Chapter 18: The Urinary System - Renal Function

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Chapter 18: The Urinary System - Renal Function - Quiz

It’s easy to take the things we do every day for granted; for instance, using the bathroom is something we do all the time without much thought about what goes on in the background. Do you know as much as you should about the urinary system, particularly renal function? Let’s find out!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which structure of the urinary system stores urine until its secreted?

    • A.

      Kidneys

    • B.

      Bladder

    • C.

      Ureter

    • D.

      Urethra

    • E.

      Gallbladder

    Correct Answer
    B. Bladder
    Explanation
    The bladder is the structure in the urinary system that stores urine until it is secreted. It is a muscular organ located in the pelvic region. The bladder expands as it fills with urine and contracts when it is time to release the urine through the urethra. The kidneys filter waste products from the blood and produce urine, which then travels through the ureters to the bladder for storage. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. The gallbladder, on the other hand, is part of the digestive system and stores bile produced by the liver.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is not one of the mechanisms by which a solute can be exchanged between the plasma and the renal tubules?

    • A.

      Glomerular filtration

    • B.

      Secretion

    • C.

      Excretion

    • D.

      Reabsorption

    Correct Answer
    C. Excretion
    Explanation
    Excretion is not one of the mechanisms by which a solute can be exchanged between the plasma and the renal tubules. Glomerular filtration is the process by which water and solutes are filtered from the blood into the renal tubules. Secretion is the process by which certain substances are actively transported from the blood into the renal tubules. Reabsorption is the process by which water and solutes are reabsorbed from the renal tubules back into the blood. Excretion, on the other hand, refers to the elimination of waste products from the body, usually through urine, and does not involve the exchange of solutes between the plasma and the renal tubules.

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  • 3. 

    Most reabsorption of water and solutes occurs in the

    • A.

      Proximal tubule

    • B.

      Descending limb of the loop of henle

    • C.

      Ascending limb of the loop of Henle

    • D.

      Distal tubule

    • E.

      Collecting duct

    Correct Answer
    A. Proximal tubule
    Explanation
    The proximal tubule is responsible for the majority of reabsorption of water and solutes in the nephron. It is located immediately after the glomerulus and is highly permeable to water and solutes. This allows for the reabsorption of important substances such as glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes back into the bloodstream. The proximal tubule also plays a role in maintaining pH balance by secreting hydrogen ions and reabsorbing bicarbonate ions. Overall, the proximal tubule is a crucial site for reabsorption in the kidney.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following would occur if the MAP increased from 99 mm Hg to 125 mm Hg?

    • A.

      Glomerular filtration rate would increase because of increased glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure.

    • B.

      Glomerular filtration rate would decrease because of increased Bowman's capsule hydrostatic pressure.

    • C.

      Glomerular filtration rate would not change because of autoregulation

    • D.

      GLomerular filtration rate would not change because of activation of the sympathetic nervous system

    Correct Answer
    C. Glomerular filtration rate would not change because of autoregulation
    Explanation
    Autoregulation is the ability of the kidneys to maintain a relatively constant glomerular filtration rate (GFR) despite changes in blood pressure. When the mean arterial pressure (MAP) increases, the afferent arterioles constrict to maintain a constant GFR. This constriction helps to offset the increase in hydrostatic pressure and prevent an excessive increase in GFR. Therefore, in this scenario, the glomerular filtration rate would not change because of autoregulation.

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  • 5. 

    Micturition occurs in response to

    • A.

      Relaxation of the detrusor muscle

    • B.

      Contraction of the internal and external urethral sphincters

    • C.

      Activation of parasympathetic neurons to the bladder

    • D.

      Activation of somatic motor neurons to the bladder

    Correct Answer
    C. Activation of parasympathetic neurons to the bladder
    Explanation
    Micturition refers to the process of urination. The activation of parasympathetic neurons to the bladder is the correct answer because these neurons stimulate the detrusor muscle, which is responsible for contracting the bladder. When the detrusor muscle contracts, it leads to the expulsion of urine from the bladder. Additionally, parasympathetic neurons also inhibit the contraction of the internal and external urethral sphincters, allowing for the smooth flow of urine through the urethra. Therefore, the activation of parasympathetic neurons to the bladder is necessary for micturition to occur.

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  • 6. 

    The (ureter / urethra) carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body.

    Correct Answer
    urethra
    Explanation
    The urethra is the correct answer because it is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. The urethra is located in both males and females, but it has different functions in each. In males, the urethra also carries semen during ejaculation, while in females, it is solely responsible for the elimination of urine.

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  • 7. 

    The (afferent / efferent) arteriole carries blood toward the glomerulus

    Correct Answer
    afferent
    Explanation
    The afferent arteriole carries blood toward the glomerulus. This is because the afferent arteriole is responsible for supplying blood to the glomerulus, which is a network of capillaries in the kidney. The glomerulus plays a crucial role in the filtration of blood and the formation of urine. Therefore, the afferent arteriole, by carrying blood toward the glomerulus, ensures that the necessary blood supply is provided for the filtration process.

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  • 8. 

    The hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries is (higher / lower) than that in most capillaries of the body.

    Correct Answer
    higher
    Explanation
    The hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries is higher than that in most capillaries of the body because of the unique structure and function of the glomerulus. The glomerulus is a specialized network of capillaries located in the kidney, where filtration of blood takes place. The high hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries is necessary to drive the filtration process, allowing for the removal of waste products and excess water from the blood. This high pressure is maintained by the afferent arteriole, which has a larger diameter compared to the efferent arteriole, creating a bottleneck effect and causing increased pressure within the glomerular capillaries.

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  • 9. 

    The glomerular filtration rate tends to (increase / decrease) as the concentration of proteins in the plasma incrases.

    Correct Answer
    decrease
    Explanation
    The glomerular filtration rate tends to decrease as the concentration of proteins in the plasma increases. This is because proteins in the plasma create an osmotic pressure that opposes the filtration process in the glomerulus. As the concentration of proteins increases, the osmotic pressure also increases, making it more difficult for fluid to be filtered through the glomerulus. As a result, the glomerular filtration rate decreases.

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  • 10. 

    Autonomic neurons regulate contraction of the (internal / external) urethral sphincter

    Correct Answer
    internal
    Explanation
    Autonomic neurons regulate the contraction of the internal urethral sphincter. This means that these neurons control the opening and closing of the muscle that surrounds the internal urethral sphincter, which is located inside the body. The contraction of the internal urethral sphincter helps to prevent the involuntary leakage of urine by keeping the urethra closed.

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  • 11. 

    The glomerular filtration pressure is synonymous with the hydrostatic pressure inside glomerular capillaries - T or False

    Correct Answer
    false
    Explanation
    The glomerular filtration pressure is not synonymous with the hydrostatic pressure inside glomerular capillaries. While hydrostatic pressure does play a role in glomerular filtration, it is just one component of the overall glomerular filtration pressure. Glomerular filtration pressure is determined by the balance between hydrostatic pressure and opposing forces such as colloid osmotic pressure and capsular pressure.

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  • 12. 

    Substances that are reabsorbed move into the (peritubular capillaries / tubule lumen).

    Correct Answer
    peritubular capillaries
    Explanation
    Substances that are reabsorbed move into the peritubular capillaries. This is because the peritubular capillaries surround the renal tubules in the kidneys, and they are responsible for reabsorbing filtered substances back into the bloodstream. As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, certain substances such as glucose, water, and ions are selectively reabsorbed by the peritubular capillaries, allowing them to be returned to the circulation. Therefore, the correct answer is peritubular capillaries.

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  • 13. 

    An increase in the flow rate through the macula densa causes a(n) (increase / decrease) in the glomerular filtration rate.

    Correct Answer
    decrease
    Explanation
    An increase in the flow rate through the macula densa causes a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. This is because the macula densa is a specialized group of cells located in the kidney that can sense changes in the flow rate of fluid passing through the distal convoluted tubule. When the flow rate is high, it indicates that there is excess fluid in the tubule and the macula densa signals the afferent arteriole to constrict. This constriction reduces the blood flow into the glomerulus, leading to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate.

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  • 14. 

    Glucose reabsorption occurs primarily in the (proximal tubule / distal tubule)

    Correct Answer
    proximal tubule
    Explanation
    Glucose reabsorption occurs primarily in the proximal tubule of the nephron. This is because the proximal tubule is responsible for the majority of reabsorption in the kidney. Glucose is filtered out of the blood in the glomerulus and then reabsorbed back into the bloodstream in the proximal tubule. This process is facilitated by glucose transporters in the tubular cells. Once reabsorbed, glucose can be used by the body for energy or stored for later use. The distal tubule, on the other hand, is primarily responsible for fine-tuning the reabsorption and excretion of various substances, but not glucose.

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