Chapter 7 Change Over Time

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Chapter 7 Change Over Time - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    One day while hiking, Maria found a rock in the wall of a canyon. In the sedimentary rock, she noticed an impression of a leaf. Which answer best describes what Maria has found?

    • A.

      DNA

    • B.

      Fossil

    • C.

      Genetic evidence

    • D.

      Developmental pattern

    Correct Answer
    B. Fossil
    Explanation
    Maria has found a fossil. Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms, such as plants or animals, that are found in sedimentary rock. In this case, the impression of a leaf in the sedimentary rock indicates that it is a fossilized leaf from a past organism.

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  • 2. 

    What is artificial selection?  

    • A.

      The process by which humans breed organisms for certain characteristics

    • B.

      The process by which inherited traits in a population change over generations

    • C.

      The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce

    • D.

      The process by which Charles Darwin noted the differences among finches on the Galápagos Islands

    Correct Answer
    A. The process by which humans breed organisms for certain characteristics
    Explanation
    Artificial selection is the process in which humans intentionally breed organisms with specific desirable traits. This can involve selecting and mating individuals with desired characteristics to produce offspring with those traits. It is a deliberate and controlled process carried out by humans to produce desired outcomes in the offspring.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following statements describe the evidence provided by fossils?

    • A.

      The history of life in the geologic past

    • B.

      Human's role in artifical selection

    • C.

      Developmental patterns of living organisms

    • D.

      The genetic similarities between living and extinct organisms

    Correct Answer
    A. The history of life in the geologic past
    Explanation
    Fossils provide evidence for the history of life in the geologic past. Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms, and they can give us valuable insights into the types of organisms that lived in the past, their physical characteristics, and their interactions with the environment. By studying fossils, scientists can reconstruct the evolutionary history of different species and understand how life on Earth has changed over time. Fossils also help us understand the geological processes that have shaped the Earth's surface and the environments in which ancient organisms lived.

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  • 4. 

    Adpatation is one of the parts of natural selection. What is an adaptation?

    • A.

      A group of organisms that can mate to produce fertile offspring

    • B.

      A process by which inherited traits in a population change over generations

    • C.

      A process by which individuals that are better adapted are more likely to camoflage themselves to their environment

    • D.

      An inherited trait that improves chances of survival and reproduction for a group of individuals in a population

    Correct Answer
    D. An inherited trait that improves chances of survival and reproduction for a group of individuals in a population
    Explanation
    An adaptation is an inherited trait that improves the chances of survival and reproduction for a group of individuals in a population. This trait allows the organisms to better suit their environment and increases their likelihood of passing on their genes to the next generation. Through natural selection, individuals with beneficial adaptations are more likely to survive and reproduce, leading to the gradual change of traits in a population over generations.

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  • 5. 

    What is a species?

    • A.

      A group of organisms that can reproduce and have fertile offspring

    • B.

      The process by which inherited traits in a population change over generations

    • C.

      The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce

    • D.

      A characteristic that improves the ability of individuals in a population to survive and reproduce

    Correct Answer
    A. A group of organisms that can reproduce and have fertile offspring
    Explanation
    A species is defined as a group of organisms that can reproduce with one another and produce fertile offspring. This means that members of the same species are able to mate and produce offspring that are capable of reproducing themselves. This reproductive compatibility is a key factor in determining whether organisms belong to the same species or not.

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  • 6. 

    Some whales have tiny leg bones that, which do not aid in their movement or serve any other function; why is this?

    • A.

      These structures grow and improve in function as they are used

    • B.

      These structures function at certain times of the year or under certain conditions

    • C.

      These structures will become adaptations when the environment changes

    • D.

      These structures have lost all or most of their function over evolutionary time

    Correct Answer
    D. These structures have lost all or most of their function over evolutionary time
    Explanation
    Over evolutionary time, some whales have lost or reduced the function of their tiny leg bones. This could be due to a lack of selection pressure for these structures, as they do not aid in the whale's movement or serve any other function. As a result, these structures have become vestigial, meaning they have lost all or most of their original function.

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  • 7. 

    The figure below shows two spotted salamanders. They are the same species of salamander, but they live in different areas. Which of these terms is used to describe the difference between them?

    • A.

      Overpopulation

    • B.

      Population

    • C.

      Extinction

    • D.

      Variation

    Correct Answer
    D. Variation
    Explanation
    The term "variation" is used to describe the difference between the two spotted salamanders living in different areas. Variation refers to differences or variations within a species, such as differences in appearance, behavior, or genetics. In this case, the salamanders living in different areas may have developed different characteristics or adaptations due to their different environments, resulting in variations between them.

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  • 8. 

    A scientist is studying the DNA of three species. Species A and species B have DNA that is 97% similar. Species C and species A have DNA that is 95% similar. What can the scientist conclude?

    • A.

      Species B is equally related to both species A and species C.

    • B.

      Species B has a closer evolutionary relationship with species C than it does with species A.

    • C.

      Species A has a closer evolutionary relationship with species B than it does with species C.

    • D.

      Species A has a closer evolutionary relationship with species C than it does with species B.

    Correct Answer
    C. Species A has a closer evolutionary relationship with species B than it does with species C.
    Explanation
    The scientist can conclude that species A has a closer evolutionary relationship with species B than it does with species C. This is because the DNA similarity between species A and B is higher (97%) compared to the similarity between species A and C (95%). The higher the DNA similarity, the closer the evolutionary relationship between species.

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  • 9. 

    The diagram below shows the changes over time in a population of mice in the wild after a population of hawks has moved into the cold snow-covered  environment. The white and dark mice differ only in color. Which statement is the most likely explanation for why the mice population changed over time?

    • A.

      The hawks eat more dark mice than white mice because the dark mice taste better.

    • B.

      The dark mice are able to reproduce more successfully than the white mice do.

    • C.

      The hawks eat more white mice than dark mice because they can see the white mice more easily.

    • D.

      The hawks eat more dark mice than white mice, because they can see the dark mice more easily.

    Correct Answer
    D. The hawks eat more dark mice than white mice, because they can see the dark mice more easily.
    Explanation
    The most likely explanation for why the mice population changed over time is that the hawks eat more dark mice than white mice because they can see the dark mice more easily.

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  • 10. 

    Within a population, variation increases the likelihood that some individuals will be able to survive if the environment changes. Which of the following causes variations within a population?

    • A.

      Changes in extinction rates

    • B.

      Changes or mutations in the genetic material

    • C.

      Changes in the breeding rate

    • D.

      Changes in the environment

    Correct Answer
    B. Changes or mutations in the genetic material
    Explanation
    Changes or mutations in the genetic material cause variations within a population. Mutations are random changes in the DNA sequence, which can result in new traits or characteristics. These variations can lead to differences in survival and reproductive success, as some individuals may have traits that are better suited to the changing environment. Over time, these advantageous traits can become more common in the population through natural selection, increasing the overall fitness of the population.

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  • 11. 

    Which of these scenarios is an example of natural selection?

    • A.

      Farmers crossbreed two types of cows to produce a breed of cow that has high-quality beef and can tolerate a hot climate.

    • B.

      Giraffes that have longer necks survive a dry season by eating leaves from the tops of trees. Those giraffes breed more successfully that year.

    • C.

      Dogs of the same breed that have a desirable coat color are bred with one another to produce more puppies with that same coat color.

    • D.

      People kill rattlesnakes that rattle when approached by humans are killed, but people do no kill rattlesnakes that remain silent. The quiet snakes survive and breed.

    Correct Answer
    B. Giraffes that have longer necks survive a dry season by eating leaves from the tops of trees. Those giraffes breed more successfully that year.
    Explanation
    The scenario of giraffes with longer necks surviving a dry season by eating leaves from the tops of trees and breeding more successfully is an example of natural selection. In this scenario, the longer-necked giraffes have a selective advantage because they are able to reach food that is higher up and not accessible to giraffes with shorter necks. As a result, the longer-necked giraffes are more likely to survive and pass on their genes for longer necks to the next generation. Over time, this can lead to a population of giraffes with longer necks as a result of natural selection.

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  • 12. 

    Mrs. Ware listed the following four topics on the board. 1. relationships between extinct and living organisms 2. genetic similarities and differences between extinct and modern-day species 3. ancestors of living organisms 4. ways that groups of species are related For which of these topics does the fossil record provide evidence?  

    • A.

      1 only

    • B.

      1 and 2

    • C.

      1, 2, and 3

    • D.

      1, 3, and 4

    Correct Answer
    D. 1, 3, and 4
    Explanation
    The fossil record provides evidence for topics 1, 3, and 4. The fossil record allows scientists to study the relationships between extinct and living organisms (topic 1) by examining the fossils of ancient species and comparing them to modern-day species. It also provides evidence for the ancestors of living organisms (topic 3) by revealing the existence of extinct species that are believed to be the ancestors of current species. Additionally, the fossil record helps in understanding the ways that groups of species are related (topic 4) by showing the evolutionary connections between different species through the ages.

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  • 13. 

    Kathy is studying adaptations in tropical fish. Which of the following is not an adaptation to prevent predators from eating a fish?

    • A.

      Camouflage

    • B.

      A spiny tail

    • C.

      The ability to change direction quickly

    • D.

      A sucker-like mouth

    Correct Answer
    D. A sucker-like mouth
    Explanation
    A sucker-like mouth is not an adaptation to prevent predators from eating a fish. While camouflage helps a fish blend into its surroundings, a spiny tail can deter predators by making it difficult to swallow the fish. The ability to change direction quickly allows a fish to evade predators. However, a sucker-like mouth is typically used for feeding and does not provide protection against predators.

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  • 14. 

    Scientists use absolute dating to determine

    • A.

      The physical appearance of fossils

    • B.

      The chemical composition of rocks

    • C.

      The numerical age of an object in years

    • D.

      The approximate date of a rock layer or fossil

    Correct Answer
    C. The numerical age of an object in years
    Explanation
    Absolute dating is a method used by scientists to determine the numerical age of an object in years. This technique relies on various scientific principles and techniques such as radioactive decay and the study of rock layers. By analyzing the isotopes present in a sample or examining the position of fossils within rock layers, scientists can accurately calculate the age of an object. This information is crucial for understanding the timeline of Earth's history and the evolution of different species.

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  • 15. 

    The Red Sea formed as the African Plate moved apart from the Arabian Plate. Which type of boundary was involved in the formation of the Red Sea?

    • A.

      Transform Boundary

    • B.

      Stationary Boundary

    • C.

      Convergent Boundary

    • D.

      Divergent Boundary

    Correct Answer
    D. Divergent Boundary
    Explanation
    The formation of the Red Sea was a result of a divergent boundary. This type of boundary occurs when two tectonic plates move away from each other. In this case, the African Plate and the Arabian Plate moved apart, creating a gap that eventually filled with water, forming the Red Sea. This process is known as seafloor spreading, where magma rises to the surface and solidifies, creating new crust and pushing the plates apart.

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  • 16. 

    Which description defines an independent variable in a scientific experiment?

    • A.

      Any factor that is controlled during an experiment

    • B.

      A factor that is measured to gather results

    • C.

      Any factor that changes during an experiment

    • D.

      A factor that is changed or manipulated so that it can be tested

    Correct Answer
    D. A factor that is changed or manipulated so that it can be tested
    Explanation
    An independent variable in a scientific experiment is a factor that is intentionally changed or manipulated by the researcher. This is done in order to observe the effect it has on the dependent variable, which is the factor that is measured to gather results. By manipulating the independent variable, scientists can test its impact on the dependent variable and draw conclusions about cause and effect relationships.

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  • 17. 

    Samantha is explaining the difference between scientific laws and scientific theories to another classmate. Which of the following statements should Samantha say to summarize the difference between scientific laws and scientific theories?

    • A.

      Scientific theories require scientific evidence and scientific laws do not.

    • B.

      Scientific theories are based on observation and scientific laws are based on opinions.

    • C.

      Scientific theories explain why something happens, and scientific laws describe what happens.

    • D.

      Scientific laws are frequently modified, but scientific theories rarely change as new information becomes available.

    Correct Answer
    C. Scientific theories explain why something happens, and scientific laws describe what happens.
    Explanation
    Scientific theories and scientific laws have distinct roles in understanding the natural world. Scientific theories provide explanations for why certain phenomena occur, while scientific laws describe the patterns and relationships between these phenomena. Theories are based on scientific evidence and are subject to change as new information becomes available. In contrast, laws are more general and describe what consistently happens in nature. Therefore, Samantha should summarize the difference between scientific laws and scientific theories by stating that theories explain why something happens, while laws describe what happens.

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  • 18. 

    Why do most earthquakes take place at tectonic plate boundaries?

    • A.

      The rock in the interior of a tectonic plate is stronger, so it does not deform.

    • B.

      Earthquakes take place where a cold front meets a warm front.

    • C.

      Earthquakes can only occur at places where magma can reach the surface and transfer energy to rocks.

    • D.

      Earthquakes take place where energy is transferred to rock by the motion of tectonic plates.

    Correct Answer
    D. Earthquakes take place where energy is transferred to rock by the motion of tectonic plates.
    Explanation
    Most earthquakes take place at tectonic plate boundaries because they occur where energy is transferred to rock by the motion of tectonic plates. The movement of these plates creates stress and strain on the rocks, causing them to deform and eventually release energy in the form of an earthquake. The rock in the interior of a tectonic plate is stronger and does not deform as easily, which is why earthquakes are more likely to occur at plate boundaries where the motion and interaction of plates are more active.

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  • 19. 

    As a glacier moves along the ground it transports rocks. These rocks pass over the ground and create scratches in the bedrock. Which statement correctly describes these processes?

    • A.

      The transport of rocks is an example of weathering and the scratching of the bedrock is an example of erosion.

    • B.

      The transport of rocks and the scratching of the bedrock are both examples of weathering.

    • C.

      The transport of rocks and the scratching of the bedrock are both examples of erosion.

    • D.

      The transport of rocks is an example of erosion and the scratching of the bedrock is an example of weathering.

    Correct Answer
    D. The transport of rocks is an example of erosion and the scratching of the bedrock is an example of weathering.
    Explanation
    The transport of rocks by a glacier is an example of erosion because it involves the movement of material from one place to another. On the other hand, the scratching of the bedrock by these transported rocks is an example of weathering because it causes physical changes to the bedrock surface.

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  • 20. 

    At the zoo, Anya observes that individuals of a certain kangaroo species have slightly different sizes and colors. What characteristic of populations is Anya observing?

    • A.

      Adaptation

    • B.

      Evolution

    • C.

      Selection

    • D.

      Variation

    Correct Answer
    D. Variation
    Explanation
    Anya is observing the variation within a population of kangaroos. Variation refers to the differences in traits or characteristics among individuals of the same species. In this case, Anya notices that the kangaroos of a certain species have slightly different sizes and colors, indicating that there is variation within the population. This variation can be due to genetic differences, environmental factors, or a combination of both.

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