through four distinct cognitive stages: Sensorimotor Stage Preoperational Stage Concrete Operational StageFormal Operational Stage

    • A.

      Mary D. Salter Ainsworth

    • B.

      Erik Erikson

    • C.

      Lev Vygotsky

    • D.

      Jean Piaget

    Correct Answer
    D. Jean Piaget
    Explanation
    Jean Piaget is the correct answer because he is the psychologist who proposed the theory of cognitive development and identified the four distinct cognitive stages that children progress through. Piaget's theory states that children first go through the sensorimotor stage, where they learn through their senses and actions. Then, they move on to the preoperational stage, where they develop symbolic thinking and language skills. Next, they enter the concrete operational stage, where they start to think logically about concrete objects and events. Finally, they reach the formal operational stage, where they can think abstractly and hypothetically.

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  • 12. 

    In Piaget's theory, the first stage of cognitive development, from birth to about age 2; the period during which the infnat explores the environment and acquires knowledge through sensing and manipulating objects.

    • A.

      Preoperational stage

    • B.

      Sensorimotor stage

    • C.

      Concrete operational stage

    • D.

      Formal operational stage

    Correct Answer
    B. Sensorimotor stage
    Explanation
    The correct answer is sensorimotor stage. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, the sensorimotor stage is the first stage that occurs from birth to about age 2. During this stage, infants explore their environment and acquire knowledge through their senses and by manipulating objects. They begin to develop object permanence and understand cause and effect relationships. This stage is characterized by a gradual progression from reflexive behaviors to intentional actions.

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  • 13. 

    By the end of the _____________ stage, object permanence has developed.

    • A.

      Preoperational

    • B.

      Formal operational

    • C.

      Concrete operational

    • D.

      Sensorimotor stage

    Correct Answer
    D. Sensorimotor stage
    Explanation
    By the end of the sensorimotor stage, object permanence has developed. This means that infants in this stage have developed the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight. During the sensorimotor stage, which typically occurs from birth to around 2 years old, infants learn about the world through their senses and motor actions. They begin to understand that objects have permanence and continue to exist even when they cannot be seen or touched. This milestone in cognitive development is an important step towards the development of more complex thinking abilities.

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  • 14. 

    A children using their imagination to play are in the __________ stage, in Piaget's theory.

    • A.

      Preoperational

    • B.

      Sensormotor

    • C.

      Concrete operational

    • D.

      Formal operational

    Correct Answer
    A. Preoperational
    Explanation
    In Piaget's theory, the preoperational stage is characterized by children's ability to use symbols and represent objects in their imagination. During this stage, children engage in pretend play and use their imagination to create scenarios and situations. They are not yet capable of logical reasoning or understanding abstract concepts, which are characteristics of the concrete operational and formal operational stages. Therefore, the correct answer is preoperational.

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  • 15. 

    In Piaget's theory, the second stage of cognitive development, which lasts from about age 2 to age 7; characterized by increasing use of symbols and prelogical thought.

    • A.

      Sensorimotor stage

    • B.

      Preoperational stage

    • C.

      Concrete operational stage

    • D.

      Fornmal operational stage

    Correct Answer
    B. Preoperational stage
    Explanation
    Piaget's theory of cognitive development states that the preoperational stage occurs between the ages of 2 and 7. During this stage, children begin to use symbols and engage in prelogical thought. They are able to represent objects and events through language, pretend play, and drawing. However, their thinking is still egocentric and lacks logical reasoning. They struggle with conservation tasks and have difficulty understanding the perspectives of others. This stage is a crucial period for the development of language, imagination, and symbolic thinking.

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  • 16. 

    Children often display egocentrism during the ____________ stage in Piaget's theory.

    • A.

      Preoperational

    • B.

      Sensorimotor

    • C.

      Concrete operational

    • D.

      Formal operational

    Correct Answer
    A. Preoperational
    Explanation
    During the preoperational stage in Piaget's theory, children often display egocentrism. This means that they have difficulty understanding that others may have different perspectives or thoughts than their own. They tend to see the world from their own point of view and struggle to understand that others may have different thoughts, beliefs, or feelings. This egocentrism is a characteristic of the preoperational stage, which typically occurs between the ages of 2 and 7.

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  • 17. 

    In Piaget's theory, egocentrism, irreversibility, and centration are prominent during the____________ stage.

    • A.

      Sensorimotor

    • B.

      Concrete operational

    • C.

      Preoperational

    • D.

      Formal operational

    Correct Answer
    C. Preoperational
    Explanation
    In Piaget's theory, egocentrism, irreversibility, and centration are prominent during the preoperational stage. This stage occurs between the ages of 2 and 7, where children's thinking is characterized by egocentrism, meaning they struggle to take other people's perspectives into account. They also exhibit irreversibility, which means they have difficulty understanding that actions can be reversed. Additionally, centration refers to the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a situation and ignore others. These cognitive limitations are typical during the preoperational stage of development.

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  • 18. 

    In Piaget's theory, children become fully capable of logical thought during the ________ stage, however they still have difficulty thinking logically with abstract ideas and hypothetical situations.  

    • A.

      Preoperational

    • B.

      Sensorimotor

    • C.

      Concrete operational

    • D.

      Formal operational

    Correct Answer
    C. Concrete operational
    Explanation
    In Piaget's theory, the concrete operational stage is the stage where children become fully capable of logical thought. They are able to think logically and understand concepts such as conservation and reversibility. However, they still have difficulty thinking logically with abstract ideas and hypothetical situations. This stage typically occurs between the ages of 7 and 11.

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  • 19. 

    In Piaget's theory, the fourth stage of cognitive development, which lasts from adolescence through adulthood; characterized by the ability to think logically about abstract principles and hypothetical situtations.

    • A.

      Preoperational stage

    • B.

      Concrete operational stage

    • C.

      Formal operational stage

    • D.

      Sensorimotor stage

    Correct Answer
    C. Formal operational stage
    Explanation
    Piaget's theory of cognitive development proposes that individuals progress through four stages of cognitive development. The formal operational stage is the fourth and final stage, which occurs during adolescence and continues into adulthood. This stage is characterized by the ability to think logically about abstract principles and hypothetical situations. During this stage, individuals can engage in deductive reasoning, problem-solving, and critical thinking. They can also think about multiple perspectives and consider the consequences of their actions. This stage represents a significant shift in cognitive abilities, as individuals move from concrete thinking to more abstract and complex reasoning.

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  • 20. 

    Psychologist who showed that infants as young as 2 1/2 months of age display object permanence, more than six months earlier than the age at which Piaget believed infants first showed evidence of object permanence.

    • A.

      Mary D. Salter Ainsworth

    • B.

      Erik Erikson

    • C.

      Renne Baillargeon

    • D.

      Lev Vygotsky

    Correct Answer
    C. Renne Baillargeon
    Explanation
    Renne Baillargeon is the correct answer because she is the psychologist who showed that infants as young as 2 1/2 months of age display object permanence. This is significant because it contradicts Piaget's belief that infants only show evidence of object permanence at a later age. Baillargeon's research suggests that infants have a greater understanding of object permanence at an earlier stage of development than previously thought.

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  • 21. 

    Psychologist who believed that cognitive development is strongly influenced by social and cultural factors, and who developed the idea of the zone proximal development.

    • A.

      Lev Vygotsky

    • B.

      Jean Piaget

    • C.

      Renee Baillargeon

    • D.

      Erik Erikson

    Correct Answer
    A. Lev Vygotsky
    Explanation
    Lev Vygotsky was a psychologist who believed that cognitive development is strongly influenced by social and cultural factors. He developed the concept of the zone of proximal development, which refers to the difference between what a learner can do independently and what they can achieve with guidance and support from a more knowledgeable individual. This theory emphasizes the importance of social interaction and collaboration in the learning process. Vygotsky's ideas have had a significant impact on educational psychology and have helped shape our understanding of how children learn and develop cognitively.

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  • 22. 

    The model that views cognitive development as a process that studies the development of basic mental processes such as attention, memory, and problem solving.

    • A.

      Information-processing model of cognitive development

    • B.

      Developmental thinking model

    • C.

      Cognitive growth model

    Correct Answer
    A. Information-processing model of cognitive development
    Explanation
    The information-processing model of cognitive development is the correct answer because it describes a perspective that views cognitive development as a process that focuses on the development of basic mental processes such as attention, memory, and problem solving. This model suggests that cognitive development occurs through the acquisition and processing of information, similar to how a computer processes data. It emphasizes the importance of encoding, storing, and retrieving information, and how these processes contribute to the development of cognitive abilities.

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  • 23. 

    Boys and girls raised in father-absent homes experienced ____________physical development.

    • A.

      Slowed

    • B.

      Normal

    • C.

      Accelerated

    Correct Answer
    C. Accelerated
    Explanation
    Boys and girls raised in father-absent homes experienced accelerated physical development. This means that their physical growth and maturation occurred at a faster rate compared to those raised in homes with both parents present. The absence of a father figure may lead to various factors that contribute to accelerated physical development, such as increased independence and responsibilities at an earlier age. It is important to note that this answer is based on the assumption that the question is referring to physical development only.

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  • 24. 

    Impulsive behaviors in teenagers is caused by______________

    • A.

      Raging hormones

    • B.

      Sexual aggression

    • C.

      Problems with parents

    • D.

      Parts of the brain that are responsible for exercising judgment are still maturing.

    Correct Answer
    D. Parts of the brain that are responsible for exercising judgment are still maturing.
    Explanation
    During adolescence, the prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain responsible for decision-making and impulse control, is still developing. This means that teenagers may engage in impulsive behaviors because their brain's judgment center is not fully matured. This explanation suggests that the immaturity of the brain's judgment areas is the cause of impulsive behaviors in teenagers.

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  • 25. 

    The conflictive relationship between parents and adolescents differ dramatically between collectivistic and non-collectivistic cultures.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that the conflictive relationship between parents and adolescents is different in collectivistic and non-collectivistic cultures. However, the answer is false because the statement does not provide any specific information about the nature of the relationship in either type of culture. It only states that there is a difference, but does not specify what that difference is. Therefore, without further information, we cannot conclude that the statement is true.

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  • 26. 

    Psychologist who proposed that each of eight stages of life is associated with a particular psychosocial conflict . The key psychosocail conflict facing adolescents is "identity versus role confusion."

    • A.

      Mary D. Salter Ainsworth

    • B.

      Renee Baillargeon

    • C.

      Erik Erikson

    • D.

      Lev Vygotsky

    Correct Answer
    C. Erik Erikson
    Explanation
    Erik Erikson is the correct answer because he is the psychologist who proposed the theory of psychosocial development, which includes eight stages of life. Each stage is associated with a specific psychosocial conflict that individuals must resolve in order to develop a healthy sense of self. The key conflict facing adolescents is "identity versus role confusion," where they must explore and establish their own identities while navigating societal expectations and pressures. Erikson's theory has been influential in understanding human development and has been widely studied and applied in the field of psychology.

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  • 27. 

    Erik Erikson described the two fundamental themes that dominate early adulthood, which are____________

    • A.

      Love and hate

    • B.

      Sex and marriage

    • C.

      Generativity

    • D.

      Love and work

    Correct Answer
    D. Love and work
    Explanation
    In early adulthood, individuals typically experience a strong desire for both love and work. Love refers to the need for intimate relationships and emotional connections, while work represents the need for career development and finding a sense of purpose and accomplishment. Erikson believed that successfully navigating these two themes is crucial for establishing a healthy and fulfilling adult life.

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  • 28. 

    Erik Erikson held that the primary psychosocial taks becomes one of ________________ in middle adulthood

    • A.

      Generativity

    • B.

      Love and work

    Correct Answer
    A. Generativity
    Explanation
    Erik Erikson believed that during middle adulthood, the primary psychosocial task is to achieve generativity. Generativity refers to the desire to contribute to society and leave a lasting impact on future generations. This stage is characterized by a focus on nurturing and guiding others, whether it be through raising children, mentoring others, or making significant contributions to one's community or profession. It is a time when individuals strive to create a positive legacy and find meaning in their lives by making a difference in the lives of others.

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  • 29. 

    Children tend to ____________ marital bonds

    • A.

      Strengthen

    • B.

      Weaken

    Correct Answer
    B. Weaken
    Explanation
    Children tend to weaken marital bonds. This is because the arrival of children often leads to increased stress and responsibilities, which can put a strain on a couple's relationship. The focus and attention that was once solely on the couple may now be divided between the children and the relationship. Additionally, disagreements and differences in parenting styles can also contribute to marital conflict and weaken the bond between partners.

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  • 30. 

    Parenting style in which parents set clear standards for their children's behavior but are also responsive to their children's needs and wishes.

    • A.

      Induction

    • B.

      Authoritative

    • C.

      Persmissive

    • D.

      Authoritarian

    Correct Answer
    B. Authoritative
    Explanation
    The correct answer is authoritative. This parenting style involves setting clear standards for children's behavior while also being responsive to their needs and wishes. This approach promotes a balance between discipline and nurturing, allowing children to develop independence and self-control while still feeling supported and understood.

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  • 31. 

    Parenting style in which parents are demanding and unresponsive toward their children's needs or wishes.

    • A.

      Authoritarian

    • B.

      Permissive

    • C.

      Authoritative

    Correct Answer
    A. Authoritarian
    Explanation
    Authoritarian parenting style is characterized by high levels of control and strict rules, where parents are demanding and unresponsive towards their children's needs or wishes. They enforce obedience and expect unquestioning compliance from their children. This style often lacks warmth and nurturing, focusing more on discipline and punishment. The authoritarian approach may hinder the development of independence and self-esteem in children, as their individuality and opinions are not valued or encouraged.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
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