Chapter 9: Central Nervous SySTEM

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Central Nervous System Quizzes & Trivia

The central nervous system controls most functions of the body and mind. It consists of two parts, which are the brain and the spinal cord. The brain is the center of our thoughts and the spinal cord connects a large part of the peripheral nervous system to the brain. Take this Chapter 9 quiz on the nervous system below.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is NOT a component of the limbic system?

    • A.

      Hippocampus

    • B.

      Cerebral cortex

    • C.

      Amygdala

    • D.

      Midbrain

    • E.

      Hypothalamus

    Correct Answer
    D. Midbrain
    Explanation
    The midbrain is not a component of the limbic system. The limbic system is a collection of brain structures involved in emotions, memory, and motivation. The hippocampus, cerebral cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamus are all part of the limbic system and play important roles in these functions. However, the midbrain is not considered part of the limbic system. It is responsible for relaying sensory information and coordinating motor responses, but it does not have a direct role in emotions or memory.

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  • 2. 

    The circadian rhythm is established by what brain area?

    • A.

      Suprachiasmatic nucleus

    • B.

      Amygdala

    • C.

      Thalamus

    • D.

      Occipital lobe of cerebral cortex

    • E.

      Pons

    Correct Answer
    A. Suprachiasmatic nucleus
    Explanation
    The circadian rhythm is established by the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a small region in the brain located above the optic chiasm. This area contains specialized cells that respond to light signals received from the eyes, helping to regulate our sleep-wake cycle and other biological processes. The suprachiasmatic nucleus acts as the master clock, coordinating various physiological and behavioral rhythms throughout the body. It receives input from the retina and sends signals to other brain regions and the rest of the body to synchronize their activities with the external light-dark cycle.

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  • 3. 

    What type of junction between the endothelial cells of brain capillaries produces the blood-brain barrier?

    Correct Answer
    Tight Junction
    Explanation
    Tight junctions are specialized connections between endothelial cells in the brain capillaries that form the blood-brain barrier. These junctions create a seal between the cells, preventing the passage of substances and molecules from the bloodstream into the brain tissue. The tight junctions help regulate the movement of ions, molecules, and cells in and out of the brain, maintaining the delicate balance required for proper brain function. This barrier is crucial for protecting the brain from potential toxins, pathogens, and fluctuations in the blood composition.

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  • 4. 

    Myelinated axons are found in the (gray/ white) matter

    Correct Answer
    white
    Explanation
    Myelinated axons are found in the white matter. White matter refers to the regions of the central nervous system that are primarily composed of myelinated axons. These axons are covered in a fatty substance called myelin, which acts as an insulating layer and helps to increase the speed of electrical impulses conducted along the axon. The white color of the matter is due to the presence of myelin, which gives it a pale appearance. In contrast, gray matter contains mostly cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons.

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  • 5. 

    Somatic efferents originate in the (dorsal/ ventral) horn of the spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    ventral
    Explanation
    Somatic efferents are motor neurons that carry signals from the central nervous system to skeletal muscles. They originate in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The ventral horn is responsible for motor function, and it contains the cell bodies of somatic motor neurons. These neurons send their axons out through the ventral roots of the spinal cord, which then join with the dorsal roots to form spinal nerves. From there, the somatic efferents travel to the skeletal muscles, allowing for voluntary movement.

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  • 6. 

    The major function of the (cerebrum/ cerebellum) is to coordinate body movements

    Correct Answer
    cerebrum
    Explanation
    The cerebrum is responsible for coordinating body movements. It is the largest part of the brain and controls voluntary movements, such as walking and reaching for objects. It receives information from the sensory organs and sends signals to the muscles to produce coordinated movements. The cerebrum also plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions, such as language, memory, and decision-making.

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  • 7. 

    What three structures make up the brainstem?

    Correct Answer
    midbrain, pons, medulla
    Explanation
    The brainstem is composed of three main structures: the midbrain, pons, and medulla. These structures are located at the base of the brain and are responsible for controlling many vital functions of the body. The midbrain is involved in sensory and motor functions, the pons helps to regulate breathing and sleep, and the medulla controls essential functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. Together, these three structures play a crucial role in maintaining the overall functioning of the body and connecting the brain to the spinal cord.

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  • 8. 

    What is the major sensory relay nucleus to the cortex?

    Correct Answer
    thalamus
    Explanation
    The thalamus is the major sensory relay nucleus to the cortex. It receives sensory information from various sensory systems and then relays it to the appropriate areas of the cortex for further processing. This makes the thalamus a crucial structure in the brain for integrating and transmitting sensory information to the cortex, allowing us to perceive and make sense of the world around us.

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  • 9. 

    The area of the brain most closely associated with fear is the _______.

    Correct Answer
    amygdala
    Explanation
    The amygdala is a small almond-shaped structure located deep within the brain. It is responsible for processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala plays a crucial role in the fear response by triggering the release of stress hormones and coordinating physiological responses to fear-inducing stimuli. It also helps in the formation and storage of fear memories. Numerous studies have shown that damage or dysfunction in the amygdala can lead to impairments in fear processing and regulation, further supporting its association with fear.

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  • 10. 

    The __________ system is associated with emotions, learning, and memory.

    Correct Answer
    limbic
    Explanation
    The limbic system is a complex network of structures in the brain that is responsible for regulating emotions, learning, and memory. It includes the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, among other regions. The amygdala plays a key role in processing emotions, while the hippocampus is involved in forming and retrieving memories. The hypothalamus helps to regulate emotional responses and is also involved in the release of hormones. Overall, the limbic system is crucial for our emotional experiences, as well as our ability to learn and remember information.

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  • 11. 

    The ability to recall information when taking physiology exams is an example of __________ memory.

    Correct Answer
    declarative
    Explanation
    The ability to recall information when taking physiology exams is an example of declarative memory. Declarative memory refers to the memory of facts and events that can be consciously recalled and verbalized. In this case, the individual is able to consciously retrieve and recall information related to physiology during the exam, demonstrating declarative memory.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 01, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Iheartwaffles
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