Chapter 21 Section 4: Nation Building In Latin America

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A quiz to help you with your Chapter 21 Section 4 Reading Quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar led South American independence movements against

    • A.

      Spain

    • B.

      Portugal

    • C.

      The United States

    • D.

      Mexico

    Correct Answer
    A. Spain
    Explanation
    José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar led South American independence movements against Spain. Spain was the colonial power that controlled many countries in South America during the 19th century. San Martín and Bolívar were key figures in the fight for independence, leading military campaigns and organizing political movements to overthrow Spanish rule. Their efforts ultimately led to the liberation of several South American nations from Spanish control.

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  • 2. 

    Wealth, social prestige, and political power during the nineteenth century in Latin America were based on

    • A.

      Trade

    • B.

      Capital

    • C.

      Religion

    • D.

      Land

    Correct Answer
    D. Land
    Explanation
    During the nineteenth century in Latin America, wealth, social prestige, and political power were primarily based on land ownership. Land was a valuable asset that provided economic opportunities through agriculture, mining, and other resources. The ownership and control of land allowed individuals to accumulate wealth, gain social status, and exert influence in political affairs. This was particularly significant in an agrarian society where land was the main source of livelihood and economic production. Therefore, land played a crucial role in determining one's social and political standing during this period in Latin America.

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  • 3. 

    Creoles were considered second-class citizens by the ____________________.

    • A.

      Mestizos

    • B.

      Peninsulares

    • C.

      Mulattoes

    • D.

      Indians

    Correct Answer
    B. Peninsulares
    Explanation
    During the colonial period, Peninsulares referred to individuals who were born in Spain but lived in the colonies. They held the highest social status and were considered superior to other groups, including Creoles. Creoles were individuals of European descent who were born in the colonies, and they were often treated as second-class citizens by the Peninsulares. This was due to the Peninsulares' belief in their own superiority based on their birthplace and direct connection to Spain.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following was a guarantee by the United States to protect Latin America from Europe?

    • A.

      The Declaration of Independence

    • B.

      The Bill of Rights

    • C.

      The Monroe Doctrine

    • D.

      The Communist Manifesto

    Correct Answer
    C. The Monroe Doctrine
    Explanation
    The Monroe Doctrine was a guarantee by the United States to protect Latin America from Europe. It was a foreign policy statement made by President James Monroe in 1823, which stated that any attempt by European powers to colonize or interfere in the affairs of the newly independent nations in Latin America would be seen as a threat to the United States. The doctrine aimed to establish the United States as the dominant power in the Western Hemisphere and to prevent European colonization in the region.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following was a Mexican reform leader?

    • A.

      Santa Anna

    • B.

      Benito Juarez

    • C.

      Diaz

    • D.

      Dom Pedro

    Correct Answer
    B. Benito Juarez
    Explanation
    Benito Juarez was a Mexican reform leader who played a significant role in Mexican history. He served as the President of Mexico and implemented numerous reforms, including the separation of church and state, land redistribution, and the establishment of a secular education system. Juarez is known for his efforts to modernize Mexico and promote social justice, particularly for indigenous peoples. He is considered a national hero in Mexico and his reforms have had a lasting impact on the country's political and social landscape.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following social classes was made up of the children of a mixed marriage between a Spaniard and a Native?

    • A.

      Mulattoes

    • B.

      Peninsulares

    • C.

      Mestizos

    • D.

      Creoles

    Correct Answer
    C. Mestizos
    Explanation
    Mestizos refers to the social class made up of the children of a mixed marriage between a Spaniard and a Native. The term is commonly used in Latin America to describe individuals of mixed European and Indigenous American ancestry. This social class emerged during the colonial period when Spanish colonizers intermarried with the indigenous population. Mestizos occupied a middle position in the social hierarchy, below the Peninsulares (Spaniards born in Spain) and Creoles (Spaniards born in the Americas) but above the Mulattoes (individuals of mixed African and European ancestry).

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  • 7. 

    What important construction project did the U.S. build in Latin America?

    • A.

      The Alamo

    • B.

      The Suez Canal

    • C.

      The Taj Mahal

    • D.

      The Panama Canal

    Correct Answer
    D. The Panama Canal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Panama Canal. The Panama Canal was an important construction project built by the U.S. in Latin America. It is a man-made waterway that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, allowing ships to pass through without having to sail around South America. The construction of the canal was a significant engineering feat and had a major impact on global trade and transportation.

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  • 8. 

    Strong rulers who ruled newly independent Latin American countries through force were called

    • A.

      Peninsulares

    • B.

      Mestizos

    • C.

      Caudillos

    • D.

      Creoles

    Correct Answer
    C. Caudillos
    Explanation
    Caudillos were strong rulers who ruled newly independent Latin American countries through force. They often emerged as military leaders and gained power through their control over the military. They were characterized by their authoritarian rule and their ability to maintain control through coercion and violence. Caudillos played a significant role in shaping the political landscape of Latin America during the 19th century, as they sought to consolidate power and maintain stability in the newly independent nations.

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  • 9. 

    Which man was known as the "Liberator of Venezuela"?

    • A.

      Jose de San Martin

    • B.

      Simon Bolivar

    • C.

      Miguel Hidalgo

    • D.

      Iturbide

    Correct Answer
    B. Simon Bolivar
    Explanation
    Simon Bolivar was known as the "Liberator of Venezuela" because he played a crucial role in leading the Venezuelan people to independence from Spanish rule. Bolivar was a military and political leader who fought numerous battles and led successful campaigns against the Spanish forces. He is revered as one of the most important figures in the Latin American Wars of Independence and is often referred to as the "George Washington of South America." Bolivar's efforts not only led to the liberation of Venezuela but also played a significant role in the independence movements of several other South American countries.

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  • 10. 

    Which man led an unsuccessful revolt of mestizos and Indians in Mexico?

    • A.

      Iturbide

    • B.

      Miguel Hidalgo

    • C.

      San Martin

    • D.

      Bolivar

    Correct Answer
    B. Miguel Hidalgo
    Explanation
    Miguel Hidalgo led an unsuccessful revolt of mestizos and Indians in Mexico. This revolt, known as the Mexican War of Independence, began in 1810 and aimed to free Mexico from Spanish colonial rule. Hidalgo, a Catholic priest, played a significant role in mobilizing the lower classes and indigenous people to fight for their independence. However, despite initial successes, the revolt was eventually crushed by Spanish forces, and Hidalgo was captured and executed in 1811.

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  • 11. 

    As a result of the Spanish-American War the United States received

    • A.

      Puerto Rico

    • B.

      Mexico

    • C.

      Cuba as a protectorate

    • D.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. Both A and C
    Explanation
    As a result of the Spanish-American War, the United States received both Puerto Rico and Cuba as a protectorate. This means that the United States gained control over these territories and had the responsibility to protect and govern them. Mexico, on the other hand, was not received by the United States as a result of the war.

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  • 12. 

    Which U.S. President supported the rebellion that helped Panama break away from Colombia?

    • A.

      F. D. Roosevelt

    • B.

      Theodore Roosevelt

    • C.

      William Taft

    • D.

      Woodrow Wilson

    Correct Answer
    B. Theodore Roosevelt
    Explanation
    Theodore Roosevelt is the correct answer because he was the U.S. President who supported the rebellion that helped Panama break away from Colombia. In 1903, Roosevelt supported Panama's independence movement and sent U.S. warships to prevent Colombian forces from suppressing the rebellion. This ultimately led to the establishment of the independent Republic of Panama and the construction of the Panama Canal, which was a significant achievement during Roosevelt's presidency.

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  • 13. 

    Increased industrialization in Latin American led to

    • A.

      Prosperity for all

    • B.

      A breakdown of the economy

    • C.

      The rise of a small middle class

    • D.

      Widespread rebellion

    Correct Answer
    C. The rise of a small middle class
    Explanation
    Increased industrialization in Latin America led to the rise of a small middle class. Industrialization brought about economic growth and development, creating new job opportunities and increasing the overall wealth of the region. As industries expanded, a small group of individuals emerged who were able to benefit from the new economic opportunities and improve their social and economic status. This resulted in the formation of a middle class, which played a significant role in shaping the social and political landscape of Latin America during this period.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following was NOT a difficulty faced by Latin America between 1830 and 1870?

    • A.

      A lack of precise boundaries

    • B.

      Poor communication and transportation

    • C.

      Economic dependence on the west

    • D.

      The lack of a unified culture

    Correct Answer
    D. The lack of a unified culture
    Explanation
    During the period between 1830 and 1870, Latin America faced several difficulties. These included a lack of precise boundaries, poor communication and transportation, and economic dependence on the west. However, the lack of a unified culture was not one of the challenges faced by Latin America during this time. This suggests that despite the other difficulties, Latin America had a relatively cohesive cultural identity.

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  • 15. 

    Although they gained political independence, Latin American countries

    • A.

      Were invaded and controlled by foreign militaries

    • B.

      Failed to establish a lasting society

    • C.

      Remained dependent economically on the West

    • D.

      Refused to form republics

    Correct Answer
    C. Remained dependent economically on the West
    Explanation
    After gaining political independence, Latin American countries continued to rely on the West economically. This suggests that even though they were able to break free from colonial rule, they were still reliant on Western countries for trade and economic support. This dependence hindered their ability to establish a self-sufficient and sustainable society.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following correctly describes the economies of Latin America in the 19th century?

    • A.

      Raw Materials and finished manufactured goods were both imported and exported equally

    • B.

      Raw materials were imported and finished manufactured goods were exported

    • C.

      Raw materials were exported and finished manufactured goods were imported

    • D.

      Both raw materials and finished exported goods were exported

    Correct Answer
    C. Raw materials were exported and finished manufactured goods were imported
    Explanation
    In the 19th century, the economies of Latin America were characterized by the exportation of raw materials and the importation of finished manufactured goods. This means that Latin American countries primarily relied on exporting their natural resources, such as minerals and agricultural products, while importing manufactured goods from more industrialized nations. This trade pattern often led to a dependency on foreign markets and limited industrial development within Latin America itself.

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  • 17. 

    Which European power's desire to trade with Latin America led to them offering their protection to newly freed Latin American countries?

    • A.

      Spain

    • B.

      France

    • C.

      The United States

    • D.

      Great Britain

    Correct Answer
    D. Great Britain
    Explanation
    Great Britain's desire to trade with Latin America led them to offer their protection to newly freed Latin American countries. This was due to Great Britain's strong naval power and their interest in expanding their trade networks. By offering protection, Great Britain ensured a stable and secure environment for trade to flourish, benefiting both the Latin American countries and themselves economically.

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  • 18. 

    Which Mexican military leader briefly took control as emperor following the Mexico's declaration of Indpendence?

    • A.

      Hidalgo

    • B.

      Moreolos

    • C.

      Iturbide

    • D.

      San Martin

    Correct Answer
    C. Iturbide
    Explanation
    Iturbide is the correct answer because he briefly took control as emperor following Mexico's declaration of independence. Hidalgo, Moreolos, and San Martin were not military leaders who assumed the role of emperor during that time.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 03, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Kevhugh
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