ISTQB Foundation Level Extension - Agile Tester. Ctfl-at: Chapter 2

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| By Towid Hossain
Towid Hossain, Programming
Towid, a seasoned Test Automation Engineer with over a decade of experience, excels in software development, test automation, data analysis, and cloud engineering. Beyond work, they enjoy reading, embarking on road trips, and mastering new languages.
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ISTQB Foundation Level Extension - Agile Tester. Ctfl-at: Chapter 2 - Quiz

Chapter 2


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is true about the difference between traditional and agile approach to software development?   i. There is considerable overlap and parallelism in agile as oppose to that in traditional approach. ii. In an 8 iteration release for an agile project, testing is done during or at the end of 7th and 8th release iii. System testing can come before integration testing in agile development iv. Only after half of iterations can the development team deliver value by releasing the software.  

    • A.

      Ii and iv

    • B.

      I and ii

    • C.

      I and iii

    • D.

      Iii and iv

    Correct Answer
    C. I and iii
    Explanation
    The statement i is true because agile approach encourages overlapping and parallelism in order to increase efficiency and adaptability. The statement iii is also true because in agile development, system testing can be done before integration testing in order to ensure that individual components are functioning correctly before integrating them.

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  • 2. 

    What is common between agile and traditional software development approach ?

    • A.

      In both cases, developers develop unit tests all the time.

    • B.

      User stories are used to develop acceptance criteria in order to verify test result.

    • C.

      Testers share their knowledge and testing skills with other team members

    • D.

      Automation and use of tools are to key concept of both aproaches.

    Correct Answer
    C. Testers share their knowledge and testing skills with other team members
    Explanation
    Both agile and traditional software development approaches involve testers sharing their knowledge and testing skills with other team members. This means that testers are not working in isolation but actively collaborating and communicating with developers, business analysts, and other stakeholders. This helps in improving the overall quality of the software by ensuring that everyone has a clear understanding of the testing process and requirements. It also promotes a culture of knowledge sharing and continuous learning within the team.

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  • 3. 

    During an iteration, a change request from the customer created a number bugs due to regression. In addition to developing user stories selected for the iteration, now developers need to fix the regression issue and testers need to retest the feature. What could be done to mitigate the above issue?  

    • A.

      Leave the bugs for later release and continue with the planned tasks for the release

    • B.

      Stablize the iteration by taking the opportunity to 'fix bug first', test it and then integrate it, leaving the scheduled tasks until the end of iteration.

    • C.

      Hide the bugs by changing the code, so that program execution will never go to the section of code which created the bug

    • D.

      Wait for the customer to provide further report on the bug.

    Correct Answer
    B. Stablize the iteration by taking the opportunity to 'fix bug first', test it and then integrate it, leaving the scheduled tasks until the end of iteration.
    Explanation
    To mitigate the issue of regression bugs caused by a change request from the customer during an iteration, the best approach is to stabilize the iteration by prioritizing the bug fixes. This involves taking the opportunity to fix the regression bugs first, thoroughly testing them, and then integrating them into the project. By leaving the scheduled tasks until the end of the iteration, the team can ensure that the regression issues are addressed promptly and the iteration remains on track. This approach helps maintain the quality of the software and prevents the accumulation of unresolved bugs.

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  • 4. 

    In an Agile project, the sequence of development activities has changed, along with the change in breath and depth of testing. Following the changes, the development team also changed their effort estimation for the iteration. What could trigger such situation in an iteration?

    • A.

      Change of priority for user stories

    • B.

      Some new members have joined the development team

    • C.

      There has been a change in management.

    • D.

      Developers and business representatives no longer appreciate the value of testing.

    Correct Answer
    A. Change of priority for user stories
    Explanation
    In an Agile project, the sequence of development activities and the depth of testing are determined based on the priority of user stories. If the priority of user stories changes during an iteration, it can trigger a change in the sequence of development activities and the depth of testing. This is because the development team needs to focus on delivering the highest priority user stories first, which may require adjusting their effort estimation and the level of testing for the iteration.

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  • 5. 

    A development team, following an agile project, is distributed globally with team members living in different timezone. The team would like to apply pair programming for code review and testing design. How can they incorporate pair programming for their distributed team?  

    • A.

      Bring team members periodically to share ideas and co-loate

    • B.

      Make a new team who are geographically located nearby and let them handle the project

    • C.

      Establish processes and tools to apply pair programming

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Establish processes and tools to apply pair programming
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to establish processes and tools to apply pair programming. In a distributed team with members living in different time zones, it may not be feasible to bring team members together periodically. Creating a new team geographically located nearby would not solve the problem of different time zones. Therefore, the best approach is to establish processes and use tools that enable remote pair programming, such as screen sharing, collaborative coding platforms, and video conferencing. This allows team members to work together in real-time, despite being in different locations.

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  • 6. 

    Select the true statements regarding agile and traditional development. i. Most manual testing are done through exploratory or experience based testing in agile project. ii. Technical skills for testers are more important in traditional approach than in agile approach. iii. Tests are automated in all levels in agile development.

    • A.

      I only

    • B.

      I and iii

    • C.

      Ii and iii

    • D.

      I,ii and iii

    Correct Answer
    A. I only
    Explanation
    In agile development, there is a significant emphasis on iterative and incremental development, making exploratory testing, which involves active exploration to find defects, a valuable technique. The importance of technical skills for testers can vary in both traditional and agile approaches. While automation is common in agile, not all testing levels require automation, as it depends on the specific context of the testing activities within an agile project.

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  • 7. 

    An Agile team would like to automate all their tests. They would also like to do exploratory or defect based testing,using fault-attack,error-guessing and other experience based approaches. Developers will develop unit cases, while testers will develop automated, system, integration and system integration tests. Which of the following choice would best benefit the agile team?  

    • A.

      Train the developers to be testers and get testing done through them

    • B.

      Higher highly skilled exploratory testers.

    • C.

      Select testers wil strong automation and technical skills

    • D.

      Use tools to automate testing, thus saving money by not hiring testers.

    Correct Answer
    C. Select testers wil strong automation and technical skills
    Explanation
    The best choice to benefit the agile team would be to select testers with strong automation and technical skills. This is because the team wants to automate all their tests, and having testers with these skills will ensure that the automation process is efficient and effective. These testers will be able to develop and maintain automated tests for various levels of testing, including system and integration testing. Their strong technical skills will also enable them to identify and fix any issues that arise during the testing process.

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  • 8. 

    Agile developers often create automated unit tests

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Agile developers often create automated unit tests because it is a key practice in the Agile methodology. Unit tests help ensure that individual units of code are functioning correctly and are not affected by changes made in other parts of the system. By automating these tests, developers can quickly and easily run them whenever changes are made, allowing for continuous integration and faster development cycles. This helps catch bugs and errors early on, leading to higher quality software and faster delivery.

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  • 9. 

    Which serves as a low level design specification?

    • A.

      User stories

    • B.

      Epics

    • C.

      Test first approach test cases

    • D.

      Entity diagrams

    Correct Answer
    C. Test first approach test cases
    Explanation
    Test first approach test cases serve as a low level design specification because they provide detailed instructions on how to test a specific feature or functionality. These test cases outline the steps to be followed, the expected results, and the inputs required for testing. By following these test cases, developers can ensure that the software meets the desired requirements and functions correctly. This level of detail makes test first approach test cases a valuable tool in the design and development process.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following activities could NOT occur in agile development? i. Lightweight documentation for testing , while heavy weight documentation for development. ii. break down user stories into smaller stories, and smaller stories to tasks. iii.always execute functional tests for current iterating, leaving previous tests not executed. iv. rigidly follow the principles of agile development with no adaptation or modification.

    • A.

      I,iii,iv

    • B.

      I,ii,iii

    • C.

      Ii,iii,iv

    • D.

      I,ii,iv

    Correct Answer
    A. I,iii,iv
  • 11. 

    Which of the following is an example of integration between testing and development activity? i. A collection of user stories(e.g. epic) is describing tasks for all tiers in an N-tier architecture. ii. Test cases developed during test first approach are providing executable specification. iii. creating user documentation,which describes how to use the system. iv. Creating requirement specification,describing how the system will be built. v. lightweight documentation to trace errors and help with regression testing.

    • A.

      I,ii,iii

    • B.

      I,ii,v

    • C.

      I,iii,iv

    • D.

      Ii,iv,v

    Correct Answer
    B. I,ii,v
    Explanation
    Option i is an example of integration between testing and development activity because it involves the collection of user stories that describe tasks for all tiers in an N-tier architecture, which includes both development and testing tasks. Option ii is also an example of integration because test cases developed during a test first approach provide an executable specification that guides the development process. Option v is another example of integration as lightweight documentation can help with regression testing, which is a testing activity. Therefore, the correct answer is i, ii, v.

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  • 12. 

    Which are the difference between agile and traditional in terms of test level? i. Both uses entry and exit criteria. ii. While traditional approach uses entry/exit criteria, agile approach does not. iii. considerable overlap of testing activity and test level in agile, as oppose to traditional. iv. Agile never accept changes after iteration planning is finished.

    • A.

      I and iii

    • B.

      Ii and iii

    • C.

      I and ii

    • D.

      Iii and iv

    Correct Answer
    B. Ii and iii
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ii and iii. This is because in traditional approaches, entry and exit criteria are used for testing, while in agile approaches, these criteria are not typically used. Additionally, there is a considerable overlap of testing activity and test levels in agile, whereas in traditional approaches, the testing activities are more clearly defined at each test level.

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  • 13. 

    At the beginning of an iteration in an agile project, team needs to go through system testing due to some interface changes taken place recently. However, they are yet to go through unit testing and acceptance testing. How the team will handle this situation?

    • A.

      They can perform system test because test level can overlap

    • B.

      Perform unit tests, followed by the changes and leave system test at the end of iteration.

    • C.

      Regression testing must come before unit and system testing.

    • D.

      System testing can be performed anytime during an iteration

    Correct Answer
    A. They can perform system test because test level can overlap
    Explanation
    In an agile project, the team can handle this situation by performing system testing even before unit testing and acceptance testing. This is because in agile methodology, test levels can overlap, allowing the team to conduct system testing alongside other testing activities. By doing so, they can address any interface changes that have taken place recently and ensure the overall functionality and integration of the system. This approach allows for flexibility and faster feedback, enabling the team to make necessary adjustments throughout the iteration.

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  • 14. 

    Although Scrum does not allow after the start of an iteration, some changes have been made to the items tested and developed in previous iteration. How the test team can reduce regression risk ?  

    • A.

      Only perform confirmation test for the items changed.

    • B.

      Perform all unit tests, functional test, and system test

    • C.

      Perform functional test for items selected in this iteration and all previous iterations as part of regression suite.

    • D.

      Since primary goal is to satisfy customer, perform all acceptance level testing(e.g. alpha and beta)

    Correct Answer
    C. Perform functional test for items selected in this iteration and all previous iterations as part of regression suite.
    Explanation
    To reduce regression risk, the test team should perform functional tests for the items selected in the current iteration as well as all the previous iterations as part of the regression suite. This ensures that any changes made to the items tested and developed in previous iterations are thoroughly tested to ensure they do not have any negative impact on the system. By including these tests in the regression suite, the test team can identify any potential regression issues and address them before they impact the overall system functionality.

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  • 15. 

    Consider the following user story: "When user clicks on the search button, it should take no longer than 3 seconds to post the search result on the page." When this user story can be tested ?

    • A.

      Non-functional testing can be outsourced because it is specialized testing.

    • B.

      Tests can be performed after two iterations after this iteration

    • C.

      In a separate iteration dedicated for only non-functional testing

    • D.

      As a part of system level testing after the completion of first user story.

    Correct Answer
    D. As a part of system level testing after the completion of first user story.
    Explanation
    The user story can be tested as a part of system level testing after the completion of the first user story. This is because the user story specifies a functional requirement related to the search functionality, and it is best to test the system as a whole after all the individual user stories have been implemented and integrated. System level testing allows for testing the interaction and integration of different components and functionalities, including the search button and the display of search results on the page.

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  • 16. 

    As a part of continuous integration, the automated test suites comprises functional tests and unit tests. Moreover, when checking in code, stating analysis and code coverage needs to be done. Which of the following is the most efficient option to implement the above integration framework ?

    • A.

      All the tests are executed with every code check in

    • B.

      Static analysis , code coverage and unit tests during code check in and functional test at the end of iteration

    • C.

      Static analysis, code coverage and unit test can be done during code check in while functional tests can be scheduled every couple of days.

    • D.

      All tests are scheduled every couple of days.

    Correct Answer
    C. Static analysis, code coverage and unit test can be done during code check in while functional tests can be scheduled every couple of days.
    Explanation
    The most efficient option to implement the integration framework is to perform static analysis, code coverage, and unit tests during code check-in, while scheduling functional tests every couple of days. This approach allows for immediate feedback on code quality and coverage, ensuring that any issues are caught early in the development process. By scheduling functional tests every couple of days, it allows for thorough testing of the entire system while minimizing the impact on development speed.

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  • 17. 

    There is a potential that code will break with every new change integrated with the software. In order to maintain a stable and working software, which one of the following do you need?

    • A.

      Highly skilled developer who can solve software bugs most efficiently

    • B.

      Real time test reporting to identify, isolate and correct bugs.

    • C.

      Testers with development experience who can leverage on their debugging skill

    • D.

      Complete integration framework with unit tests, static analysis, code checking and profiling happening during every code checking.

    Correct Answer
    B. Real time test reporting to identify, isolate and correct bugs.
    Explanation
    In order to maintain a stable and working software, real-time test reporting is needed to identify, isolate, and correct bugs. This allows for immediate detection of any issues that may arise with each new change integrated into the software. By having real-time test reporting, developers can quickly address and fix any bugs, ensuring that the software remains stable and functional. This approach helps to prevent any potential code breakages and ensures the overall quality of the software.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following can hamper test effectiveness ?

    • A.

      Over reliance on unit testing

    • B.

      Engage independent testers in the project

    • C.

      Use tools to automate task boards and burndown charts

    • D.

      Executing acceptance testing at least daily.

    Correct Answer
    A. Over reliance on unit testing
    Explanation
    Over-reliance on unit testing can hamper test effectiveness because unit testing only focuses on testing individual components or units of code, rather than testing the entire system or application. This means that important integration issues or bugs that may arise when different units interact with each other may go unnoticed. It is crucial to have a balanced approach to testing, including integration testing, system testing, and acceptance testing, to ensure comprehensive coverage and effectiveness in identifying and resolving issues.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following can be an indicator of progress  for development and testing tasks.

    • A.

      Burn down charts showing work left against time

    • B.

      Task board showing the movement of different tasks across the board

    • C.

      Customer survey with metrics such as, defect density, test pass/fail rate, defect discovery rate etc

    • D.

      Daily stand up meeting with all the members attending the meeting.

    Correct Answer
    A. Burn down charts showing work left against time
    Explanation
    task board shows snapshot of status, not progress
    survey can indicate product quality, but not progress of tasks
    daily stand up meeting solves any bottleneck issue hampering to get a job done.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following can provide an snapshot of current status of tasks selected for an iteration?

    • A.

      Task boards with each type of tasks (dev,test) having color coordinated tasks

    • B.

      Burndown charts showing work left to be finished against time allocated

    • C.

      Daily stand up meeting

    • D.

      Customer survey showing different metrics.

    Correct Answer
    A. Task boards with each type of tasks (dev,test) having color coordinated tasks
    Explanation
    Task boards with each type of tasks (dev, test) having color coordinated tasks can provide a snapshot of the current status of tasks selected for an iteration. This is because task boards visually represent the progress of tasks by using color coordination to indicate the status of each task. By glancing at the task board, team members can quickly identify which tasks are in progress, completed, or yet to be started, providing a clear overview of the current status of the iteration's tasks.

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  • 21. 

    Testers would like to free their time and focus on designing and executing more test cases. Which of the followings can help to facilitate the above idea? i. Use wiki, wiki style dashboards to communicate project status. ii. Use tools to gather metrics to aid in process improvement and record test progress and test status data, thus sharing it through automated wiki or wiki style dashboard iii. Burn down charts iv. Task board

    • A.

      I,iii

    • B.

      I,ii

    • C.

      Iii,iv

    • D.

      I,iv

    Correct Answer
    B. I,ii
    Explanation
    Using wiki-style dashboards and tools to gather metrics can help testers free up their time and focus on designing and executing more test cases. By using wiki-style dashboards, testers can easily communicate the project status, while tools can aid in process improvement and record test progress and test status data. This allows for easy sharing of information through automated wiki or wiki-style dashboards. Using both i and ii together can facilitate the idea of freeing up testers' time and allowing them to focus on their core tasks.

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  • 22. 

    Which is NOT the purpose of communicating test status, progress and product quality.

    • A.

      Making testers more effective and efficient through automated status sharing

    • B.

      Measure product quality through customer survey, using various metrics

    • C.

      Use metrics to reward, punish or isolate team members

    • D.

      Make the progress towards the completion of iteration/releasevisible through burndown chart.

    Correct Answer
    C. Use metrics to reward, punish or isolate team members
    Explanation
    The purpose of communicating test status, progress, and product quality is to keep testers informed and make them more effective and efficient. It also helps in measuring product quality through customer surveys and various metrics. Additionally, it allows the team to track the progress towards the completion of the iteration/release through a burndown chart. However, using metrics to reward, punish, or isolate team members is not a purpose of communication in this context.

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  • 23. 

    Change is inevitable in Agile project. During 6th iteration, customer requested to make changes to features developed and tested previously. Within the shorter time frame and and constant changes, which of the following would have an impact as testers need to review older test cases and corresponding software versions?

    • A.

      Test design and implementation strategy

    • B.

      Burn down charts

    • C.

      Daily stand up meeting

    • D.

      Early and frequent feedback to customer

    Correct Answer
    A. Test design and implementation strategy
    Explanation
    In an Agile project, change is inevitable and the customer requested changes to previously developed and tested features during the 6th iteration. This means that testers need to review older test cases and corresponding software versions. The test design and implementation strategy would have an impact in this situation because it needs to be flexible enough to accommodate these changes. Testers may need to modify their approach and prioritize certain test cases over others to ensure that the changes are properly tested within the shorter time frame.

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  • 24. 

    Why testers need to review test cases regularly to add,modify,delete or categorize test cases? i. It is not possible to execute all the test cases, specially after a number of iterations ii. testers get good understanding on how the software has evolved through previous iterations. iii. due to excessive code churn,  test cases may become ineffective or fail. iv. to check if some other testers have made changes to working test cases.

    • A.

      I and ii

    • B.

      I and iii

    • C.

      Ii and iii

    • D.

      Iii and iv

    Correct Answer
    B. I and iii
    Explanation
    Testers need to review test cases regularly to add, modify, delete, or categorize test cases because it is not possible to execute all the test cases, especially after a number of iterations. Additionally, due to excessive code churn, test cases may become ineffective or fail. Therefore, reviewing and updating test cases is necessary to ensure that the testing process remains efficient and the software is thoroughly tested.

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  • 25. 

    Despite high code churn, what needs to be in place to maintain velocity without incurring large amount of technical debt? i. test automation at all level of testing ii. keep all the testing artifacts updated all the time. iii. enable version control through configuration management tool. iv. execute build verification testing

    • A.

      I,ii,iii

    • B.

      Ii,iii,iv

    • C.

      I,iii,iv

    • D.

      I,ii,iv

    Correct Answer
    A. I,ii,iii
    Explanation
    To maintain velocity without incurring a large amount of technical debt despite high code churn, it is important to have test automation at all levels of testing. This helps in quickly identifying and fixing any issues that may arise due to code changes. Keeping all the testing artifacts updated all the time ensures that the tests are relevant and effective. Enabling version control through a configuration management tool helps in managing and tracking code changes, making it easier to revert or roll back if necessary. Therefore, options i, ii, and iii are the correct choices.

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  • 26. 

    A team wants to make sure that they do not waste their time testing a non-stable build, meaning testing should be effective and efficient. What can they do to implement this ? i. perform unit tests after build is deployed to test environment. ii. perform unit tests before code check in. iii. test critical functionality and interface points after deployment. iv. acceptance tests after deployment.

    • A.

      I only

    • B.

      Ii and iii

    • C.

      I and ii

    • D.

      Iii only

    Correct Answer
    D. Iii only
    Explanation
    The team can implement this by testing critical functionality and interface points after deployment. This ensures that only stable builds are tested and reduces the chances of wasting time on non-stable builds. Performing unit tests after the build is deployed to the test environment (option i) and performing unit tests before code check-in (option ii) may help in catching issues earlier but do not specifically address the concern of testing non-stable builds. Acceptance tests after deployment (option iv) may be important for overall testing but do not specifically address the concern of testing non-stable builds.

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  • 27. 

    Which is true regarding the flow of testing?

    • A.

      Build verification test -> unit test -> acceptance test

    • B.

      Unit test -> acceptance test -> build verification test

    • C.

      Acceptance test -> build verification test -> unit test

    • D.

      Acceptance test -> unit test -> build verification test

    Correct Answer
    B. Unit test -> acceptance test -> build verification test
    Explanation
    The correct order of the flow of testing is unit test, acceptance test, and then build verification test. This sequence ensures that individual units of code are tested first, followed by testing of the overall system functionality, and finally, the build is verified to ensure it meets the required specifications. This order allows for early detection and resolution of issues at the unit level, followed by validation of the system as a whole, and ultimately, verification of the build.

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  • 28. 

    5 days before the end of an iteration, a major bug has been detected, breaking a number of functionality. A meeting has been called to discuss about this issue. What is a testers contribution in this matter?

    • A.

      Since developers broke the code, advice the developer to fix their problems

    • B.

      Think in terms of solving the problem with an attitude that bugs will get resolved eventually

    • C.

      Providing information to the stakeholders to prove that it is not testing team's fault

    • D.

      Let the management decide what course of action theys should take

    Correct Answer
    B. Think in terms of solving the problem with an attitude that bugs will get resolved eventually
    Explanation
    Be positive and solution oriented regarding the quality of the product

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  • 29. 

    After performing unit tests, acceptance tests and sanity test, the agile team is confident that the product is stable and they can move to release. How a tester should interpret the situation?

    • A.

      Stop testing since team is satisfied with testing

    • B.

      Retrospect on how to continue this success in future

    • C.

      Absence of error does not mean there is no error. Product performance could improve more.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Absence of error does not mean there is no error. Product performance could improve more.
    Explanation
    The tester should interpret the situation as a reminder that even though the team is confident in the product's stability, the absence of errors does not guarantee that there are no errors present. There is always room for improvement in product performance, and further testing and enhancements may be necessary to optimize the product further.

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  • 30. 

    While creating test cases, a testers needed some extra information which was missing from the written requirement documentation. How a tester will go about creating those test cases?

    • A.

      Rely on their experience to develop test cases.

    • B.

      Use their own intuition to find out what could it be

    • C.

      Rely on written documentation

    • D.

      Ask the business representative or customer or other team member direclty for information

    Correct Answer
    D. Ask the business representative or customer or other team member direclty for information
    Explanation
    When faced with missing information while creating test cases, a tester should ask the business representative, customer, or other team member directly for the required information. This approach ensures that the tester gets accurate and complete information from the relevant stakeholders, allowing them to create test cases that align with the requirements and expectations of the project. Relying on their own experience or intuition may lead to assumptions and potential inaccuracies, while relying solely on written documentation may not provide the necessary details.

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  • 31. 

    During the scheduling of tasks what should a tester do?

    • A.

      Perform project risk analysi

    • B.

      Make sure all the testing task have been scheduled for iterations and releases

    • C.

      Perform product risk analysis

    • D.

      Review what tasks have been assigned to him/her

    Correct Answer
    B. Make sure all the testing task have been scheduled for iterations and releases
    Explanation
    During the scheduling of tasks, the tester should ensure that all the testing tasks have been properly scheduled for iterations and releases. This involves reviewing the project plan and making sure that all the necessary testing activities are included in the schedule. By doing so, the tester can ensure that the testing process is properly planned and aligned with the overall project timeline, allowing for timely and effective testing of the software.

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  • 32. 

    After founding a major defect, what is a testers role in solving the bug?

    • A.

      Work with the developer to resolve them

    • B.

      It is developer jobs to solve bugs, so no need to collaborate

    • C.

      Continue testing without thinking about the defect

    • D.

      Find similar bugs in the syste

    Correct Answer
    A. Work with the developer to resolve them
    Explanation
    The tester's role in solving a bug is to work with the developer to resolve it. This involves collaborating with the developer to understand the root cause of the defect, provide necessary information and evidence, and assist in finding a solution. Testers play a crucial role in bug resolution by effectively communicating the details of the defect and working together with the developer to ensure it is fixed appropriately.

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    Quiz Edited by
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    Towid Hossain
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