Chapter 3 Review Salon Fundamentals

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Salon Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which arteries supply blood to the head, face and neck?

    • A.

      Submental

    • B.

      Common carotid

    • C.

      External carotid

    • D.

      Internal carotid

    Correct Answer
    B. Common carotid
    Explanation
    The common carotid arteries supply blood to the head, face, and neck. The internal carotid artery supplies blood to the brain, while the external carotid artery supplies blood to the face and neck. The submental artery is a branch of the facial artery and supplies blood to the chin and lower lip. Therefore, the correct answer is common carotid.

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  • 2. 

    The study of the functions of the organs and systems of the body is known as:

    • A.

      Anatomy

    • B.

      Physiology

    • C.

      Biology

    • D.

      Gross anatomy

    Correct Answer
    B. Physiology
    Explanation
    Physiology is the study of the functions of the organs and systems of the body. It focuses on how these organs and systems work together to maintain homeostasis and carry out various biological processes. Anatomy, on the other hand, is the study of the structure of the body. While anatomy and physiology are closely related, physiology specifically deals with the functions and mechanisms of the body. Biology is a broader field that encompasses the study of living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, and distribution. Gross anatomy refers to the study of the body's structures that can be seen with the naked eye.

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  • 3. 

    This body system controls the circulation of blood and lymph through the body is the: 

    • A.

      Circulatory

    • B.

      Muscular

    • C.

      Endocrine

    • D.

      Lymph-vascular

    Correct Answer
    A. Circulatory
    Explanation
    The circulatory system is responsible for controlling the circulation of blood and lymph throughout the body. It consists of the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels. The heart pumps blood, delivering oxygen and nutrients to the body's tissues, while the blood vessels carry the blood throughout the body. The lymphatic vessels transport lymph, a fluid that helps remove waste and toxins from the body. Overall, the circulatory system plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's overall health and functioning.

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  • 4. 

    How many times per minute does the normal heart beat?

    • A.

      30-40

    • B.

      60-80

    • C.

      130-140

    • D.

      160-180

    Correct Answer
    B. 60-80
    Explanation
    The normal heart beat is typically measured in beats per minute (BPM). The range of 60-80 BPM is considered the normal resting heart rate for adults. This means that a healthy adult's heart beats approximately 60-80 times in a minute when at rest.

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  • 5. 

    Which muscle is located between the eyebrows, controls the eyebrows, drawing them in and downward?

    • A.

      Procerus

    • B.

      Non-striated

    • C.

      Mentalis

    • D.

      Corrugator

    Correct Answer
    D. Corrugator
    Explanation
    The corrugator muscle is located between the eyebrows and is responsible for controlling the movement of the eyebrows, specifically drawing them in and downward.

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  • 6. 

    The intake of oxygen and exhalation of carbon dioxide by the body are functions of the:

    • A.

      Digestive system

    • B.

      Respiratory system

    • C.

      Endocrine system

    • D.

      Reproductive system

    Correct Answer
    B. Respiratory system
    Explanation
    The intake of oxygen and exhalation of carbon dioxide are essential processes for the body to obtain oxygen and eliminate waste. These processes occur in the respiratory system, which includes the lungs, airways, and diaphragm. The respiratory system is responsible for the exchange of gases between the body and the environment. The digestive system is involved in the breakdown and absorption of nutrients, while the endocrine system regulates hormones and the reproductive system is responsible for reproduction. Therefore, the correct answer is the respiratory system.

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  • 7. 

    Which nerves carry messages from the brain to the muscles?

    • A.

      Motor

    • B.

      Sensory

    • C.

      Reflex

    • D.

      Trifacial

    Correct Answer
    A. Motor
    Explanation
    Motor nerves carry messages from the brain to the muscles. These nerves are responsible for controlling voluntary movements and transmitting signals that initiate muscle contractions. They play a crucial role in coordinating movement and allowing the brain to communicate with the muscles, enabling us to perform various actions and tasks. Sensory nerves, on the other hand, carry messages from the body to the brain, reflex nerves are involved in involuntary responses, and the trifacial nerve is responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as chewing.

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  • 8. 

    What part of the cell is known as the control center?

    • A.

      Cytoplasm

    • B.

      Protoplasm

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Cell membrane

    Correct Answer
    C. Nucleus
    Explanation
    The nucleus is known as the control center of the cell. It contains the cell's genetic material, DNA, which controls the cell's activities and regulates the production of proteins. The nucleus also plays a crucial role in cell division and reproduction. It is surrounded by a nuclear membrane that separates it from the cytoplasm, where other cellular processes occur. The nucleus houses the nucleolus, which is responsible for producing ribosomes. Overall, the nucleus is essential for maintaining the cell's structure and function, making it the control center of the cell.

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  • 9. 

    What is the name of the point where two or more bones are joined together?

    • A.

      Joint

    • B.

      Cranium

    • C.

      Temporal

    • D.

      Osteology

    Correct Answer
    A. Joint
    Explanation
    A joint is the point where two or more bones come together. It allows for movement and flexibility in the skeletal system. The other options, cranium, temporal, and osteology, do not refer to the specific point of bone connection but rather to other aspects of the skeletal system.

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  • 10. 

    The muscles that are located in the palm of the hand and cause the thumb to move toward the fingers to make a fist are called:

    • A.

      Extensor

    • B.

      Abductor

    • C.

      Adductor

    • D.

      Opponens

    Correct Answer
    D. Opponens
    Explanation
    The muscles that are located in the palm of the hand and cause the thumb to move toward the fingers to make a fist are called opponens. These muscles are responsible for opposing the thumb to the other fingers, allowing for grasping and gripping actions.

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  • 11. 

    Neurology is the study of the:

    • A.

      Nervous system

    • B.

      Respiratory system

    • C.

      Digestive system

    • D.

      Endocrine system

    Correct Answer
    A. Nervous system
    Explanation
    Neurology is the study of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. It focuses on understanding the structure and function of these components, as well as diagnosing and treating disorders and diseases that affect them. This field of study is crucial for understanding how the nervous system controls and coordinates the body's actions and processes information.

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  • 12. 

    The colorless liquid produced as a byproduct when plasma passes nourishment to capillaries and cells is known as:

    • A.

      Lymph

    • B.

      Protein

    • C.

      Blood

    • D.

      Blood platelets

    Correct Answer
    A. Lymph
    Explanation
    Lymph is a colorless liquid that is produced as a byproduct when plasma passes nourishment to capillaries and cells. It plays a crucial role in the immune system by carrying white blood cells and removing waste products from the body. Unlike blood, lymph does not contain red blood cells or platelets. Therefore, the correct answer is lymph.

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  • 13. 

    Which mouth muscle is located between the jaws and cheek and is responsible for compressing the cheek to release air outwardly, as in blowing?

    • A.

      Platysma

    • B.

      Caninus

    • C.

      Buccinator

    • D.

      Zygomaticus

    Correct Answer
    C. Buccinator
    Explanation
    The buccinator muscle is located between the jaws and cheek and is responsible for compressing the cheek to release air outwardly, as in blowing. It helps in actions such as blowing up a balloon or playing a wind instrument by pushing the air out of the mouth. The other options, platysma, caninus, and zygomaticus, are not involved in this specific function.

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  • 14. 

    What are the basic units of living matter?

    • A.

      Cells

    • B.

      Kidneys

    • C.

      Bones

    • D.

      Tissues

    Correct Answer
    A. Cells
    Explanation
    Cells are the basic units of living matter. They are the smallest structural and functional units of an organism. Cells are responsible for carrying out all the necessary processes for life, such as metabolism, reproduction, and responding to stimuli. They are the building blocks of tissues, organs, and ultimately, entire organisms. Without cells, living organisms would not be able to function or exist.

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  • 15. 

    The cervical vertebrae are the seven bones that form the top part of the:

    • A.

      Chest

    • B.

      Arm

    • C.

      Wrist

    • D.

      Spinal column

    Correct Answer
    D. Spinal column
    Explanation
    The cervical vertebrae are the seven bones that form the top part of the spinal column. They are located in the neck region and provide support and flexibility to the head and neck. These vertebrae also protect the spinal cord and allow for movement and rotation of the neck. Therefore, the correct answer is the spinal column.

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  • 16. 

    The two bones of the upper jaw are called:

    • A.

      Frontal

    • B.

      Sphenoid

    • C.

      Maxillae

    • D.

      Sternum

    Correct Answer
    C. Maxillae
    Explanation
    The two bones of the upper jaw are called maxillae. The frontal bone is located in the forehead region, the sphenoid bone is located at the base of the skull, and the sternum is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest. Therefore, none of these options are correct for the bones of the upper jaw.

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  • 17. 

    Which crucial part of the central nervous system is composed of long nerve fibers and originates in the base of the brain and extends to the base of the spine?

    • A.

      Pons

    • B.

      Spinal cord

    • C.

      Dendrite system

    • D.

      Medulla oblongata

    Correct Answer
    B. Spinal cord
    Explanation
    The spinal cord is a crucial part of the central nervous system that is composed of long nerve fibers. It originates in the base of the brain and extends to the base of the spine. It serves as a pathway for transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body, allowing for sensory and motor functions. The spinal cord also plays a role in reflex actions, such as pulling your hand away from a hot surface without conscious thought.

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  • 18. 

    Which system regulates and controls the growth, reproduction and health of the body?

    • A.

      Nervous system

    • B.

      Endocrine system

    • C.

      Circulatory system

    • D.

      Reproductive system

    Correct Answer
    B. Endocrine system
    Explanation
    The endocrine system is responsible for regulating and controlling various functions in the body, including growth, reproduction, and overall health. It consists of various glands that produce hormones, which are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream to target cells or organs. These hormones play a crucial role in coordinating and maintaining the body's physiological processes. Unlike the nervous system, which uses electrical signals to transmit information, the endocrine system relies on hormones to communicate and regulate bodily functions. Therefore, the endocrine system is the correct answer to this question.

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  • 19. 

    The nervous system is divided into how many subsystems?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      3

    • C.

      4

    • D.

      5

    Correct Answer
    B. 3
    Explanation
    The nervous system is divided into three subsystems: the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system, and the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, which are responsible for processing and integrating information. The peripheral nervous system includes all the nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body, allowing for communication and control. The autonomic nervous system regulates involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and breathing.

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  • 20. 

    The humerus extends from the elbow to the:

    • A.

      Wrist

    • B.

      Shoulder

    • C.

      Top of the neck

    • D.

      Fingertips

    Correct Answer
    B. Shoulder
    Explanation
    The humerus is the bone in the upper arm that extends from the shoulder to the elbow. Therefore, the correct answer is shoulder, as it is the joint where the humerus connects to the rest of the body.

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  • 21. 

    The hyoid bone located in the throat is sometimes referred to as the:

    • A.

      Spine

    • B.

      Ribs

    • C.

      Thorax

    • D.

      Adam's apple

    Correct Answer
    D. Adam's apple
    Explanation
    The hyoid bone, located in the throat, is commonly known as the Adam's apple. This term is used to describe the protrusion in the front of the neck, particularly in males, caused by the size and shape of the hyoid bone. It is more prominent during puberty due to hormonal changes and the growth of the larynx. The Adam's apple plays a role in voice production and protection of the vocal cords.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is not involved in the facial massage?

    • A.

      Nasal

    • B.

      Lacrimal

    • C.

      Vomer

    • D.

      Maxillae

    Correct Answer
    C. Vomer
    Explanation
    The vomer bone is not involved in facial massage. The vomer is a small bone located in the nasal cavity, and it helps to separate the left and right sides of the nasal cavity. However, during a facial massage, the focus is primarily on the muscles and soft tissues of the face, rather than the bones. Therefore, the vomer bone does not play a direct role in facial massage.

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  • 23. 

    The three basic parts of a cell are the nucleus, cytoplasm and:

    • A.

      Tissue

    • B.

      Protoplasm

    • C.

      Organs

    • D.

      Cell membrane

    Correct Answer
    D. Cell membrane
    Explanation
    The cell membrane is the correct answer because it is a vital component of a cell. It acts as a protective barrier, regulating the movement of substances in and out of the cell. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining the cell's shape and integrity. The nucleus contains the cell's genetic material and controls its activities, while the cytoplasm is the gel-like substance that fills the cell and houses various organelles. Tissue and organs are not considered basic parts of a cell, as they are composed of multiple cells working together.

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  • 24. 

    What is the large, flat bone extending from the middle of the back upward to where it joins with the clavicle?

    • A.

      Ribs

    • B.

      Scapula

    • C.

      Carpals

    • D.

      Cervical vertebrae

    Correct Answer
    B. Scapula
    Explanation
    The large, flat bone extending from the middle of the back upward to where it joins with the clavicle is called the scapula. The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, is a triangular-shaped bone that plays an important role in the movement and stability of the shoulder joint. It connects the upper arm bone (humerus) to the collarbone (clavicle) and forms the back part of the shoulder girdle. The scapula provides attachment points for various muscles that control shoulder movement and helps to protect important structures in the shoulder region.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following is NOT a facial nerve branch?

    • A.

      Buccal

    • B.

      Temporal

    • C.

      Mandibular

    • D.

      Medulla oblongata

    Correct Answer
    D. Medulla oblongata
    Explanation
    The medulla oblongata is not a facial nerve branch. It is actually part of the brainstem and is responsible for controlling many vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. The facial nerve branches mentioned in the options (buccal, temporal, and mandibular) are all actual branches of the facial nerve, which is responsible for controlling the muscles of the face and transmitting taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.

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  • 26. 

    Muscles affected by massage are generally manipulated from the insertion attachment to the:

    • A.

      Belly attachment

    • B.

      Origin attachment

    • C.

      Voluntary attachment

    • D.

      Involuntary attachment

    Correct Answer
    B. Origin attachment
    Explanation
    When performing a massage, the muscles are typically manipulated from the point where they attach to the origin, which is the less movable attachment of the muscle. This allows for better control and targeting of specific muscle groups. The origin attachment is usually closer to the center of the body or the bone, while the insertion attachment is the more movable attachment of the muscle. Therefore, manipulating the muscles from the origin attachment helps in achieving the desired therapeutic effects of the massage.

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  • 27. 

    The chemical process in which cells receive nutrients for cell growth and reproduction is known as:

    • A.

      Anabolism

    • B.

      Physiology

    • C.

      Metabolism

    • D.

      Catabolism

    Correct Answer
    C. Metabolism
    Explanation
    Metabolism refers to the chemical process in which cells receive nutrients for cell growth and reproduction. It involves the conversion of nutrients into energy and the synthesis of molecules needed for cellular functions. Anabolism and catabolism are two components of metabolism. Anabolism refers to the building up of molecules and energy storage, while catabolism involves the breakdown of molecules and release of energy. Physiology, on the other hand, is the study of how living organisms function. Therefore, metabolism is the correct answer as it specifically relates to the process of nutrient uptake and utilization by cells.

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  • 28. 

    The upper chambers of the heart include the:

    • A.

      Left and right artium

    • B.

      Left ventricle

    • C.

      Right ventricle

    • D.

      Extensor

    Correct Answer
    A. Left and right artium
    Explanation
    The correct answer is left and right atrium. The upper chambers of the heart are called atria, and there are two of them - the left atrium and the right atrium. These chambers receive blood returning to the heart from the body and lungs. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs, while the right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body. They then contract to pump the blood into the lower chambers of the heart, called ventricles, for further circulation. The term "extensor" mentioned in the options is unrelated to the upper chambers of the heart.

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  • 29. 

    The sticky, salty fluid that circulates through the body bringing nourishment and oxygen to the body parts is:

    • A.

      Blood

    • B.

      Plasma

    • C.

      Platelets

    • D.

      Nutrients

    Correct Answer
    A. Blood
    Explanation
    Blood is the correct answer because it is a sticky, salty fluid that circulates through the body, bringing nourishment and oxygen to the body parts. Blood contains red and white blood cells, plasma, and platelets, which all play important roles in maintaining the body's overall health and functioning. Plasma, platelets, and nutrients are components of blood, but blood itself is the fluid that circulates throughout the body.

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  • 30. 

    Hair growth, skin conditions and energy levels are controlled by the:

    • A.

      Digestive system

    • B.

      Excretory system

    • C.

      Endodcrine system

    • D.

      Circulatory system

    Correct Answer
    C. Endodcrine system
    Explanation
    The endocrine system is responsible for regulating various functions in the body, including hair growth, skin conditions, and energy levels. It consists of glands that produce hormones, which are chemical messengers that control and coordinate these bodily functions. Hormones released by the endocrine system travel through the bloodstream to target cells or organs, where they exert their effects. Therefore, the endocrine system plays a crucial role in maintaining the health and balance of the body's systems, making it the correct answer in this context.

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  • 31. 

    If you draw your hand back from touching a hot stove, what is the interaction between sensory and motor nerves called?

    • A.

      Reflex action

    • B.

      Sensory action

    • C.

      Receptor action

    • D.

      Trifacial action

    Correct Answer
    A. Reflex action
    Explanation
    When you draw your hand back from touching a hot stove, it is an involuntary and automatic response that occurs without conscious thought. This response is known as a reflex action. Reflex actions are controlled by the interaction between sensory and motor nerves. Sensory nerves detect the harmful stimulus (heat in this case) and send signals to the spinal cord, which then sends signals through motor nerves to move the muscles and withdraw the hand. This rapid and unconscious reaction is a protective mechanism of the body to prevent further injury.

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  • 32. 

    What is another name for red blood cells?

    • A.

      Plasma

    • B.

      Leukocytes

    • C.

      Hemoglobin

    • D.

      Erythrocytes

    Correct Answer
    D. Erythrocytes
    Explanation
    Erythrocytes are another name for red blood cells. These cells are responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. They contain a protein called hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and allows it to be transported. Plasma is the liquid component of blood, leukocytes are white blood cells, and hemoglobin is the protein found in red blood cells. Therefore, erythrocytes are the correct answer.

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  • 33. 

    The extensor, which is located mid-forearm on the outside of the arm, performs which action?

    • A.

      Lifts the arm

    • B.

      Turns the palm of the hand

    • C.

      Straightens the fingers and wrists

    • D.

      Swings the arms back and forth

    Correct Answer
    C. Straightens the fingers and wrists
    Explanation
    The extensor muscle, located mid-forearm on the outside of the arm, is responsible for straightening the fingers and wrists. This muscle contracts to extend the fingers and bring them back to a neutral position. It also helps in extending the wrist joint, allowing the hand to move backward.

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  • 34. 

    The eight small bones held together by ligaments to form the wrist are called:

    • A.

      Ribs

    • B.

      Phalaanges

    • C.

      Carpals

    • D.

      Metacarpals

    Correct Answer
    C. Carpals
    Explanation
    The eight small bones held together by ligaments to form the wrist are called carpals. These bones are located in the wrist area and are responsible for providing stability and flexibility to the wrist joint. The carpals work together with the radius and ulna bones of the forearm to allow movements such as flexion, extension, and rotation of the hand and wrist. They also serve as attachment points for various muscles and tendons, enabling fine motor movements of the hand.

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  • 35. 

    The lower chambers of the heart include the:

    • A.

      Left atrium

    • B.

      Right atrium

    • C.

      Left and right ventricle

    • D.

      Flexor

    Correct Answer
    C. Left and right ventricle
    Explanation
    The lower chambers of the heart are responsible for pumping blood out of the heart and into the rest of the body. The left and right ventricles are the two lower chambers of the heart. The left ventricle receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta, which delivers it to the rest of the body. The right ventricle receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary artery, which carries it to the lungs to be oxygenated. Therefore, the correct answer is left and right ventricle.

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  • 36. 

    Which blood cells are responsible for the clotting of blood?

    • A.

      Leukocytes

    • B.

      Thrombocytes

    • C.

      Erythrocytes

    • D.

      Plasma

    Correct Answer
    B. Thrombocytes
    Explanation
    Thrombocytes, also known as platelets, are responsible for the clotting of blood. When there is an injury or damage to blood vessels, thrombocytes gather at the site and form a plug to prevent excessive bleeding. They release chemicals that activate other substances involved in the clotting process, leading to the formation of a blood clot. This clotting mechanism is essential for wound healing and preventing excessive blood loss.

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  • 37. 

    Which organ converts and neutralizes ammonia from the circulatory system to urea?

    • A.

      Heart

    • B.

      Brain

    • C.

      Liver

    • D.

      Skin

    Correct Answer
    C. Liver
    Explanation
    The liver is responsible for converting and neutralizing ammonia, a toxic waste product, into urea. Urea is then excreted by the kidneys through urine. The liver plays a crucial role in detoxifying the body and maintaining proper nitrogen balance.

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  • 38. 

    Which triangle-shaped muscle covers the shoulder, lifts or turns the arm?

    • A.

      Bicep

    • B.

      Deltoid

    • C.

      Tricep

    • D.

      Pectoralis

    Correct Answer
    B. Deltoid
    Explanation
    The deltoid muscle is a triangular-shaped muscle that covers the shoulder. It is responsible for lifting and turning the arm. The bicep and tricep muscles are located in the upper arm and are responsible for bending and straightening the elbow, respectively. The pectoralis muscle is located in the chest and is responsible for movements of the shoulder and arm. However, the deltoid muscle specifically covers the shoulder and is primarily responsible for lifting and turning the arm.

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  • 39. 

    Which scalp muscle extends from the forehead to the top of the skull, and raises the eyebrows?

    • A.

      Belly

    • B.

      Striated

    • C.

      Frontalis

    • D.

      Epicranium

    Correct Answer
    C. Frontalis
    Explanation
    The frontalis muscle is the scalp muscle that extends from the forehead to the top of the skull and is responsible for raising the eyebrows. It is one of the muscles that make up the epicranium, which is the layer of connective tissue and muscles that covers the skull. The frontalis muscle helps in facial expressions such as surprise or concern by raising the eyebrows and creating wrinkles on the forehead.

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  • 40. 

    All of the following bones help make up the chest EXCEPT: 

    • A.

      Ribs

    • B.

      Sternum

    • C.

      Mandible

    • D.

      Thoracic vertebrae

    Correct Answer
    C. Mandible
    Explanation
    The mandible is the lower jaw bone and is not part of the chest. The chest is made up of the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrae. The mandible is located in the facial region and plays a role in chewing and speaking.

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  • 41. 

    About how many total muscles are there in the body?

    • A.

      50

    • B.

      100

    • C.

      300

    • D.

      500

    Correct Answer
    D. 500
    Explanation
    There are approximately 500 total muscles in the human body. These muscles are responsible for various functions such as movement, stability, and control of body parts. They are made up of muscle fibers that contract and relax to allow us to perform different actions.

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  • 42. 

    What is another name for histology?

    • A.

      Gross anatomy

    • B.

      Microscopic anatomy

    • C.

      Osteology

    • D.

      Physiology

    Correct Answer
    B. Microscopic anatomy
    Explanation
    Histology is the study of the microscopic structure of tissues and cells. It involves the examination of thin sections of tissues under a microscope to understand their organization and function. Therefore, the correct answer for another name for histology is "microscopic anatomy", as it specifically focuses on the microscopic structures of tissues. Gross anatomy refers to the study of larger structures visible to the naked eye, osteology is the study of bones, and physiology is the study of how living organisms function.

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  • 43. 

    Which phase of metabolism involves breaking down larger molecules or substances into smaller ones?

    • A.

      Digestion

    • B.

      Anabolism

    • C.

      Catabolism

    • D.

      Metabolism

    Correct Answer
    C. Catabolism
    Explanation
    Catabolism is the correct answer because it is the phase of metabolism that involves breaking down larger molecules or substances into smaller ones. During catabolism, complex molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are broken down into simpler molecules, releasing energy in the process. This energy is then used by the body for various metabolic processes. Anabolism, on the other hand, is the phase of metabolism that involves building larger molecules from smaller ones. Digestion is a part of catabolism, where food is broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and used by the body.

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  • 44. 

    Which nervous system is responsible for all involuntary body functions?

    • A.

      Central

    • B.

      Peripheral

    • C.

      Trifacial

    • D.

      Autonomic

    Correct Answer
    D. Autonomic
    Explanation
    The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling all involuntary body functions. This includes activities such as digestion, heart rate, breathing, and regulation of body temperature. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord, which are responsible for processing and transmitting information, but it does not directly control involuntary functions. The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body, but it also does not control involuntary functions. The trigeminal nerve (trifacial) is responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as chewing, but it does not control all involuntary body functions. Therefore, the correct answer is autonomic.

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  • 45. 

    The muscle of the heart is called the:

    • A.

      Cardiac

    • B.

      Striated

    • C.

      Voluntary

    • D.

      Non-striated

    Correct Answer
    A. Cardiac
    Explanation
    The correct answer is cardiac because the muscle of the heart is specifically called cardiac muscle. This type of muscle is unique to the heart and is responsible for the contraction and pumping action of the heart. Unlike skeletal muscles, which are striated and under voluntary control, cardiac muscle is involuntary and has its own specialized structure and function. Therefore, the term "cardiac" accurately describes the muscle of the heart.

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  • 46. 

    Which two muscles in the neck and upper back draw the head back, rotate the shoulder blades and control the swinging of the arm? 

    • A.

      Platysma and risorius

    • B.

      Temporalis and masseter

    • C.

      Platysma and sternocledio mastoideus

    • D.

      Trapezius and latissimus dorsi

    Correct Answer
    D. Trapezius and latissimus dorsi
    Explanation
    The trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles are responsible for drawing the head back, rotating the shoulder blades, and controlling the swinging of the arm. The trapezius muscle is located in the upper back and helps to retract and rotate the scapulae. The latissimus dorsi muscle is located in the lower back and helps to extend, adduct, and internally rotate the arm. Together, these muscles play a crucial role in movements involving the neck, shoulder blades, and arms.

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  • 47. 

    The part of the brain that controls and coordinates muscle movements is the:

    • A.

      Pons

    • B.

      Cerebrum

    • C.

      Cerebellum

    • D.

      Spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    C. Cerebellum
    Explanation
    The cerebellum is responsible for controlling and coordinating muscle movements. It receives information from various parts of the brain, including the sensory systems, and uses this information to fine-tune and adjust muscle activity. It plays a crucial role in maintaining balance, posture, and coordination of voluntary movements. The pons is involved in relaying signals between different parts of the brain, but it does not directly control muscle movements. The cerebrum is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving. The spinal cord primarily serves as a pathway for transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body.

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  • 48. 

    Which structures of the nerve cells receive the messages sent by the nerve terminals?

    • A.

      Pons

    • B.

      Axons

    • C.

      Dendrites

    • D.

      Receptors

    Correct Answer
    C. Dendrites
    Explanation
    Dendrites are the structures of nerve cells that receive messages sent by the nerve terminals. They are branching extensions that receive signals from other neurons and transmit them to the cell body. Dendrites play a crucial role in the communication between neurons, as they receive incoming signals and integrate them to determine whether to transmit the signal further or not. Axons, on the other hand, are responsible for transmitting the signals away from the cell body, while pons and receptors are not directly involved in receiving messages from nerve terminals.

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