Chapter 2: States Of Consciousness (Grivas)

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Chapter 2: States Of Consciousness (Grivas) - Quiz


Unit 3 exam prep.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A basketball player is given a penalty shot at the goal from the free-throw line. The brain wave pattern associated with this activity would have ______ frequency and a ______ amplitude.

    • A.

      High; low

    • B.

      High; high

    • C.

      Low; high

    • D.

      Low; low

    Correct Answer
    A. High; low
    Explanation
    During a penalty shot in basketball, the player needs to focus and concentrate on aiming at the goal. This requires a high frequency brain wave pattern, as the player needs to be alert and quick in their decision-making. However, the amplitude would be low because the player needs to remain calm and composed while taking the shot, rather than being overly excited or agitated.

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  • 2. 

    Normal waking consciousness is best described as

    • A.

      A state of wakefulness.

    • B.

      Awareness of internal states and the external world.

    • C.

      A state of full alertness and focused attention.

    • D.

      A mixture of automatic and controlled processes.

    Correct Answer
    B. Awareness of internal states and the external world.
    Explanation
    Normal waking consciousness refers to the state of being awake and aware of both internal states (such as thoughts, emotions, and bodily sensations) and the external world (such as sensory perceptions and the environment). This state involves being conscious and attentive to one's surroundings, as well as being aware of one's own thoughts and feelings. It is a state of being fully present and engaged with the present moment, both internally and externally.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is not an altered state of consciousness?

    • A.

      Daydreaming

    • B.

      Meditative state

    • C.

      Alertness

    • D.

      Alcohol-induced

    Correct Answer
    C. Alertness
    Explanation
    Alertness is not an altered state of consciousness because it refers to a state of being awake, attentive, and aware of one's surroundings. It is a normal and natural state of consciousness that does not involve any significant changes or alterations in perception, cognition, or awareness. In contrast, daydreaming, meditative state, and alcohol-induced states are examples of altered states of consciousness as they involve shifts in attention, focus, and awareness.

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  • 4. 

    Activities requiring automatic processes usually involve

    • A.

      Focused attention.

    • B.

      Minimum attention.

    • C.

      A shift in attention from internal to external stimuli.

    • D.

      A shift in attention from external to internal stimuli.

    Correct Answer
    B. Minimum attention.
    Explanation
    Activities requiring automatic processes usually involve minimum attention. Automatic processes are those that occur without conscious effort or awareness, such as driving a familiar route or typing on a keyboard. These activities have become so ingrained and automatic that they require minimal attention to complete successfully. This allows individuals to multitask or engage in other cognitive processes while performing the automatic task.

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  • 5. 

    Normal waking consciousness differs from an altered state of consciousness because in normal waking consciousness

    • A.

      Level of awareness is at a consistent predictable level.

    • B.

      Perception of time is distorted.

    • C.

      It is difficult to store and retrieve information from memory because of distractions throughout the day.

    • D.

      The content of our consciousness is usually organised and logical.

    Correct Answer
    D. The content of our consciousness is usually organised and logical.
    Explanation
    In normal waking consciousness, the content of our consciousness is usually organized and logical. This means that our thoughts, perceptions, and experiences follow a coherent and rational pattern. We are able to think logically, make sense of our surroundings, and maintain a sense of order in our thoughts. This is in contrast to altered states of consciousness where the content of our consciousness may be fragmented, disorganized, or distorted. Altered states of consciousness can include experiences such as dreaming, hallucinations, or being under the influence of drugs or alcohol.

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  • 6. 

    The term state of consciousness is best described as

    • A.

      A continuum.

    • B.

      A person’s level of awareness of their internal state and external events.

    • C.

      A person’s level of awareness of their internal state without awareness of the external environment.

    • D.

      A person’s physiological responses to external stimuli.

    Correct Answer
    B. A person’s level of awareness of their internal state and external events.
    Explanation
    The term "state of consciousness" refers to an individual's level of awareness of both their internal state (thoughts, emotions, sensations) and external events (surroundings, stimuli). It encompasses the overall awareness and perception of oneself and the surrounding environment. This definition implies that consciousness exists on a continuum, varying in intensity and focus depending on the individual's current mental and sensory experiences. It highlights the interconnectedness between internal and external factors in shaping one's state of consciousness.

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  • 7. 

    A researcher wanted to test whether a particular drug induced a state of relaxation. Which of the following would most reliably indicate a state of relaxation?

    • A.

      Galvanic skin response

    • B.

      Body temperature

    • C.

      Amount of sleep

    • D.

      EEG records

    Correct Answer
    D. EEG records
    Explanation
    EEG records would most reliably indicate a state of relaxation because they measure the electrical activity of the brain. When a person is in a relaxed state, their brainwaves tend to slow down and become more synchronized. EEG records can capture these changes in brainwave patterns, providing objective evidence of relaxation. In contrast, galvanic skin response measures the electrical conductance of the skin, which can be influenced by factors other than relaxation. Body temperature and amount of sleep may also be influenced by various factors, making them less reliable indicators of relaxation compared to EEG records.

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  • 8. 

    In an experiment to find out the effects on driving performance of using a hands-free mobile phone while driving, researchers advertised for 100 research participants in the daily newspaper. They accepted the first 20 responses in each of the following age groups: 18–20, 21–25, 26–30, 31–35 and 41–45. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to either the control group or the experimental group. The control group drove in a driving simulator without using a hands-free mobile phone. The experimental group drove in the driving simulator using a hands-free mobile phone. Researchers measured the number of driving errors each participant made. What type of experimental design was used by the researchers?

    • A.

      Repeated-measures

    • B.

      Independent-groups

    • C.

      Mixed-participants

    • D.

      Matched-participants

    Correct Answer
    B. Independent-groups
    Explanation
    The researchers used an independent-groups experimental design. This is evident from the fact that participants were randomly allocated to either the control group or the experimental group. In this design, each participant is only assigned to one group, and there is no matching or pairing of participants. This allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine the effects of using a hands-free mobile phone while driving on driving performance.

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  • 9. 

    In an experiment to find out the effects on driving performance of using a hands-free mobile phone while driving, researchers advertised for 100 research participants in the daily newspaper. They accepted the first 20 responses in each of the following age groups: 18–20, 21–25, 26–30, 31–35 and 41–45. Within each age group, participants were randomly allocated to either the control group or the experimental group. The control group drove in a driving simulator without using a hands-free mobile phone. The experimental group drove in the driving simulator using a hands-free mobile phone. Researchers measured the number of driving errors each participant made. The sample used is best described as a ______ sample.

    • A.

      Random

    • B.

      Convenience

    • C.

      Random-stratified

    • D.

      Convenience-random

    Correct Answer
    B. Convenience
    Explanation
    The sample used in this experiment is best described as a convenience sample because the researchers advertised for research participants in the daily newspaper and accepted the first 20 responses in each age group. This method of sampling is convenient and does not involve a random selection process.

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  • 10. 

    Simon has a very high fever after contracting a virus. While lying awake in bed, he begins to feel as though ants are crawling all over his body, and says he can see them, despite there being no ants. Simon is most likely experiencing ______ with ______.

    • A.

      Normal waking consciousness; selfcontrol

    • B.

      Normal waking consciousness; a psychological construct

    • C.

      An altered state of consciousness; perceptual distortions

    • D.

      Normal waking consciousness; perceptual distortions

    Correct Answer
    C. An altered state of consciousness; perceptual distortions
    Explanation
    Simon is most likely experiencing an altered state of consciousness with perceptual distortions. This is indicated by his high fever and the fact that he is perceiving ants crawling all over his body, despite there being no actual ants present. These perceptual distortions are likely a result of his altered state of consciousness caused by the virus.

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  • 11. 

    One reason there are content limitations in normal waking consciousness is that, during normal waking consciousness,

    • A.

      We can usually consciously control the information coming into consciousness

    • B.

      Information is continually flowing in and out of consciousness

    • C.

      There is a limit to the amount of time we are awake

    • D.

      Controlled processes dominate automatic processes

    Correct Answer
    A. We can usually consciously control the information coming into consciousness
    Explanation
    During normal waking consciousness, individuals have the ability to consciously control the information that enters their consciousness. This means that they can selectively choose what to focus on and what to ignore, allowing them to filter out irrelevant or unwanted information. This control over the information flow helps individuals maintain attention and cognitive resources on tasks or stimuli that are relevant to their current goals or interests. However, it is important to note that this control is not absolute and can be influenced by various factors such as attentional biases, emotional states, and cognitive load.

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  • 12. 

    High-frequency brain waves are ______ and therefore have ______ brain waves per unit of time.

    • A.

      Faster; more

    • B.

      Slower; less

    • C.

      Faster; less

    • D.

      Slower; more

    Correct Answer
    A. Faster; more
    Explanation
    High-frequency brain waves refer to waves that occur at a higher rate or frequency. Therefore, they have more brain waves per unit of time compared to slower waves.

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  • 13. 

    High-amplitude brain waves have ______ peaks and troughs, whereas low amplitude brain waves have ______ peaks and troughs.

    • A.

      Bigger; smaller

    • B.

      Smaller; faster

    • C.

      Bigger; faster

    • D.

      Smaller; bigger

    Correct Answer
    A. Bigger; smaller
    Explanation
    High-amplitude brain waves have bigger peaks and troughs, whereas low-amplitude brain waves have smaller peaks and troughs. This means that high-amplitude brain waves have a greater difference between the highest and lowest points of the wave, indicating stronger electrical activity in the brain. On the other hand, low-amplitude brain waves have smaller differences between the peaks and troughs, suggesting weaker electrical activity in the brain.

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  • 14. 

    A loss of self-control is most likely to be associated with which state of consciousness?

    • A.

      Daydreaming

    • B.

      Alcohol-induced

    • C.

      Relaxed–meditative

    • D.

      Tense–meditative

    Correct Answer
    B. Alcohol-induced
    Explanation
    A loss of self-control is most likely to be associated with an alcohol-induced state of consciousness. Alcohol impairs judgment and inhibitions, leading to a decreased ability to control one's actions and emotions. This can result in impulsive behavior, poor decision-making, and a disregard for social norms.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following stimuli is least likely to attract or maintain someone’s attention?

    • A.

      An important stimulus

    • B.

      A novel stimulus

    • C.

      An unchanging stimulus

    • D.

      A changing stimulus

    Correct Answer
    C. An unchanging stimulus
    Explanation
    An unchanging stimulus is least likely to attract or maintain someone's attention because it lacks novelty or change. Our brains are wired to pay more attention to new or changing stimuli as they can be perceived as more important or potentially threatening. On the other hand, an unchanging stimulus can become predictable and boring, causing our attention to drift away.

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