# Chapter 3 Aerodynamic Principles Maneuvering Flight

Approved & Edited by ProProfs Editorial Team
The editorial team at ProProfs Quizzes consists of a select group of subject experts, trivia writers, and quiz masters who have authored over 10,000 quizzes taken by more than 100 million users. This team includes our in-house seasoned quiz moderators and subject matter experts. Our editorial experts, spread across the world, are rigorously trained using our comprehensive guidelines to ensure that you receive the highest quality quizzes.
| By Jwmann
J
Jwmann
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 4 | Total Attempts: 2,727
Questions: 11 | Attempts: 143  Settings  Chapter 3 Aerodynamic Principles Maneuvering Flight

• 1.

### 3-21In what flight condition is torque effect the greatest in a single-engine airplane?

• A.

Low airspeed, high power, high angle of attack.

• B.

Low airspeed, high power, high angle of attack

• C.

High airspeed, high power, high angle of attack.

A. Low airspeed, high power, high angle of attack.
Explanation
The torque effect in a single-engine airplane is caused by the engine's propeller spinning in one direction, creating an equal and opposite force that tends to rotate the airplane in the opposite direction. This effect is greatest when the airplane is in a low airspeed condition because there is less airflow over the control surfaces to counteract the torque. Additionally, high power and a high angle of attack further contribute to the torque effect by increasing the engine's rotational force and the airplane's resistance to airflow, respectively. Therefore, the combination of low airspeed, high power, and high angle of attack results in the greatest torque effect in a single-engine airplane.

Rate this question:

• 2.

### 3-22The left turning tendency of an airplane caused by P-factor is the result of the

• A.

Clockwise rotation of the engine and the propeller turning the airplane counter-clockwise

• B.

Propeller blade descending on the right, producing more thrust than the ascending blade on the left.

• C.

Gyroscopic forces applied to the rotating propeller blades acting 90 degrees in advance of the point the force was applied.

B. Propeller blade descending on the right, producing more thrust than the ascending blade on the left.
Explanation
The left turning tendency of an airplane caused by P-factor is due to the propeller blade descending on the right, producing more thrust than the ascending blade on the left. This imbalance in thrust creates a torque that causes the airplane to yaw to the left.

Rate this question:

• 3.

### 3-23When does P-factor cause the airplane to yaw to the left?

• A.

When at low angles of attack.

• B.

When at high angles of attack.

• C.

When at high airspeeds.

B. When at high angles of attack.
Explanation
P-factor is the phenomenon where the descending propeller blade generates more thrust than the ascending blade, causing the airplane to yaw to the left. This occurs when the airplane is at high angles of attack, which refers to the pitch of the aircraft in relation to the oncoming airflow. At high angles of attack, the airflow is disrupted and unevenly distributed across the propeller, resulting in an imbalance in thrust and causing the airplane to yaw to the left. At low angles of attack, the airflow is more evenly distributed, minimizing the effect of P-factor. High airspeeds do not directly contribute to P-factor, as it is primarily influenced by the angle of attack.

Rate this question:

• 4.

### 3-24(Refer to figure 2 on page 3-10If an airplane weights 2,300 pounds, what approximate weight would the airplane structure be required to support during a 60 degree banked turn while maintaining altitude?

• A.

2,300 pounds

• B.

3,400 pounds

• C.

4,600 pounds

C. 4,600 pounds
Explanation
In a banked turn, the weight of the airplane is divided into two components: the vertical component (mg) and the horizontal component (mgsinθ). The vertical component supports the weight of the airplane, while the horizontal component provides the centripetal force required for the turn. In order to maintain altitude, the vertical component must remain constant. Therefore, the horizontal component must increase as the bank angle increases. Since the weight of the airplane is directly proportional to the horizontal component, a higher bank angle requires a higher weight to be supported. Therefore, the approximate weight the airplane structure would be required to support during a 60 degree banked turn while maintaining altitude would be 4,600 pounds.

Rate this question:

• 5.

### 3-25If an airplane weights 3,300 pounds, what approximate weight would the airplane structure be required to support during a 30 degree banked turn while maintaining altitude?

• A.

1,200 pounds

• B.

3,100 pounds

• C.

3,960 pounds

C. 3,960 pounds
Explanation
During a banked turn, the weight that the airplane structure needs to support increases due to the additional force of gravity acting perpendicular to the wings. This force is directly proportional to the weight of the airplane and the tangent of the bank angle. In this case, the weight of the airplane is given as 3,300 pounds and the bank angle is 30 degrees. Using the formula weight = (supporting force) / (cosine of bank angle), we can calculate the approximate weight that the airplane structure needs to support as 3,960 pounds.

Rate this question:

• 6.

### 3-26If an airplane weights 4,500 pounds, what approximate weight would the airplane structure be required to support during a 45 degree banked turn while maintaining altitude?

• A.

4,500 pounds

• B.

6,750 pounds

• C.

7,200 pounds

B. 6,750 pounds
Explanation
During a 45-degree banked turn, the weight of the airplane is distributed between the vertical and horizontal components. The vertical component of the weight remains the same at 4,500 pounds, while the horizontal component increases due to the banked turn. To maintain altitude, the lift force must equal the weight. In a 45-degree banked turn, the lift force is divided into two components, with one component supporting the vertical weight and the other component supporting the increased horizontal weight. Therefore, the approximate weight the airplane structure needs to support during the turn would be greater than the original weight, resulting in 6,750 pounds.

Rate this question:

• 7.

### 3-27The amount of excess load that can be imposed on the wing of an airplane depends upon the

• A.

Position of the CG

• B.

Speed of the airplane

• C.

Abruptness at which the load is applied.

B. Speed of the airplane
Explanation
The correct answer is "speed of the airplane". The amount of excess load that can be imposed on the wing of an airplane depends on the speed of the airplane. This is because at higher speeds, the lift generated by the wings increases, allowing the wings to bear more load. Therefore, the speed of the airplane is a crucial factor in determining the amount of excess load that can be imposed on the wing.

Rate this question:

• 8.

### 3-28Which basic flight maneuver increases the load factor on an airplane as compared to straight-and-level flight?

• A.

Climbs

• B.

Turns

• C.

Stalls

B. Turns
Explanation
Turns increase the load factor on an airplane compared to straight-and-level flight because they involve a change in direction and a centripetal force is required to keep the airplane in the turn. This force acts perpendicular to the wings and increases the load on the wings, thereby increasing the load factor. Climb maneuvers do not necessarily increase the load factor, and stalls actually decrease the load factor as the airplane loses lift.

Rate this question:

• 9.

### 3-29What force makes an airplane turn?

• A.

The horizontal component of lift

• B.

The vertical component of lift

• C.

Centrifugal force

A. The horizontal component of lift
Explanation
The horizontal component of lift is the force that makes an airplane turn. As an airplane moves through the air, the wings generate lift, which is a force perpendicular to the direction of motion. This lift force can be resolved into two components: vertical and horizontal. The vertical component counteracts gravity and keeps the airplane in the air, while the horizontal component acts towards the center of the turn, causing the airplane to change its direction. Therefore, the horizontal component of lift is responsible for making an airplane turn.

Rate this question:

• 10.

### 3-30During an approach to a stall, an increased load factor will cause the airplane to

• A.

Stall at a higher airspeed

• B.

Have a tendency to spin

• C.

Be more difficult to control

A. Stall at a higher airspeed
Explanation
During an approach to a stall, an increased load factor will cause the airplane to stall at a higher airspeed. This is because an increased load factor increases the total weight on the wings, making it harder for the wings to generate enough lift to maintain level flight. As a result, the airplane will stall, or lose lift, at a higher airspeed than it would under normal conditions.

Rate this question:

• 11.

### 3-32Select the four flight fundamentals involved in maneuvering an aircraft.

• A.

Aircraft power, pitch, bank, and trim

• B.

Starting, taxiing, takeoff, and landing.

• C.

Straight-and-level flight, turns, climbs, and descents. Back to top