Chapter 19: Blood Vessels

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Chapter 19: Blood Vessels - Quiz

Anatomy


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Blood vessels are composed of and it what order?

    • A.

      Tunica Intima, Tunica External (adventitia) , Tunica Media

    • B.

      Tunica Intima, Tunica Media, Tunica External (adventitia)

    Correct Answer
    B. Tunica Intima, Tunica Media, Tunica External (adventitia)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Tunica Intima, Tunica Media, Tunica External (adventitia). Blood vessels are composed of three layers: the innermost layer is called the Tunica Intima, followed by the middle layer called the Tunica Media, and finally the outermost layer called the Tunica External or adventitia. This order is important for the structure and function of blood vessels, as each layer has specific roles in maintaining the vessel's integrity and regulating blood flow.

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  • 2. 

    What is the Lumen?

    • A.

      The central part of the vein

    • B.

      The central part of blood vessels, which is filled with blood

    Correct Answer
    B. The central part of blood vessels, which is filled with blood
    Explanation
    The lumen refers to the central part of blood vessels that is filled with blood. It is the hollow space within the blood vessel where the blood flows. The lumen provides a pathway for the blood to circulate throughout the body. It is surrounded by the walls of the blood vessel, which are composed of different layers of tissue. The size of the lumen can vary depending on the type and size of the blood vessel.

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  • 3. 

    Types of Blood Vessels?

    • A.

      Arteries, Veins, Cappilaries

    • B.

      Arteries & Veins only

    Correct Answer
    A. Arteries, Veins, Cappilaries
    Explanation
    The correct answer is arteries, veins, and capillaries. Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body, while veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that connect arteries and veins, allowing for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues.

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  • 4. 

    An Artery carries blood ______ fro the heart.

    • A.

      Towards

    • B.

      Away

    Correct Answer
    B. Away
    Explanation
    Arteries carry blood away from the heart. They are blood vessels that transport oxygenated blood from the heart to various parts of the body. The heart pumps blood into the arteries, which then distribute it to the organs and tissues. This is in contrast to veins, which carry blood towards the heart.

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  • 5. 

    All of the following are Arteries except?

    • A.

      Elastic Arteries

    • B.

      Muscular Arteries

    • C.

      Arterioles

    • D.

      Fernested Arteries

    Correct Answer
    D. Fernested Arteries
    Explanation
    The term "arteries" refers to blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. Elastic arteries and muscular arteries are both types of arteries that have smooth muscle in their walls and are responsible for maintaining blood pressure. Arterioles are small arteries that regulate blood flow into capillaries. However, "Fernested Arteries" is not a recognized term in anatomy or physiology, suggesting that it is not a type of artery.

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  • 6. 

    Elastic Arteries are the?

    • A.

      Is the smallest artery

    • B.

      Is the largest artery

    Correct Answer
    B. Is the largest artery
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "is the largest artery." Elastic arteries are the largest type of arteries in the body. They have a high amount of elastic tissue in their walls, which allows them to stretch and recoil as blood is pumped through them. These arteries help to maintain steady blood flow and distribute blood to various parts of the body.

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  • 7. 

    An example of an Elastic Artery is?

    • A.

      The Right Ventricle

    • B.

      The Ascending part of the Aorta

    • C.

      The Aorta and its major branches

    Correct Answer
    C. The Aorta and its major branches
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Aorta and its major branches. Elastic arteries, also known as conducting arteries, are large blood vessels that are responsible for conducting blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. The Aorta is the largest artery in the body and is considered an elastic artery because it contains a high amount of elastic fibers in its walls, allowing it to stretch and accommodate the surge of blood pumped by the heart. Its major branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery, common carotid artery, and subclavian artery, also possess elastic properties to efficiently distribute blood throughout the body.

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  • 8. 

    Elastic Arteries are sometimes refered to as?

    • A.

      Excitatory arteries

    • B.

      Conducting arteries

    Correct Answer
    B. Conducting arteries
    Explanation
    Elastic arteries are sometimes referred to as conducting arteries because they have a large amount of elastic tissue in their walls, allowing them to stretch and recoil with each heartbeat. This elasticity helps to maintain continuous blood flow and smooth out the pulsations generated by the heart, which is important for efficient blood circulation throughout the body. Conducting arteries, such as the aorta and pulmonary arteries, are responsible for transporting blood from the heart to smaller arteries and distributing it to various organs and tissues.

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  • 9. 

    Muscular arteries can be reffered to as?

    • A.

      Distributing arteries

    • B.

      Conducting arteries

    Correct Answer
    A. Distributing arteries
    Explanation
    Muscular arteries are referred to as distributing arteries because they have a thick layer of smooth muscle in their walls, allowing them to regulate blood flow to specific organs and tissues. These arteries are responsible for distributing oxygenated blood from the heart to various parts of the body. Unlike conducting arteries, which are larger and have more elastic fibers to withstand high pressure, muscular arteries have a smaller diameter and are able to constrict or dilate to control blood flow and maintain proper blood pressure.

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  • 10. 

    What part of the three tunics does the Muscular (distribuiting) Artery have?

    • A.

      Tunica intima

    • B.

      Tunica Media

    • C.

      Tunica External

    Correct Answer
    B. Tunica Media
    Explanation
    The Muscular (distributing) Artery is located in the Tunica Media. The Tunica Media is the middle layer of the three tunics in the artery, consisting of smooth muscle and elastic fibers. It is responsible for regulating the diameter of the artery, allowing for the control of blood flow.

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  • 11. 

    Arterioles are the ________ arteries.

    • A.

      Largest

    • B.

      Smallest

    Correct Answer
    B. Smallest
    Explanation
    Arterioles are the smallest arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. Arterioles are the smallest branches of arteries and play a crucial role in regulating blood flow and blood pressure. They connect the larger arteries to the capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels in the body. Therefore, arterioles are correctly identified as the smallest arteries.

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  • 12. 

    The Diameter of the Arterioles is controlled by factors in the ________ and the _________ _______ system.

    • A.

      Tissue; Parasympathetic nervous

    • B.

      Tissue; Sympahthetic nervous

    Correct Answer
    B. Tissue; Sympahthetic nervous
    Explanation
    The diameter of the arterioles is controlled by factors in the tissue and the sympathetic nervous system. The tissue refers to the local factors within the tissues themselves that regulate the arteriolar diameter, such as metabolic demands and local chemical signals. The sympathetic nervous system, on the other hand, plays a role in regulating the arteriolar diameter by releasing norepinephrine, which causes vasoconstriction and reduces blood flow to certain areas. Together, these factors work in tandem to control the diameter of arterioles and ultimately regulate blood flow to different tissues and organs.

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  • 13. 

    The Aorta is an/a ?

    • A.

      Artery

    • B.

      Vein

    • C.

      Cappilary

    Correct Answer
    A. Artery
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Artery because the Aorta is the largest artery in the body. It carries oxygenated blood from the heart to all parts of the body. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart, while veins carry blood back to the heart, and capillaries are the smallest blood vessels where oxygen and nutrients are exchanged with tissues.

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  • 14. 

    The Aorta is a systemic artery that carries ____________ blood away from the heart.

    • A.

      Deoxygenated

    • B.

      Oxygenated

    Correct Answer
    B. Oxygenated
    Explanation
    The Aorta is a systemic artery that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart. This is because the aorta receives blood directly from the left ventricle of the heart, which pumps oxygenated blood into the aorta to be distributed to the rest of the body. The oxygenated blood is then delivered to various tissues and organs, providing them with the necessary oxygen and nutrients for their proper functioning.

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  • 15. 

    The Aorta is the?

    • A.

      Smallest artery

    • B.

      Largest artery (Elastic Artery)

    Correct Answer
    B. Largest artery (Elastic Artery)
    Explanation
    The aorta is the largest artery in the body and is often referred to as an elastic artery. It carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. As the largest artery, it has a thick and elastic wall that allows it to expand and contract with each heartbeat, helping to maintain a steady flow of blood throughout the circulatory system.

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  • 16. 

    Ascending Aorta arises from?

    • A.

      The left Ventricle

    • B.

      The right Ventricle

    Correct Answer
    A. The left Ventricle
    Explanation
    The ascending aorta arises from the left ventricle. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood into the aorta, which then distributes the blood to the rest of the body. This is a crucial step in the systemic circulation process. The right ventricle, on the other hand, pumps deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary artery, which carries the blood to the lungs for oxygenation. Therefore, the correct answer is the left ventricle.

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  • 17. 

    The Aorta contains branches of?

    • A.

      The Coronary branches

    • B.

      Vagus branches

    Correct Answer
    A. The Coronary branches
    Explanation
    The Aorta contains branches known as the Coronary branches. These branches supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle itself. This is essential for the heart to function properly and maintain its own metabolic needs. The Coronary branches arise from the Aorta and ensure that the heart receives the necessary nutrients and oxygen to continue pumping blood throughout the body.

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  • 18. 

    The Aortic Arch contains what branches?

    • A.

      Brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid, & LEft subclavian arteries

    • B.

      Brachiocephalic trunk & Left common carotid only

    Correct Answer
    A. Brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid, & LEft subclavian arteries
    Explanation
    The Aortic Arch contains the brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries. These branches supply blood to different regions of the body. The brachiocephalic trunk divides into the right common carotid and right subclavian arteries, while the left common carotid artery supplies blood to the left side of the head and neck, and the left subclavian artery provides blood to the left upper limb. Therefore, the correct answer includes all three branches.

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  • 19. 

    The Descending Aorta extends to the?

    • A.

      Thoracic Aorta

    • B.

      Abdominal Aorta

    • C.

      Then divides into the right & left common illiac

    • D.

      All Four: Thoracic Aorta, Abdominal Aorta, the divides into the right & left common illiac

    Correct Answer
    D. All Four: Thoracic Aorta, Abdominal Aorta, the divides into the right & left common illiac
    Explanation
    The descending aorta extends to both the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta. Additionally, it further divides into the right and left common iliac arteries. Therefore, all four options mentioned in the answer are correct.

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  • 20. 

    Veins carry blood _______ the heart.

    • A.

      Away

    • B.

      Toward

    Correct Answer
    B. Toward
    Explanation
    Veins carry blood toward the heart. This is because veins are blood vessels that transport deoxygenated blood back to the heart from various parts of the body. The blood flows in the direction of the heart due to the presence of valves in the veins that prevent backflow and help maintain the flow towards the heart.

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  • 21. 

    Veins conduct blood toward the heart through?

    • A.

      Arteries

    • B.

      Cappilaries

    Correct Answer
    B. Cappilaries
    Explanation
    Veins conduct blood toward the heart through capillaries. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in the body and connect arteries to veins. They have thin walls that allow for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues. Blood flows from arteries into capillaries, where oxygen and nutrients are delivered to the tissues, and then it returns to the heart through veins.

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  • 22. 

    Blood pressure is much lower in the veins than when compared to the _______.

    • A.

      Cappilaries

    • B.

      Arteries

    Correct Answer
    B. Arteries
    Explanation
    Blood pressure is much lower in the veins than when compared to the arteries because arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body at a higher pressure. As blood travels through the arteries, it encounters resistance from the narrow blood vessels, causing the blood pressure to be higher. In contrast, veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart at a lower pressure. This is because the blood has already delivered oxygen to the tissues and is now returning to the heart, so the pressure is reduced.

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  • 23. 

    Blood pressure is ________ in veins than in arteries.

    • A.

      Higher

    • B.

      Lower

    Correct Answer
    B. Lower
    Explanation
    Veins have thinner walls and larger lumens compared to arteries. This structural difference allows veins to accommodate a greater volume of blood at a lower pressure. Additionally, veins have one-way valves that prevent backflow of blood, further reducing pressure. As a result, blood pressure in veins is lower than in arteries.

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  • 24. 

    The smallest vein is called?

    • A.

      Mini vein

    • B.

      Venules

    Correct Answer
    B. Venules
    Explanation
    Venules are the smallest veins in the body. Veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart from various tissues and organs. Venules are the tiny blood vessels that collect blood from capillaries and then merge to form veins. They have thinner walls compared to larger veins and are responsible for transporting blood from capillaries to veins. Therefore, venules are the correct answer to the question.

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  • 25. 

    Venules join to make?

    • A.

      Veins

    • B.

      Arteries

    Correct Answer
    A. Veins
    Explanation
    Venules are small blood vessels that collect blood from capillaries and then join together to form veins. Veins are responsible for carrying deoxygenated blood back to the heart from various parts of the body. Therefore, the correct answer is veins.

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  • 26. 

    What tunic is the thickest in veins?

    • A.

      Tunica intima

    • B.

      Tunica media

    • C.

      Tunica external (adventitia)

    Correct Answer
    C. Tunica external (adventitia)
    Explanation
    The tunica external (adventitia) is the thickest tunic in veins. The tunica external is the outermost layer of the vein wall and is composed of connective tissue. It provides support and protection to the vein, helping to maintain its shape and prevent collapse. The tunica intima is the innermost layer and is composed of endothelial cells, while the tunica media is the middle layer and is composed of smooth muscle cells. However, in veins, the tunica external is typically thicker than the tunica media.

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  • 27. 

    Mechanism that counteracts the low venous pressure & gravity is all except?

    • A.

      Valves(in some veins)

    • B.

      Skeletal muscle pump

    • C.

      Respiratory pump

    • D.

      Tunica Media

    Correct Answer
    D. Tunica Media
    Explanation
    The tunica media is a layer of smooth muscle in the walls of blood vessels, including veins. It is responsible for regulating the diameter of the blood vessels and controlling blood flow. It does not counteract the low venous pressure and gravity. Valves in some veins prevent backflow of blood, the skeletal muscle pump helps propel blood back to the heart, and the respiratory pump assists in venous return by changes in thoracic pressure during breathing.

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  • 28. 

    Vein bundles form?

    • A.

      Vein bundles

    • B.

      Vein Plexus

    Correct Answer
    B. Vein Plexus
    Explanation
    Vein bundles form a network of veins in an organized and structured manner. They are composed of multiple veins that run parallel to each other, forming a bundle-like structure. On the other hand, a vein plexus refers to a complex network of veins that interconnect and form a web-like pattern. Therefore, the correct answer is "Vein Plexus" as it accurately describes the formation of veins in a plexus-like pattern rather than in a bundled form.

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  • 29. 

    3 major systemic veins enter the?

    • A.

      Left atrium

    • B.

      Right atrium

    Correct Answer
    B. Right atrium
    Explanation
    The correct answer is right atrium. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from three major systemic veins: the superior vena cava, which brings blood from the upper body; the inferior vena cava, which brings blood from the lower body; and the coronary sinus, which brings blood from the heart muscle itself. This deoxygenated blood is then pumped into the right ventricle, which will eventually pump it to the lungs for oxygenation.

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  • 30. 

    Veins anastomes are ___________ than  arteries.

    • A.

      Less likely

    • B.

      More likely

    Correct Answer
    B. More likely
    Explanation
    Veins anastomose more likely than arteries. This means that veins are more likely to have multiple connections or branches with other veins, allowing for alternative pathways for blood flow. In contrast, arteries tend to have fewer anastomoses, resulting in a more direct and linear flow of blood.

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  • 31. 

    Unsual patterns of venous drainage are?

    • A.

      Hepatic portal system only

    • B.

      Dural sinuses

    • C.

      Both a and b

    Correct Answer
    C. Both a and b
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "both a and b." This means that unusual patterns of venous drainage can occur in both the hepatic portal system and the dural sinuses. The hepatic portal system is responsible for draining blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. Dural sinuses, on the other hand, are venous channels located between the layers of the dura mater in the brain. These sinuses drain blood from the brain and other structures within the skull. Therefore, both of these systems can exhibit unusual patterns of venous drainage.

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  • 32. 

    Veins of the head and neck were?

    • A.

      Dural Sinus

    • B.

      Venous drainage

    • C.

      Both: Dural Sinus & Venous Drainage

    Correct Answer
    C. Both: Dural Sinus & Venous Drainage
    Explanation
    The veins of the head and neck include both the dural sinuses and the venous drainage system. The dural sinuses are a network of veins located between the layers of the dura mater, the outermost membrane covering the brain. They receive blood from various veins in the head and neck and ultimately drain into the internal jugular vein. The venous drainage system refers to the network of veins that collect blood from various tissues and organs in the head and neck and transport it back to the heart. Therefore, the correct answer is both the dural sinuses and venous drainage.

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  • 33. 

    Superficial veins are ?

    • A.

      Smaller than deep veins

    • B.

      Larger than deep veins

    Correct Answer
    B. Larger than deep veins
    Explanation
    Superficial veins are larger than deep veins because they are located closer to the surface of the body. Deep veins, on the other hand, are located deeper within the body and are usually smaller in size. Superficial veins are more visible and accessible, making them commonly used for procedures such as drawing blood or inserting intravenous lines.

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  • 34. 

    Antecubital fossa is the?

    • A.

      Inner elbow (contains the median cubital vein)

    • B.

      Outer elbow (contains the median cubital vein

    Correct Answer
    A. Inner elbow (contains the median cubital vein)
    Explanation
    The antecubital fossa refers to the inner elbow region of the arm. This area contains the median cubital vein, which is commonly used for venipuncture or drawing blood. The outer elbow does not contain the median cubital vein, making the inner elbow the correct answer.

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  • 35. 

    Veins of the Thorax are?

    • A.

      Azyogos vein

    • B.

      Hemiazygos vein

    • C.

      Accessory hemiazygos vein

    • D.

      Intercosta t1-t12

    • E.

      All: (Az, AC, He, In)

    Correct Answer
    E. All: (Az, AC, He, In)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is All: (Az, AC, He, In). This means that all of the listed veins (Azygos vein, Hemiazygos vein, Accessory hemiazygos vein, and Intercosta t1-t12) are veins of the Thorax.

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  • 36. 

    The Hepatic portal system is?

    • A.

      Part of the Vascular circuit

    • B.

      Picks up digested nutrients

    • C.

      Delivers to the liver

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The Hepatic portal system is a part of the Vascular circuit that picks up digested nutrients and delivers them to the liver. This system plays a crucial role in the absorption and transportation of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver for processing and storage. It ensures that the liver receives a constant supply of nutrients for various metabolic processes and detoxification. Therefore, the statement "all of the above" is correct as it encompasses all the mentioned functions of the Hepatic portal system.

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  • 37. 

    The cerebral arteirat circle (the brain) is also called the?

    • A.

      Circle of wilma

    • B.

      Circle of willis

    Correct Answer
    B. Circle of willis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Circle of Willis." The Circle of Willis is a circulatory anastomosis that connects the major arteries supplying blood to the brain. It is named after Thomas Willis, an English physician who first described it. The Circle of Willis helps to ensure a constant blood supply to the brain, even if there is a blockage or narrowing in one of the arteries. It is an important structure in the brain's vascular system.

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  • 38. 

    Anastomes means?

    • A.

      A vein receives blood from more than one arterial source

    • B.

      An organ receives blood from more than one arterial source.

    • C.

      An artery receives blood from more than one arterial source

    Correct Answer
    B. An organ receives blood from more than one arterial source.
    Explanation
    Anastomoses refers to a condition where an organ receives blood from more than one arterial source. This means that there are multiple arteries that supply blood to a specific organ, allowing for alternative routes and ensuring a continuous blood supply even if one of the arteries becomes blocked or damaged.

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  • 39. 

    Neighboring arteries make up arterial anastomes which use?

    • A.

      Channels

    • B.

      Collateral channels

    Correct Answer
    B. Collateral channels
    Explanation
    Arterial anastomoses are connections between neighboring arteries that provide alternative pathways for blood flow. These connections, known as collateral channels, allow blood to bypass any blockages or obstructions in the main arterial pathways. Collateral channels help ensure that tissues receive a sufficient blood supply even if there is a partial or complete blockage in one of the arteries.

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  • 40. 

    Capillaries are the ?

    • A.

      Largest vessels

    • B.

      Smallest vessels

    Correct Answer
    B. Smallest vessels
    Explanation
    Capillaries are the smallest vessels in the body. They are responsible for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and the surrounding tissues. Capillaries have thin walls that allow for easy diffusion of substances, and their small size ensures that every cell in the body is in close proximity to a capillary. This allows for efficient exchange of materials and is essential for the proper functioning of organs and tissues.

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  • 41. 

    _____ ______ cells pass through the capillaries in a ______ file.

    • A.

      White blood; single

    • B.

      Red blood; single

    Correct Answer
    B. Red blood; single
    Explanation
    Red blood cells pass through the capillaries in a single file. This is because the diameter of capillaries is only slightly larger than the diameter of red blood cells. The single file arrangement allows for efficient exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and surrounding tissues. White blood cells, on the other hand, are larger and less flexible than red blood cells, so they do not pass through the capillaries in a single file.

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  • 42. 

    The specific function for capillaries in the lungs are?

    • A.

      Oxygen enters blood & carbon exits

    • B.

      Receives digested nutrients

    Correct Answer
    A. Oxygen enters blood & carbon exits
    Explanation
    Capillaries in the lungs play a specific function of allowing oxygen to enter the blood and carbon dioxide to exit. This is a crucial process in respiration, as oxygen is needed for cellular respiration and carbon dioxide is a waste product that needs to be removed from the body. The thin walls of the capillaries allow for efficient exchange of these gases between the bloodstream and the air in the lungs, ensuring that oxygen is delivered to the body's cells and carbon dioxide is eliminated.

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  • 43. 

    The specific function for capillaries in the small intestine is?

    • A.

      Receives digested nutrients

    • B.

      Recieves food

    Correct Answer
    A. Receives digested nutrients
    Explanation
    Capillaries in the small intestine play a crucial role in the absorption of nutrients from the digested food. These tiny blood vessels are located in the walls of the small intestine and are responsible for receiving the digested nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, into the bloodstream. This allows for the efficient transport of these nutrients to various cells and tissues in the body, where they can be utilized for energy production, growth, and repair. Therefore, the function of capillaries in the small intestine is to receive the digested nutrients for further distribution throughout the body.

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  • 44. 

    The specific fucntion for capillaries in the Endocrine glands is?

    • A.

      Pick up hormones

    • B.

      Pick up oxygen

    Correct Answer
    A. Pick up hormones
    Explanation
    Capillaries in the endocrine glands are responsible for picking up hormones. Endocrine glands release hormones into the bloodstream, and capillaries help in the transportation of these hormones to their target organs or tissues. Capillaries have thin walls and a large surface area, allowing for efficient exchange of substances between the blood and the surrounding tissues. In the case of endocrine glands, capillaries specifically pick up hormones and carry them to their intended destinations in the body.

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  • 45. 

    The specific function of the capillaries in the Kineys is?

    • A.

      Removal of blood

    • B.

      Removal of nitrogen waste

    Correct Answer
    B. Removal of nitrogen waste
    Explanation
    The specific function of the capillaries in the kidneys is the removal of nitrogen waste. Capillaries in the kidneys play a crucial role in the filtration process known as glomerular filtration. During this process, waste products, including nitrogenous waste like urea, are removed from the blood and transported through the capillaries for excretion in the form of urine. This helps to maintain the body's nitrogen balance and prevent the buildup of harmful waste products in the bloodstream.

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  • 46. 

    Capillary beds are?

    • A.

      Network of capillaries running through the skin

    • B.

      Network of capillaires only in the head

    Correct Answer
    A. Network of capillaries running through the skin
    Explanation
    Capillary beds are networks of capillaries that are found throughout the body, not just in the head. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in the body and they connect arteries and veins. They are responsible for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and the surrounding tissues. Capillary beds are particularly abundant in the skin, where they play a crucial role in regulating body temperature and supplying nutrients to the skin cells.

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  • 47. 

    Capillary beds contain Precapillary sphincters, which regulate?

    • A.

      Flow of lymph

    • B.

      Flow of blood in tissue

    Correct Answer
    B. Flow of blood in tissue
    Explanation
    Capillary beds contain precapillary sphincters, which are small muscle fibers that regulate the flow of blood in tissue. These sphincters can constrict or dilate, controlling the amount of blood that enters the capillaries. When the sphincters constrict, the blood flow through the capillaries decreases, redirecting blood to other areas of the body. Conversely, when the sphincters dilate, the blood flow through the capillaries increases, allowing for more oxygen and nutrients to be delivered to the surrounding tissues. Therefore, the precapillary sphincters play a crucial role in regulating the flow of blood in tissue.

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  • 48. 

    Capillaries are permable due to four routes:

    • A.

      Diffusin

    • B.

      Vesicles

    • C.

      Clefts

    • D.

      Fernestations

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The capillaries are permeable due to four routes: diffusion, vesicles, clefts, and fenestrations. Diffusion allows small molecules to pass through the capillary walls, while vesicles are small sacs that transport larger molecules across the capillary walls. Clefts are gaps between endothelial cells that allow the passage of small molecules, and fenestrations are small pores in the capillary walls that allow the passage of larger molecules. Therefore, all of the above routes contribute to the permeability of capillaries.

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  • 49. 

    There are two types of cappilaries:

    • A.

      Continous (most common)

    • B.

      Ferenested (pores)

    • C.

      Both: Continous & fernested

    Correct Answer
    C. Both: Continous & fernested
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Both: Continuous & fenestrated." This means that there are two types of capillaries, both continuous and fenestrated. Continuous capillaries are the most common type and have a continuous endothelial lining without any gaps. Fenestrated capillaries, on the other hand, have small pores or openings in their endothelial lining, allowing for the exchange of larger molecules between the blood and surrounding tissues. So, both types of capillaries, continuous and fenestrated, exist in the body.

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  • 50. 

    A type of Ferenested capillary is?

    • A.

      Sinu

    • B.

      Soid

    • C.

      Sinusoids

    Correct Answer
    C. Sinusoids
    Explanation
    Sinusoids are a type of fenestrated capillary. Fenestrated capillaries are characterized by having small pores or fenestrations in their endothelial lining, allowing for increased permeability. Sinusoids are a specific type of fenestrated capillary found in organs such as the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. They have larger fenestrations and irregularly shaped endothelial cells, allowing for the passage of larger molecules and cells. Sinusoids play a crucial role in the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and immune cells between the blood and surrounding tissues.

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