Chapter 31 Overview Of Vertebrates

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Vertebrate Quizzes & Trivia

This quiz includes chapters 31-1 story of vertebrate evolution, 31-2 Challenge of Obtaining Oxygen, 31-3 Evolution of a Better Heart, 31-4 Challenge of Retaining Water, and 31-5 Reproduction and Development


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Amphibians evolved from:

    • A.

      Fish

    • B.

      Reptiles

    • C.

      Echinoderms

    • D.

      Protostomes

    Correct Answer
    A. Fish
    Explanation
    Amphibians evolved from fish. This is supported by scientific evidence, such as fossil records and genetic studies, which show a gradual transition from fish to amphibians. Over time, certain fish species developed adaptations that allowed them to survive in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. These adaptations include lungs for breathing air, limbs for movement on land, and a partially divided heart. These early amphibians eventually gave rise to the diverse group of amphibians we see today.

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  • 2. 

    Amphibians gave rise to:

    • A.

      Fish

    • B.

      Reptiles

    • C.

      Birds

    • D.

      Plankton

    Correct Answer
    B. Reptiles
    Explanation
    Amphibians gave rise to reptiles because reptiles evolved from a group of amphibians known as the reptiliomorphs during the Carboniferous period. Reptiles adapted to life on land better than their amphibian ancestors, developing scales and amniotic eggs that allowed them to reproduce without water. This adaptation led to the diversification of reptiles into various groups, including dinosaurs, birds, and modern reptiles. Therefore, reptiles are the direct descendants of amphibians.

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  • 3. 

    Reptiles are ---blank--- (type of habitat)

    Correct Answer
    terrestrial
    Explanation
    Reptiles are classified as terrestrial because they primarily inhabit land environments rather than aquatic or aerial environments. They are well-adapted to life on land, with features such as scales, claws, and lungs that enable them to survive and thrive in terrestrial habitats. Unlike amphibians, reptiles do not require water for reproduction and are able to lay their eggs on land. Additionally, their bodies are designed to withstand the challenges of living in dry and arid conditions, making terrestrial habitats ideal for their survival.

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  • 4. 

    ---blank--- were the first vertebrates

    • A.

      Birds

    • B.

      Reptiles

    • C.

      Amphibians

    • D.

      Jawless fishes

    Correct Answer
    D. Jawless fishes
    Explanation
    Jawless fishes were the first vertebrates because they appeared in the fossil record earlier than birds, reptiles, and amphibians. They are known for their lack of jaws and include species like lampreys and hagfish. These primitive fishes played a significant role in the evolution of vertebrates, as they developed important features such as a backbone and a central nervous system. The emergence of jawless fishes marked a crucial milestone in the evolutionary history of vertebrates.

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  • 5. 

    Acanthodians

    • A.

      Had strong biting jaws

    • B.

      Had jaws with jagged bony edges that serves as teeth

    • C.

      Had jaws

    • D.

      Bodies were streamlined and flattened sideways

    • E.

      Small bodies covered with protective spines

    • F.

      Small bodies covered with protective aveoli

    • G.

      Paired fins

    • H.

      One fin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Had strong biting jaws
    B. Had jaws with jagged bony edges that serves as teeth
    D. Bodies were streamlined and flattened sideways
    E. Small bodies covered with protective spines
    G. Paired fins
    Explanation
    Acanthodians were a group of ancient fish that had strong biting jaws with jagged bony edges that served as teeth. Their bodies were streamlined and flattened sideways, allowing them to move efficiently through water. They also had small bodies covered with protective spines, which likely provided defense against predators. Additionally, Acanthodians had paired fins, which helped with maneuverability and stability in the water.

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  • 6. 

    Placoderms:

    • A.

      Massive heads armored with bony plates

    • B.

      Extinct

    • C.

      Still living

    • D.

      Small heads armored with bony plates

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Massive heads armored with bony plates
    B. Extinct
    Explanation
    Placoderms were a group of extinct fish that had massive heads armored with bony plates. This characteristic was a defining feature of placoderms and helped to protect their heads from predators or other threats in their environment. However, over time, placoderms became extinct and are no longer found in the present-day world.

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  • 7. 

    In Hybodus, the skeleton is composed of ---blank---.

    Correct Answer(s)
    cartilage
    Explanation
    In Hybodus, the skeleton is composed of cartilage. Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue that provides support and structure to the body. It is present in various parts of the body, including the skeleton of some species. In Hybodus, the absence of bony structures suggests that its skeleton is primarily made up of cartilage, allowing for greater flexibility and maneuverability in the water.

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  • 8. 

    What is cartilage?

  • 9. 

    Bony fishes compensate for their heavier skeletons with a ---blank---.

    Correct Answer(s)
    swim bladder
    Explanation
    Bony fishes have a swim bladder, which is an internal gas-filled organ that helps them control their buoyancy. This organ allows them to adjust their position in the water column by either inflating or deflating the swim bladder, which helps them maintain neutral buoyancy. By controlling their buoyancy, bony fishes are able to conserve energy and move more efficiently through the water.

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  • 10. 

    What is a swim bladder?

  • 11. 

    The first verterbrates able to live on land were ---blank---

    Correct Answer(s)
    amphibians
    Explanation
    Amphibians were the first vertebrates able to live on land. They have the ability to live both in water and on land, making them well adapted to transition from aquatic to terrestrial environments. This transition was made possible through various adaptations such as the development of lungs, limbs, and a more efficient circulatory system. Amphibians, such as frogs and salamanders, played a crucial role in paving the way for the evolution of other land-dwelling vertebrates.

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  • 12. 

    Amphibians evolved from:

    • A.

      Ventral-finned fishes

    • B.

      Hybodus

    • C.

      Lobe-finned fishes

    • D.

      Cartela-finned fishes

    Correct Answer
    C. Lobe-finned fishes
    Explanation
    Amphibians evolved from lobe-finned fishes. Lobe-finned fishes, such as the coelacanth, had limbs with fleshy lobes that allowed them to move and breathe in shallow waters. Over time, these lobed fins evolved into limbs with digits, enabling early amphibians to venture onto land. The transition from water to land required adaptations such as lungs for breathing air and changes in the structure of the limbs. This evolutionary process eventually gave rise to the diverse group of amphibians we see today.

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  • 13. 

    Name some of the things that made the invasion of land by vertebrates successful

    • A.

      Lungs

    • B.

      Watertight eggs

    • C.

      Bladder

    • D.

      Eggs don't need to be fertilized

    • E.

      Better heart

    • F.

      Legs

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Lungs
    B. Watertight eggs
    E. Better heart
    F. Legs
    Explanation
    The invasion of land by vertebrates was successful due to several factors. Lungs allowed them to breathe air, which was essential for survival outside of water. Watertight eggs enabled reproduction on land, providing a means for vertebrates to lay eggs without them drying out. A better heart improved circulation and oxygen delivery throughout the body. Lastly, the development of legs allowed for efficient movement on land, enabling vertebrates to explore new habitats and access resources.

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  • 14. 

    Reptiles' legs were positioned to support the body more effectively.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Reptiles' legs were positioned to support the body more effectively. This statement is true because reptiles have legs that are positioned directly beneath their bodies, which allows for better weight distribution and balance. This positioning of the legs helps reptiles to move efficiently on land, enabling them to crawl, walk, or run with more stability and control. Additionally, this leg placement is advantageous for reptiles when it comes to capturing prey or defending themselves against predators.

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  • 15. 

    ---blank--- made reptiles the first completely terrestrial vertebrates.

    Correct Answer
    watertight eggs
    Explanation
    Watertight eggs allowed reptiles to reproduce and develop outside of water, enabling them to fully adapt to a terrestrial lifestyle. Unlike amphibians, which rely on water for reproduction, reptiles could lay their eggs on land without the risk of them drying out. This innovation in their reproductive strategy played a crucial role in the evolutionary success of reptiles and their ability to colonize diverse habitats on land.

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  • 16. 

    Living reptiles are

    • A.

      Endothermic

    • B.

      Both

    • C.

      Ectothermic

    Correct Answer
    C. Ectothermic
    Explanation
    Living reptiles are ectothermic, which means that they rely on external sources of heat to regulate their body temperature. Unlike endothermic animals, such as mammals and birds, reptiles do not generate their own body heat through metabolic processes. Instead, they bask in the sun or seek out warm environments to raise their body temperature, and they may also cool down by seeking shade or burrowing underground. This adaptation allows reptiles to conserve energy, as they do not need to constantly consume large amounts of food to maintain a high body temperature.

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  • 17. 

    What do endothermic animlas have to do?

  • 18. 

    When dinosaurs disappeared, their ecological roles as the large land vertebrates were taken over by ---blank---

    Correct Answer
    mammals
    Explanation
    After the extinction of dinosaurs, mammals took over their ecological roles as the large land vertebrates. Mammals diversified and evolved to fill the niches left vacant by the dinosaurs. They adapted to various habitats and developed different feeding strategies, body sizes, and locomotion methods, allowing them to become the dominant group of animals on land. Mammals thrived and continue to play crucial roles in ecosystems as herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores, maintaining the balance and functioning of ecosystems.

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  • 19. 

    Dinosaurs evolved from birds

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    brids evolved from dinosaurs

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  • 20. 

    Monotremes lay shelled eggs and have a shoulder structure similar to that of early reptiles.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Monotremes, such as platypuses and echidnas, are unique mammals that lay shelled eggs. This is a characteristic that they share with reptiles, as reptiles also lay eggs. Additionally, monotremes have a shoulder structure that is similar to that of early reptiles. This similarity in both egg-laying and shoulder structure suggests a common evolutionary history between monotremes and reptiles, making the statement true.

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  • 21. 

    What is the placenta?

  • 22. 

    All very large land animals are:

    Correct Answer
    mammals
    Explanation
    All very large land animals are mammals because mammals are the only group of animals that have the ability to grow to a large size on land. This is because mammals have a unique combination of characteristics such as a warm-blooded metabolism, internal fertilization, and the ability to nurse their young with milk. These characteristics allow mammals to maintain a high level of energy and support the growth and development of large bodies. Therefore, it can be concluded that all very large land animals are mammals.

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