Chapter 13: Sensory SySTEM

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Chapter 13: Sensory System - Quiz

We all know them; sight, touch, sound, taste and smell – but how much do you really know about how your five primary senses operate? Take the following quiz and answer all of our questions on the sensory system to see if you know as much as you should about the way you perceive the world.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the name of the specialized area of a sensory neuron that detects a specific stimulus?

    • A.

      Tract

    • B.

      Receptor

    • C.

      Dorsal root

    • D.

      Node of Ranvier

    Correct Answer
    B. Receptor
    Explanation
    A receptor is the specialized area of a sensory neuron that detects a specific stimulus. Receptors are responsible for converting the stimulus into electrical signals that can be transmitted to the brain for interpretation. They are located in various parts of the body and are designed to detect specific types of stimuli, such as light, sound, pressure, temperature, or chemicals. Receptors play a crucial role in our ability to perceive and respond to the world around us.

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  • 2. 

    Photoreceptors detect

    • A.

      Heat

    • B.

      Acid

    • C.

      Light

    • D.

      Tissue distortion

    Correct Answer
    C. Light
    Explanation
    Photoreceptors are specialized cells in the retina of the eye that are responsible for detecting and responding to light. They contain light-sensitive pigments that convert light energy into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain for visual processing. This allows us to perceive and interpret the visual stimuli in our environment. Therefore, the correct answer is light.

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  • 3. 

    A nociceptor detects

    • A.

      Pain

    • B.

      Light

    • C.

      Radiation

    • D.

      [H+]

    Correct Answer
    A. Pain
    Explanation
    A nociceptor is a sensory receptor that detects and responds to pain. It is responsible for transmitting signals to the brain when there is potential or actual tissue damage, resulting in the perception of pain. Nociceptors are found throughout the body and can be activated by various stimuli such as heat, pressure, or chemicals released during inflammation. Therefore, the correct answer is pain.

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  • 4. 

    The gustatory sensation is most related to the

    • A.

      Eight cranial nerve

    • B.

      Rods and cones

    • C.

      Organ of Corti

    • D.

      Taste buds

    Correct Answer
    D. Taste buds
    Explanation
    The gustatory sensation refers to the sense of taste. Taste buds are the sensory organs responsible for detecting different tastes such as sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. They are located on the tongue and other parts of the oral cavity. When food or drink comes into contact with taste buds, they send signals to the brain through the nervous system, specifically the cranial nerve. Therefore, the gustatory sensation is most related to taste buds.

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  • 5. 

    The colored part of the eye that contains the intrinsic eye muscles: the circular muscle and the radial muscles

    • A.

      Suspensory ligaments

    • B.

      Iris

    • C.

      Retina

    • D.

      Macula lutea

    Correct Answer
    B. Iris
    Explanation
    The iris is the colored part of the eye that contains the intrinsic eye muscles, including the circular muscle and the radial muscles. These muscles control the size of the pupil, allowing it to constrict or dilate in response to light. The iris also plays a role in determining eye color. The suspensory ligaments are responsible for attaching the lens to the ciliary body, while the retina is the layer of tissue at the back of the eye that contains light-sensitive cells. The macula lutea is a small area in the center of the retina responsible for detailed central vision.

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  • 6. 

    This structure is attached to the lens, causing its shape to be changed

    • A.

      Retina

    • B.

      Iris

    • C.

      Cornea

    • D.

      Suspensory ligaments

    Correct Answer
    D. Suspensory ligaments
    Explanation
    The suspensory ligaments are responsible for attaching the lens to the ciliary body in the eye. When the ciliary muscles contract or relax, it causes tension on the suspensory ligaments, which in turn changes the shape of the lens. This change in shape allows the eye to focus on objects at different distances, helping to adjust the clarity of vision.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is least related to the retina?

    • A.

      Rods and cones

    • B.

      Fovea centralis

    • C.

      Cornea

    • D.

      Macula lutea

    Correct Answer
    C. Cornea
    Explanation
    The cornea is the transparent outermost layer of the eye that helps to focus light onto the retina. It is not a part of the retina itself, but rather a structure that works in conjunction with the retina. The rods and cones, fovea centralis, and macula lutea, on the other hand, are all directly related to the retina. The rods and cones are photoreceptor cells in the retina that help with vision in low light and color vision respectively. The fovea centralis is a small depression in the retina that is responsible for sharp central vision. The macula lutea is a yellow spot in the retina that contains a high concentration of cones and is important for detailed central vision.

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  • 8. 

    The cerebral lobe is concerned primarily with vision

    • A.

      Precentral gyrus

    • B.

      Postcentral gyrus

    • C.

      Occipital

    • D.

      Corpus callosum

    Correct Answer
    C. Occipital
    Explanation
    The occipital lobe is primarily responsible for processing visual information. It is located at the back of the brain and contains the primary visual cortex, which receives and interprets visual signals from the eyes. This lobe plays a crucial role in visual perception, such as recognizing shapes, colors, and movements. Therefore, the occipital lobe is the correct answer as it is directly associated with vision.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following structures secretes tears?

    • A.

      Lacrimal gland

    • B.

      Optic disc

    • C.

      Canal of Schlemm

    • D.

      Ciliary body

    Correct Answer
    A. Lacrimal gland
    Explanation
    The lacrimal gland is responsible for secreting tears. Tears are essential for lubricating the eyes, keeping them moist, and protecting them from foreign particles. The lacrimal gland is located above the outer corner of each eye and produces tears that are spread across the surface of the eye every time we blink. This helps to keep the eye clean and maintain its health. The other structures mentioned, such as the optic disc, canal of Schlemm, and ciliary body, do not secrete tears.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following structures is located on the outside of the eye?

    • A.

      Conjunctiva

    • B.

      Ciliary body

    • C.

      Lens

    • D.

      Vitreous humor

    Correct Answer
    A. Conjunctiva
    Explanation
    The conjunctiva is a thin, transparent membrane that covers the front surface of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelids. It acts as a protective barrier, preventing foreign particles from entering the eye. It also produces mucus to keep the eye moist. The ciliary body is located inside the eye and helps to control the shape of the lens. The lens is located behind the iris and helps to focus light onto the retina. The vitreous humor is a gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina, providing support to the eye.

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  • 11. 

    Rods

    • A.

      Are concentrated in the macula lutea

    • B.

      Detect red, yellow, and blue colors

    • C.

      Are concerned with night vision

    • D.

      Are located in the occipital lobe

    Correct Answer
    C. Are concerned with night vision
    Explanation
    Rods are photoreceptor cells in the retina that are responsible for vision in low light conditions, such as night vision. They are more sensitive to light than cones, the other type of photoreceptor cells in the retina. Rods do not detect color, but rather provide black and white vision. They are concentrated in the peripheral regions of the retina, which is why our central vision is less effective in low light conditions. Therefore, the statement "rods are concerned with night vision" is correct.

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  • 12. 

    This layer of the eyebal supplies blood to the retina

    • A.

      Rods and cones

    • B.

      Sclera

    • C.

      Choroid

    • D.

      Iris

    Correct Answer
    C. Choroid
    Explanation
    The choroid is the layer of the eyeball that supplies blood to the retina. It is located between the retina and the sclera, and it contains numerous blood vessels that provide oxygen and nutrients to the retinal cells. The rods and cones are photoreceptor cells in the retina that are responsible for detecting light and transmitting visual information to the brain. The sclera is the tough, white outer layer of the eyeball, and the iris is the colored part of the eye that controls the size of the pupil.

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  • 13. 

    The superior rectus muscle

    • A.

      Causes miosis

    • B.

      Causes mydriasis

    • C.

      Moves the eyeball

    • D.

      Regulated accomodation

    Correct Answer
    C. Moves the eyeball
    Explanation
    The superior rectus muscle is responsible for moving the eyeball. It is one of the six extraocular muscles that control the movement of the eye. When the superior rectus muscle contracts, it causes the eye to move upward, while relaxation of the muscle allows the eye to return to its primary position. This muscle plays a crucial role in vertical eye movements and helps to maintain proper alignment and coordination of both eyes.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is located in the posterior cavity of the eyeball?

    • A.

      Vitreous humor

    • B.

      Cornea

    • C.

      Lens

    • D.

      Ciliary muscle

    Correct Answer
    A. Vitreous humor
    Explanation
    The vitreous humor is located in the posterior cavity of the eyeball. It is a clear, gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina. The vitreous humor helps maintain the shape of the eyeball, provides support to the retina, and helps transmit light to the retina for visual perception. It also plays a role in maintaining intraocular pressure and protecting the delicate structures within the eye.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is least related to the optic nerve?

    • A.

      Cranial nerve II

    • B.

      Sensory nerve

    • C.

      Conveys information from the retina to the occipital lobe

    • D.

      Innervates the extrinsic eye muscles

    Correct Answer
    D. Innervates the extrinsic eye muscles
    Explanation
    The optic nerve is responsible for transmitting visual information from the retina to the occipital lobe in the brain. It is a sensory nerve that carries visual signals, making the second option incorrect. Cranial nerve II is another name for the optic nerve, so it is directly related and not least related. The extrinsic eye muscles are responsible for controlling eye movements and are not directly related to the function of the optic nerve, making the last option the correct answer.

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  • 16. 

    An increase of intraocular pressure is most likely to cause

    • A.

      Cataracts

    • B.

      Damage to the retina, leading to blindness

    • C.

      Macular degeneration

    • D.

      Night blindness

    Correct Answer
    B. Damage to the retina, leading to blindness
    Explanation
    An increase in intraocular pressure can lead to damage to the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. This damage can occur when the pressure inside the eye becomes too high and compresses the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the retina. Without proper blood flow, the cells in the retina can become damaged or die, leading to vision loss and potentially blindness. Therefore, the correct answer is damage to the retina, leading to blindness.

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  • 17. 

    The sclera

    • A.

      Is the outer layer of the eyeball

    • B.

      Contains the rods and cones

    • C.

      Scretes aqueous humor

    • D.

      Is the attachment site for the suspensory ligaments

    Correct Answer
    A. Is the outer layer of the eyeball
    Explanation
    The sclera is the outer layer of the eyeball, providing structural support and protection to the delicate inner components of the eye. It is a tough, fibrous tissue that covers most of the eyeball's surface, except for the cornea. The sclera helps maintain the shape of the eye and plays a crucial role in maintaining proper eye function.

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  • 18. 

    A cataract is a

    • A.

      Retinal detachment

    • B.

      Bulging optic disc

    • C.

      Cloudy lens

    • D.

      Scarred cornea

    Correct Answer
    C. Cloudy lens
    Explanation
    A cataract is a condition characterized by the clouding of the lens of the eye. This cloudiness affects the clarity and sharpness of vision. It occurs when proteins in the lens clump together, causing opacity and obstructing the passage of light to the retina. As a result, vision becomes blurry and less vibrant. Cataracts are commonly associated with aging, but can also be caused by other factors such as injury, certain medications, or underlying medical conditions. Treatment for cataracts usually involves surgical removal of the cloudy lens and replacement with an artificial one.

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  • 19. 

    What is the location of the semicircular canals and the cochlea?

    • A.

      Inner ear

    • B.

      Middle ear

    • C.

      Outer ear

    • D.

      Pharynx

    Correct Answer
    A. Inner ear
    Explanation
    The semicircular canals and the cochlea are located in the inner ear. The inner ear is a complex structure that plays a crucial role in hearing and balance. The semicircular canals are responsible for detecting rotational movements of the head, while the cochlea is involved in the process of hearing. Located deep within the skull, the inner ear is protected by the temporal bone and is filled with fluid that helps transmit sound vibrations and signals to the brain.

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  • 20. 

    The malleusm incus, and stapes are called

    • A.

      Organ of Corti

    • B.

      Hearing receptors

    • C.

      Ossicles

    • D.

      Cartilage

    Correct Answer
    C. Ossicles
    Explanation
    The malleus, incus, and stapes are called ossicles. These three small bones are located in the middle ear and play a crucial role in the transmission of sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The malleus is attached to the eardrum and transfers the vibrations to the incus, which then passes them on to the stapes. The stapes, in turn, transmits the vibrations to the fluid-filled cochlea in the inner ear, where the actual process of hearing takes place. Therefore, the term "ossicles" accurately describes these three bones and their function in the auditory system.

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  • 21. 

    These hairlike recptors are located in the cochlea

    • A.

      Ossicles

    • B.

      Rods and cones

    • C.

      Organ of Corti

    • D.

      Adenoids

    Correct Answer
    C. Organ of Corti
    Explanation
    The organ of Corti is a structure located in the cochlea of the inner ear. It contains hairlike receptors called hair cells that are responsible for converting sound vibrations into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain. These hair cells play a crucial role in the process of hearing. Therefore, the organ of Corti is the correct answer as it is specifically associated with the cochlea and its function in auditory perception.

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  • 22. 

    What is the name of the tube that connects the pharynx and middle ear?

    • A.

      Vestibule

    • B.

      Oval window

    • C.

      Eustachian

    • D.

      Cochlea

    Correct Answer
    C. Eustachian
    Explanation
    The tube that connects the pharynx and middle ear is called the eustachian tube. This tube helps to equalize the pressure between the middle ear and the outside environment, allowing the eardrum to vibrate properly and preventing discomfort or hearing issues. The vestibule, oval window, and cochlea are all structures within the ear, but they do not connect the pharynx and middle ear.

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  • 23. 

    This structure seperates the outer ear from the middle ear

    • A.

      Tympanic membrane

    • B.

      Pinna

    • C.

      Round window

    • D.

      Oval window

    Correct Answer
    A. Tympanic membrane
    Explanation
    The tympanic membrane, also known as the eardrum, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the outer ear from the middle ear. It vibrates in response to sound waves, transmitting these vibrations to the bones of the middle ear. This structure plays a crucial role in the process of hearing, as it converts sound waves into mechanical vibrations that can be further processed by the middle and inner ear.

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  • 24. 

    This ossicle sits in the oval window

    • A.

      Malleus

    • B.

      Hammer

    • C.

      Stapes

    • D.

      Incus

    Correct Answer
    C. Stapes
    Explanation
    The stapes is the correct answer because it is one of the three ossicles in the middle ear, along with the malleus and incus. It is commonly known as the "stirrup" due to its shape, and it connects to the oval window of the inner ear. The stapes plays a crucial role in transmitting sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear, where they are converted into electrical signals for the brain to interpret.

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  • 25. 

    Bone conduction occurs here

    • A.

      Outer ear

    • B.

      Middle ear

    • C.

      Inner ear

    • D.

      Semicircular canals

    Correct Answer
    B. Middle ear
    Explanation
    The middle ear is the correct answer because it is the part of the ear where bone conduction occurs. Bone conduction is the process by which sound waves are transmitted through the bones of the skull, bypassing the outer and middle ear, and directly stimulating the inner ear. The middle ear contains three small bones called the ossicles (the malleus, incus, and stapes) which vibrate in response to sound waves and transmit them to the inner ear. Therefore, the middle ear is responsible for transmitting sound vibrations to the inner ear through bone conduction.

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  • 26. 

    Cerumen collects hear

    • A.

      Middle ear

    • B.

      Inner ear

    • C.

      Outer ear

    • D.

      Eustachian tube

    Correct Answer
    C. Outer ear
    Explanation
    The correct answer is outer ear. Cerumen, also known as earwax, is produced by the ceruminous glands in the outer ear canal. Its purpose is to trap dust, dirt, and other particles, preventing them from reaching the delicate structures of the middle and inner ear. Therefore, cerumen collects in the outer ear.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is least related to the vestibulocochlear nerve?

    • A.

      Cranial nerve VIII

    • B.

      The cochlear branch send info to the temporal lobe

    • C.

      Concerned with both hearing and balance

    • D.

      Classified as a motor nerve

    Correct Answer
    D. Classified as a motor nerve
    Explanation
    The vestibulocochlear nerve is primarily responsible for transmitting auditory and vestibular information from the inner ear to the brain. It is not classified as a motor nerve because it does not directly control any muscles or movements. Instead, it is a sensory nerve that carries information related to hearing and balance.

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  • 28. 

    The semicircular canals are concerned with

    • A.

      Secretion of cerumen

    • B.

      Equalizing pressure across the tympanic membrane

    • C.

      Balance

    • D.

      Smell

    Correct Answer
    C. Balance
    Explanation
    The semicircular canals are part of the inner ear and are responsible for maintaining balance. They contain fluid-filled canals that detect rotational movements of the head. When the head moves, the fluid in the canals also moves, which stimulates hair cells and sends signals to the brain about the body's position and movement. This information is crucial for maintaining balance and coordinating movements. Therefore, the semicircular canals are primarily concerned with balance.

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  • 29. 

    This cerebral lobe is concerned primarily with hearing

    • A.

      Occipital

    • B.

      Cerebellum

    • C.

      Corpus callosum

    • D.

      Temporal lobe

    Correct Answer
    D. Temporal lobe
    Explanation
    The temporal lobe is primarily responsible for processing auditory information and is therefore concerned primarily with hearing. It is located on the sides of the brain, above the ears, and plays a crucial role in interpreting sounds, recognizing speech, and understanding language. Additionally, the temporal lobe is also involved in memory, emotion, and some aspects of visual perception.

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  • 30. 

    What is the condition caused by impaired drainage of aqueous humor through the canal od Schlemm that increases introcular pressure?

    • A.

      Cataracts

    • B.

      Glaucoma

    • C.

      Strabismus

    • D.

      Conjunctivitis

    Correct Answer
    B. Glaucoma
    Explanation
    Glaucoma is a condition caused by impaired drainage of aqueous humor through the canal of Schlemm, leading to increased intraocular pressure. This increased pressure can damage the optic nerve and result in vision loss. Cataracts, strabismus, and conjunctivitis are unrelated conditions and do not involve impaired drainage of aqueous humor.

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  • 31. 

    Rods and cones are called

    • A.

      Glial cells

    • B.

      Refracting strucutres

    • C.

      Visual reflexes

    • D.

      Receptors

    Correct Answer
    D. Receptors
    Explanation
    Rods and cones are called receptors because they are specialized cells in the retina of the eye that detect and respond to light. Rods are responsible for vision in low light conditions, while cones are responsible for color vision and visual acuity in bright light. These cells convert light signals into electrical signals that can be transmitted to the brain for visual processing and perception. Thus, the term "receptors" accurately describes the function of rods and cones in detecting and responding to visual stimuli.

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  • 32. 

    What is the condition caused by unequal tension exerted by the extrinsic eye muscles?

    • A.

      "pink eye"

    • B.

      Strabismus

    • C.

      Glaucoma

    • D.

      Cataracts

    Correct Answer
    B. Strabismus
    Explanation
    Strabismus is a condition caused by unequal tension exerted by the extrinsic eye muscles. It is commonly known as "crossed eyes" or "squint." In this condition, the eyes are not aligned properly and do not work together to focus on an object. This can lead to double vision and a decrease in depth perception. Strabismus can occur due to various factors, such as muscle imbalance, nerve issues, or problems with the control center in the brain. Prompt treatment is necessary to prevent further complications and to improve eye coordination.

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  • 33. 

    What does a "choked disc" indicate?

    • A.

      Increases intraocular pressure

    • B.

      Glaucoma

    • C.

      Increased intracranial pressure

    • D.

      Strabismus

    Correct Answer
    C. Increased intracranial pressure
    Explanation
    A "choked disc" refers to a condition known as papilledema, which is characterized by swelling of the optic disc due to increased pressure within the skull. This increased intracranial pressure can occur as a result of various conditions such as brain tumors, meningitis, or hydrocephalus. Therefore, a "choked disc" indicates increased intracranial pressure rather than any of the other options listed.

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  • 34. 

    What is the effect of contraction and relaxation of the ciliary muscle?

    • A.

      Dilated pupil

    • B.

      Change in shape of the lens

    • C.

      Raised eyelid

    • D.

      Blinking

    Correct Answer
    B. Change in shape of the lens
    Explanation
    The ciliary muscle is responsible for controlling the shape of the lens in the eye. When the ciliary muscle contracts, it causes the lens to become thicker, allowing the eye to focus on near objects. Conversely, when the ciliary muscle relaxes, the lens becomes thinner, enabling the eye to focus on distant objects. Therefore, the effect of contraction and relaxation of the ciliary muscle is a change in the shape of the lens, which is essential for adjusting the eye's focus.

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  • 35. 

    This gel'like substance gently pushes the retina against the choroid and maintains the shape of the eyeball

    • A.

      Aqueous humor

    • B.

      Vitreous humor

    • C.

      Lacrimal secretions

    • D.

      Perilymph

    Correct Answer
    B. Vitreous humor
    Explanation
    The vitreous humor is a gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina in the eyeball. It helps to maintain the shape of the eyeball by gently pushing the retina against the choroid. This substance also helps to transmit light to the retina and provides support to the delicate structures within the eye. The vitreous humor is composed mostly of water and other substances such as collagen fibers, hyaluronic acid, and proteins.

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  • 36. 

    What is the function of the vestibule and the semicircular canals?

    • A.

      Hearing

    • B.

      Smell

    • C.

      Balance

    • D.

      Touch and pressure

    Correct Answer
    C. Balance
    Explanation
    The vestibule and the semicircular canals are responsible for maintaining balance. They are part of the inner ear and play a crucial role in detecting changes in head position and movement. The vestibule detects linear acceleration and the position of the head relative to gravity, while the semicircular canals detect rotational movements. This information is then sent to the brain, which helps us maintain our balance and coordinate our movements.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following is most related to refraction?

    • A.

      Rods and cones

    • B.

      Retinas

    • C.

      Lens

    • D.

      Light

    Correct Answer
    C. Lens
    Explanation
    Refraction is the bending of light as it passes through different mediums. The lens is directly involved in the process of refraction as it is responsible for focusing light onto the retina in the eye. The rods and cones are photoreceptor cells in the retina that detect light, but they are not directly related to refraction. Therefore, the lens is the most related to refraction among the given options.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following is one of the special senses?

    • A.

      Touch

    • B.

      Pain

    • C.

      Balance

    • D.

      Proprioception

    Correct Answer
    C. Balance
    Explanation
    Balance is considered one of the special senses because it is a complex sensory system that helps us maintain our body's stability and orientation in space. It involves the integration of information from multiple sensory systems, including the inner ear, vision, and proprioception. The sense of balance allows us to maintain an upright posture, coordinate movements, and navigate our environment effectively.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is concerned with the sense of smell?

    • A.

      Vestibulocochlear nerve

    • B.

      Eighth cranial nerve

    • C.

      Organ of Corti

    • D.

      Olfacation

    Correct Answer
    D. Olfacation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is olfaction. Olfaction refers to the sense of smell. It is the process by which our olfactory receptors in the nose detect and interpret different odors. The other options mentioned in the question are not related to the sense of smell. The vestibulocochlear nerve is responsible for hearing and balance, the eighth cranial nerve is another name for the vestibulocochlear nerve, and the organ of Corti is a structure in the inner ear that is involved in hearing.

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  • 40. 

    There is a heavy concentration of cones in this area of the retina

    • A.

      Fovea centralis

    • B.

      Iris

    • C.

      Optic disc

    • D.

      Cornea

    Correct Answer
    A. Fovea centralis
    Explanation
    The fovea centralis is the area of the retina that contains a high concentration of cones, which are specialized photoreceptor cells responsible for color vision and visual acuity. The fovea centralis is located at the center of the retina and is responsible for our sharpest and clearest vision. This high concentration of cones allows for a greater level of detail and color perception in the central area of our visual field.

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  • 41. 

    What is the name is the venous sinuses that drains the aqueous humor?

    • A.

      Lateral canthus

    • B.

      Macula lutea

    • C.

      Canal of Schlemm

    • D.

      Pupil

    Correct Answer
    C. Canal of Schlemm
    Explanation
    The canal of Schlemm is a venous sinus that drains the aqueous humor, the clear fluid that fills the front part of the eye. It is located in the angle between the cornea and the iris, and it helps regulate the pressure inside the eye by allowing the excess fluid to drain out. The other options listed in the question, such as lateral canthus, macula lutea, and pupil, are not directly involved in draining the aqueous humor.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following is considered the blind spot?

    • A.

      Macula lutea

    • B.

      Optic chiasm

    • C.

      Fovea centralis

    • D.

      Optic disc

    Correct Answer
    D. Optic disc
    Explanation
    The blind spot refers to the area on the retina where the optic nerve exits the eye, known as the optic disc. This area lacks photoreceptor cells, which are responsible for detecting light and transmitting visual information to the brain. As a result, no visual information can be perceived in this region, creating a blind spot in our field of vision. The macula lutea is a small yellowish spot near the center of the retina responsible for detailed central vision, while the optic chiasm is the point where the optic nerves from each eye cross over. The fovea centralis is a small depression in the macula lutea where visual acuity is highest.

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  • 43. 

    In this condition, the eyelid is not completely raised, thereby making the person appear sleepy

    • A.

      Glaucoma

    • B.

      Cataracts

    • C.

      Ptosis of the lid

    • D.

      Lid lag

    Correct Answer
    C. Ptosis of the lid
    Explanation
    Ptosis of the lid refers to the drooping or sagging of the upper eyelid. This condition can cause the eyelid to not be completely raised, giving the appearance of sleepiness. Glaucoma and cataracts are eye conditions that do not directly cause eyelid drooping. Lid lag, on the other hand, refers to a condition where the upper eyelid does not move as quickly as the eye when looking down. Therefore, the most appropriate explanation for the given answer is ptosis of the lid.

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  • 44. 

    Myopia, farsightness, and astigmatism are

    • A.

      Errors of refraction

    • B.

      Infections of the eye

    • C.

      Types of strabismus

    • D.

      Conditions of elevated intracular pressure

    Correct Answer
    A. Errors of refraction
    Explanation
    Myopia, farsightedness, and astigmatism are all conditions that affect the way light is refracted or bent as it enters the eye. Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, causes distant objects to appear blurry. Farsightedness, on the other hand, makes nearby objects appear blurry. Astigmatism is a condition where the cornea or lens is irregularly shaped, causing blurred vision at all distances. These conditions are all examples of errors of refraction, where the eye is unable to properly focus light onto the retina, leading to vision problems.

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  • 45. 

    Lysozyme, an enzyme with antimicrobial activity, is found in

    • A.

      Tears

    • B.

      Vitreous humor

    • C.

      Aqueous humor

    • D.

      Endolymph

    Correct Answer
    A. Tears
    Explanation
    Lysozyme is an enzyme that has antimicrobial properties, meaning it can kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. It is found in tears, among other bodily fluids. Tears contain lysozyme to help protect the eyes from potential infections. When foreign particles or microorganisms come into contact with the eyes, lysozyme in tears can help to break down their cell walls and prevent infection. Therefore, tears are a natural defense mechanism of the eyes, containing lysozyme to fight against microbial invaders.

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  • 46. 

    The eustachian tube connects the pharynx (throat) with this structure

    • A.

      Cochlea

    • B.

      Semicircular canals

    • C.

      Middle ear

    • D.

      External auditory meatus

    Correct Answer
    C. Middle ear
    Explanation
    The eustachian tube connects the pharynx (throat) with the middle ear. This tube helps to equalize the pressure between the middle ear and the environment, preventing discomfort and potential damage to the eardrum. It allows air to enter or exit the middle ear, maintaining a balance of pressure on both sides of the eardrum.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following is most related to the sense of hearing?

    • A.

      Semicircular canals

    • B.

      First cranial nerve

    • C.

      Organ of Corti

    • D.

      Vestibular nerve

    Correct Answer
    C. Organ of Corti
    Explanation
    The organ of Corti is most related to the sense of hearing. It is located in the cochlea of the inner ear and contains specialized hair cells that convert sound vibrations into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the brain. The semicircular canals are responsible for detecting rotational movements and maintaining balance, while the first cranial nerve (olfactory nerve) is related to the sense of smell. The vestibular nerve is responsible for transmitting information about balance and spatial orientation.

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  • 48. 

    What is another name for tympanic membrane?

    • A.

      Eardrum

    • B.

      Stirrup

    • C.

      Oval window

    • D.

      Organ of Corti

    Correct Answer
    A. Eardrum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is eardrum. The tympanic membrane is commonly referred to as the eardrum. It is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the outer ear from the middle ear. It vibrates in response to sound waves and transmits these vibrations to the middle ear, where they are further amplified and transmitted to the inner ear.

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  • 49. 

    The ossicle picks of vibrations from the tympanic membrane

    • A.

      Stapes

    • B.

      Malleus

    • C.

      Stirrup

    • D.

      Incus

    Correct Answer
    B. Malleus
    Explanation
    The malleus is one of the three ossicles in the middle ear, along with the incus and stapes. Its main function is to transmit vibrations from the tympanic membrane (eardrum) to the inner ear. The malleus is connected to the tympanic membrane on one end and to the incus on the other end. When sound waves hit the eardrum, it vibrates, causing the malleus to move. This movement then transfers the vibrations to the incus and eventually to the stapes, which transmits the sound to the inner ear. Therefore, the malleus is responsible for picking up vibrations from the tympanic membrane.

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  • 50. 

    Cerumen is

    • A.

      Earwax

    • B.

      Inner ear fluid

    • C.

      Fluid that bends the organ of Corti

    • D.

      Inner ear fluid that stimulates the balance receptors in the semicircular canals

    Correct Answer
    A. Earwax
    Explanation
    Cerumen refers to earwax, which is a waxy substance produced by glands in the ear canal. It serves as a protective barrier, trapping dust, debris, and bacteria, and preventing them from reaching the delicate structures of the inner ear. Earwax also helps to lubricate the ear canal, preventing dryness and itching. Its production and composition can vary from person to person, and excessive buildup of earwax can lead to hearing problems or discomfort. Regular cleaning of the ear canal is necessary to maintain proper ear hygiene.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 25, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Nenegto04
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