A. internal organs.
B. vertebral columns.
C. postanal tails.
A. amphibians have smooth non-scaly skin, whereas reptiles are covered with scales and their skin is dry.
B. all reptiles respire by the use of lungs, while amphibians use small lungs supplemented by cutaneous respiration
C. amphibian eggs are laid in water, but reptiles do not require water for reproduction.
D. reptiles are ectothermic, while amphibians are endothermic.
A. a strip of cartilage that forms a back and tail in all vertebrates.
B. a stiff dorsal supporting rod.
C. replaced by the vertebral column during development.
D. All of the choices are correct.
E. B and C are correct.
A. Amphibians; fish
B. Reptiles; amphibians
C. Mammals; reptiles
D. Amphibians; lancelets
B. sea squirts.
A. segmentation, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal pouches, and an amniotic egg.
B. a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a notochord, bilateral symmetry, and mammary glands.
C. bilateral symmetry, segmentation, a well-developed coelom, and limbs.
D. a well-developed coelom, pharyngeal pouches, a notochord, and jaws.
E. pharyngeal pouches, a dorsal nerve cord, a notochord, and a postanal tail.
A. pharyngeal pouches; gills
B. dorsal hollow nerve cord; a ventral solid nerve cord
C. gill arches; pharyngeal pouches
D. notochord; a dorsal hollow nerve cord
E. a vertebral column; notochord
A. radial symmetry
C. extreme cephalization
D. closed circulation
A. in tropical Amazon streams.
B. as parasites inside the tracts of fish.
C. very rarely in mountain streams, where they are almost extinct.
D. commonly in the sandy bottoms of coastal waters around the world.
E. B and C are correct.
A. lack bony skeletons.
B. have placoid scales.
C. have a keen sense of smell.
D. have teeth derived from epidermal scales.
E. All of the choices are correct.
C. a notochord that develops into a vertebral column.
D. amniotic eggs.
E. A and C are correct.
A. provides insight into how the legs of tetrapods evolved.
B. is a transitional fossil form.
C. was found in Arctic Canada.
D. is intermediate between reptiles and mammals.
E. A, B, and C are correct.
C. bass and bluegill.
D. sturgeon and catfish.
E. lobe-finned fishes with lungs.
A. was a modern fish unrelated to fossil coelacanths.
B. was the "missing link" between fish and amphibians.
C. can now climb onto land and travel some distances.
D. had changed very little and had not gone extinct.
E. was both the "missing link" and it could climb onto land and travel.
A. thin moist skin
B. two-chambered heart
C. small inefficient lungs
D. aquatic larvae
E. eggs with gelatinous covering
A. respiration by gills.
B. respiration through the skin.
C. separation of lung/gill and systemic (body) circulation.
D. development of the tail for propulsion.
E. the leathery waterproof egg shell.
A. prefer drier habitats.
B. prefer stagnant water.
C. be larger than most salamanders.
D. be restricted to smaller and/or thinner body plans.
A. using spermatophores.
B. externally in water.
C. internally by copulation.
D. just like frogs.
A. mammals; Carboniferous
B. fish; Devonian
C. echinoderms; Cambrian
D. amphibians; Permian