Chapter 12 2D Imaging

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Chapter 12 2D Imaging - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What characteristics of sound make it difficult to create two dimensional images?

    • A.

      Sound travels only in a straight line

    • B.

      Sound beams must be narrow to opitmize lateral resolution

    • C.

      Multiple pulses

    • D.

      Less pulses

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Sound travels only in a straight line
    B. Sound beams must be narrow to opitmize lateral resolution
    Explanation
    Sound travels only in a straight line and sound beams must be narrow to optimize lateral resolution. These characteristics of sound make it difficult to create two-dimensional images because sound cannot easily bend or spread out in different directions like light waves do. This means that sound waves can only travel in a straight line, limiting their ability to create a comprehensive image of an object or space. Additionally, sound beams need to be narrow in order to achieve high resolution, which further restricts their ability to capture a wide range of information in a two-dimensional image.

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  • 2. 

    What overcomes the difficulties of two dimensional images?

    • A.

      A straight line

    • B.

      Few pulses

    • C.

      One pulse at a time

    • D.

      Multiple pulses

    Correct Answer
    D. Multiple pulses
    Explanation
    Multiple pulses can overcome the difficulties of two-dimensional images because they provide a more comprehensive and detailed representation. Two-dimensional images often lack depth and can be limited in capturing complex information. By using multiple pulses, more data can be collected and analyzed, allowing for a more accurate and complete representation of the image. This approach helps to overcome the limitations of two-dimensional images and provides a more robust and informative result.

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  • 3. 

    The mechanical transducer has what kind of shape?

    • A.

      Disc shaped

    • B.

      Rectangular shaped

    Correct Answer
    A. Disc shaped
    Explanation
    A mechanical transducer is a device that converts one form of mechanical energy into another. In this case, the correct answer is "disc shaped". This means that the mechanical transducer has a shape similar to that of a disc, which is round and flat. This shape is commonly used in transducers such as speakers or microphones, where the disc shape allows for efficient conversion of mechanical vibrations into electrical signals or vice versa. The disc shape also helps in focusing and directing the mechanical energy in a specific direction, enhancing the performance of the transducer.

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  • 4. 

    How many crystals does the mechanical transducer hold?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      10

    Correct Answer
    A. 1
    Explanation
    The mechanical transducer holds only one crystal.

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  • 5. 

    The image created by by a mechanical transducer is fan or sector shaped

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A mechanical transducer is a device that converts one form of energy into another, such as sound waves into electrical signals. In the context of the question, when a mechanical transducer is used to create an image, it typically produces a fan or sector-shaped image. This is because the transducer emits sound waves in a specific pattern, which then bounce off objects and return to the transducer. By analyzing the pattern of the returning sound waves, an image can be formed. The fan or sector shape refers to the scanning pattern of the transducer, which allows it to capture a wide area of the object being imaged. Therefore, the statement that the image created by a mechanical transducer is fan or sector-shaped is true.

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  • 6. 

    The 2 dimensionalimage is built up by rotating the crystal with a             .

    Correct Answer
    motor
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "motor" because the question is asking about how the 2-dimensional image is built up. It suggests that the crystal is rotated with something, and the most logical and common device used to rotate objects is a motor. Therefore, a motor is needed to rotate the crystal and create the 2-dimensional image.

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  • 7. 

    In mechanical beam steering the scan plane is created through?

    • A.

      Electronic steering

    • B.

      Mechanical steering

    Correct Answer
    B. Mechanical steering
    Explanation
    Mechanical steering is used in mechanical beam steering to create the scan plane. This means that the movement and adjustment of the beam direction is achieved through mechanical means, such as the use of motors, gears, or other mechanical components. This allows for precise control and manipulation of the scan plane in the desired direction. In contrast, electronic steering would involve the use of electronic components and signals to control the beam direction, which is not the case here.

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  • 8. 

    Mechanical transducers have a fixed focal depth

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Mechanical transducers have a fixed focal depth, meaning that they are designed to focus sound waves at a specific depth within the body. This fixed focal depth allows for accurate imaging and targeting of specific areas during medical procedures. Unlike other types of transducers, mechanical transducers cannot be adjusted to change the focal depth. Therefore, the statement that mechanical transducers have a fixed focal depth is true.

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  • 9. 

    Mechanical transducers use  2 methods of fixed focusing which are:

    • A.

      Internal focusing

    • B.

      External focusing

    • C.

      Both internal and external focusing

    • D.

      None

    Correct Answer
    C. Both internal and external focusing
    Explanation
    Mechanical transducers use both internal and external focusing methods of fixed focusing. Internal focusing involves adjusting the position of the transducer elements to focus the beam at a specific depth within the body. External focusing, on the other hand, involves using a lens or acoustic mirror to focus the beam at a specific depth. By using both internal and external focusing methods, mechanical transducers can achieve precise and adjustable focusing for optimal imaging quality.

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  • 10. 

    With a mechanical transducer, the pzt crystal is physically moved to create the image. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because with a mechanical transducer, the PZT crystal is physically moved to create the image. This means that the crystal is physically displaced or vibrated to generate sound waves, which then bounce off the tissues and create an image. This is in contrast to other types of transducers, such as electronic transducers, where the crystal is not physically moved but rather uses electrical signals to create the image.

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  • 11. 

    With the mechanical transuder, if the PZT crystal is damaged. What happens to the image?

    • A.

      Entire image is lost

    • B.

      Portion of the image is lost

    • C.

      Nothing happens

    • D.

      Turns black and grey

    Correct Answer
    A. Entire image is lost
    Explanation
    If the PZT crystal in the mechanical transducer is damaged, the entire image is lost. The PZT crystal is responsible for generating the ultrasound waves in the transducer. These waves are then used to create the image. If the crystal is damaged, it cannot produce the necessary waves, resulting in the loss of the entire image.

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  • 12. 

    Arrays contain only one element

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    they contain multiple active elements

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  • 13. 

    An array comprises a single slab of PZT cut into a collectoinof seperate pieces called:

    • A.

      Elements

    • B.

      Slopes

    • C.

      Waves

    • D.

      Pulses

    Correct Answer
    A. Elements
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "elements". In the context of the given question, an array refers to a single slab of PZT (a type of material) that is cut into separate pieces. These individual pieces are known as elements.

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  • 14. 

    A channel is a combnation of?

    • A.

      Active element, wire, and system electronics

    • B.

      Crystal,backing material, gel

    • C.

      System electronics,pzt,skin

    Correct Answer
    A. Active element, wire, and system electronics
    Explanation
    A channel is a combination of an active element, wire, and system electronics. The active element is responsible for generating or detecting the signal, the wire is used to transmit the signal, and the system electronics process and amplify the signal. This combination allows for the transmission and manipulation of signals in various electronic systems.

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  • 15. 

    There are several types of array transuders which are:

    • A.

      Linear

    • B.

      Vector

    • C.

      Annular

    • D.

      Convex

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Linear
    C. Annular
    D. Convex
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes three types of array transducers: linear, annular, and convex. Linear array transducers are used for linear scanning of structures, annular array transducers have a circular shape and are used for sector scanning, and convex array transducers have a curved shape and are used for imaging larger areas.

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  • 16. 

    The face of a linear phased array is about what size?

    • A.

      1cm on each side

    • B.

      2cm on each side

    • C.

      1.5cm on each side

    • D.

      .1cm on each side

    Correct Answer
    A. 1cm on each side
    Explanation
    The face of a linear phased array is about 1cm on each side. This means that the array is relatively small in size, with each side measuring approximately 1cm. The size of the array is important as it determines the beamwidth and directivity of the antenna. A larger array would result in a narrower beam and higher directivity, while a smaller array would have a wider beam and lower directivity. Therefore, a linear phased array with a 1cm face size would have a relatively wider beam and lower directivity compared to larger arrays.

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  • 17. 

    The beam is steered and focused using an electrical technique called phasing

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the beam is indeed steered and focused using an electrical technique called phasing. This technique involves adjusting the timing and amplitude of the electrical signals sent to the different elements of the beam-steering system, allowing for precise control over the direction and focus of the beam. By manipulating the phase of the signals, the beam can be directed towards a specific target or focused to a desired point.

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  • 18. 

    How many crystals does the linear phased array contain?

    • A.

      100-300

    • B.

      100-200

    • C.

      100

    • D.

      100-400

    Correct Answer
    A. 100-300
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 100-300. This range indicates that the linear phased array can contain anywhere between 100 to 300 crystals. The exact number of crystals will vary depending on the specific array and its design requirements.

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  • 19. 

    Each element on the the linear phased array is rectangular and narrow

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because a linear phased array consists of elements that are rectangular and narrow in shape. This configuration allows for precise control of the direction and beamwidth of the array's radiation pattern. The rectangular shape helps in achieving a uniform distribution of energy in the desired direction, while the narrow width ensures a focused and narrow beam. Therefore, the given answer is true.

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  • 20. 

    The linear phased array has elements with a width of?

    • A.

      1/4 to 1/2 of the sounds wavelength

    • B.

      1/3/ to 1/2 of the sounds wavelength

    • C.

      1/5 to1/3 of the sounds wavelength

    Correct Answer
    A. 1/4 to 1/2 of the sounds wavelength
    Explanation
    A linear phased array is a type of antenna array used in communication systems. It is designed to steer the radiation pattern of the antenna by adjusting the phase of the signals in each element. The elements of a linear phased array are typically spaced at intervals that are a fraction of the wavelength of the signal being transmitted or received. In this case, the correct answer is 1/4 to 1/2 of the sound's wavelength, which means that the elements of the linear phased array should be spaced at intervals that are between one-fourth and one-half of the wavelength of the sound signal. This spacing allows for effective beamforming and control of the radiation pattern.

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  • 21. 

    The image created by a phased array transducer is:

    • A.

      Fan or sector shaped

    • B.

      Rectangular

    • C.

      Circular

    Correct Answer
    A. Fan or sector shaped
    Explanation
    The image created by a phased array transducer is fan or sector shaped because a phased array transducer uses multiple small elements to steer and focus the ultrasound beam. By adjusting the timing and amplitude of each element, the transducer can create a beam that is electronically steered in a specific direction. This allows for the creation of a fan or sector shaped image, which is useful for visualizing structures in a specific area of interest.

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  • 22. 

    With linear phased array transudcers, sound beams are focused mechanically

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    focused electronically pg .168

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  • 23. 

    Phased array always means "adjustable" or "multi focus"

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because a phased array is a system of antennas that work together to create a beam of radio waves that can be electronically steered in different directions. This means that the focus of the beam can be adjusted or changed, allowing for multiple focuses or directions of transmission. Therefore, a phased array is indeed "adjustable" or "multi-focus" in nature.

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  • 24. 

    Damaged PZT crystals in linear phased array result in :

    • A.

      Inconsistant or erratic beam steering

    • B.

      No image

    Correct Answer
    A. Inconsistant or erratic beam steering
    Explanation
    When PZT (lead zirconate titanate) crystals in a linear phased array are damaged, it can lead to inconsistent or erratic beam steering. Phased array systems use PZT crystals to control the direction of the ultrasound beam. If these crystals are damaged, they may not be able to accurately steer the beam, causing it to behave inconsistently or erratically. This can result in poor image quality and difficulty in obtaining clear and reliable ultrasound images.

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  • 25. 

    All active elements in a linear phased array probe are fired to create each sound beam.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In a linear phased array probe, all the active elements are fired simultaneously to create each sound beam. This means that all the elements in the probe emit sound waves at the same time, resulting in a focused beam of ultrasound. This allows for better resolution and imaging capabilities compared to other types of probes where only a single element is fired at a time. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 26. 

    When the spike line is straight, an unfocused sound beam is created in a linear phased array

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When the spike line is straight in a linear phased array, it indicates that the sound beam is unfocused. This means that the sound waves are not concentrated at a specific point and instead spread out over a larger area. This can be useful in certain applications where a wide coverage is needed, such as in ultrasound imaging. Therefore, the statement that an unfocused sound beam is created in a linear phased array when the spike line is straight is true.

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  • 27. 

    In linear phased array the curved pattern creates a foucused sound beam.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that in a linear phased array, the curved pattern of the array elements allows for the creation of a focused sound beam. By adjusting the timing and amplitude of the signals sent to each element in the array, the sound waves can be steered and focused in a specific direction. This focused sound beam is beneficial in applications such as medical imaging, where precise targeting of the sound waves is necessary for accurate diagnosis.

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  • 28. 

    The sound beam is focused if the spike line in linear phased array is curved

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The sound beam is focused when the spike line in a linear phased array is curved because the curved shape allows for the sound waves to converge at a specific point. This curvature helps to concentrate the sound energy and create a sharper, more focused beam. In contrast, a straight spike line would result in a broader beam with less concentration of energy. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 29. 

    The active elements of annular array transducers appear as             shaped.

    • A.

      Rectangular

    • B.

      Square

    • C.

      Disc

    • D.

      Trapizoid

    Correct Answer
    C. Disc
    Explanation
    The active elements of annular array transducers appear as disc-shaped.

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  • 30. 

    The annular phased array contains how many crystals?

    • A.

      More than one

    • B.

      Less than one

    • C.

      One

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. More than one
    Explanation
    The annular phased array contains more than one crystal. This means that there are multiple crystals present in the annular phased array.

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  • 31. 

    Annular phased array transducers use               steering

    • A.

      Mechanical

    • B.

      Electronic

    Correct Answer
    A. Mechanical
    Explanation
    Annular phased array transducers use mechanical steering. This means that the transducer is physically moved or rotated to change the direction of the ultrasound beam. Mechanical steering allows for a wider range of steering angles and greater flexibility in focusing the beam. Electronic steering, on the other hand, involves electronically manipulating the timing and phase of the individual elements in the transducer to steer the beam. However, annular phased array transducers typically rely on mechanical movement for steering.

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  • 32. 

    The annular phased array transducer collects informatiom only from the shallowest depths;all other information is ignored.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because an annular phased array transducer is designed to focus on the shallowest depths of the target area. This type of transducer uses multiple elements arranged in a circular pattern to create a focused beam that is directed towards the surface. As a result, it collects information primarily from the shallow depths, while ignoring information from deeper layers. This makes it useful for imaging structures that are close to the surface, such as blood vessels or superficial tissues.

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  • 33. 

    The annular phased arrays image is              

    Correct Answer
    sector shaped
    Explanation
    The annular phased arrays image is sector-shaped because annular phased arrays are designed to produce a focused beam of ultrasound in a specific direction. This type of array consists of multiple small transducer elements arranged in a circular pattern. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the electrical signals sent to each element, the ultrasound beam can be steered and focused. The resulting image will have a sector-shaped appearance, as the beam is emitted in a fan-like pattern from the transducer.

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  • 34. 

    When one ring of an annular phased array is damaged what can be said?

    • A.

      Only a portion of the image is lost

    • B.

      Whole image is lost

    • C.

      Its irratic

    Correct Answer
    A. Only a portion of the image is lost
    Explanation
    When one ring of an annular phased array is damaged, only a portion of the image is lost. This is because an annular phased array consists of multiple rings of transducers that work together to create an image. Each ring contributes to a specific portion of the image, so if one ring is damaged, only the corresponding portion of the image will be affected. The remaining rings will still function and contribute to the overall image formation.

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  • 35. 

    How many crystals does the linear seq. array carry?

    • A.

      120-250

    • B.

      100-300

    • C.

      125-300

    Correct Answer
    A. 120-250
    Explanation
    The linear seq. array carries a range of crystals between 120 and 250.

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  • 36. 

    All is true about the linear seq. array but one:

    • A.

      Rectangular-shaped

    • B.

      Elements are arranged side by side

    • C.

      Each crystal is about 2 wavelength in width

    • D.

      Is up to 10cm long

    Correct Answer
    C. Each crystal is about 2 wavelength in width
    Explanation
    each crystal is 1 wavelength of width

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  • 37. 

    With linear seq. arrays,some but not all of the crystals are fired simultaneously to create each sound beam 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    With linear sequential arrays, not all of the crystals are fired simultaneously to create each sound beam. This means that only some of the crystals are activated at a time to produce the desired sound beam. This technique allows for more control and flexibility in directing the sound beams, as different combinations of activated crystals can be used to create different beam patterns. Therefore, the statement "with linear seq. arrays, some but not all of the crystals are fired simultaneously to create each sound beam" is true.

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  • 38. 

    The linear sequential transducer has what kinda of shape image?

    • A.

      Disc shaped

    • B.

      Circular shaped

    • C.

      Rectangular

    Correct Answer
    C. Rectangular
    Explanation
    The linear sequential transducer produces a rectangular-shaped image. This type of transducer is commonly used in ultrasound imaging to create a linear array of sound waves that can be used to generate a two-dimensional image. The rectangular shape of the image allows for a wider field of view and better visualization of structures that are longer or wider in shape.

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  • 39. 

    Although a linear sequential array with a 10cm footprint may produce an 8 cm wide image, it cannot produce an image that is wider than 10cm

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A linear sequential array refers to a type of imaging technology that produces an image by scanning a linear array of pixels. In this case, the array has a 10cm footprint, meaning it covers a physical area of 10cm. The statement says that although this array can produce an image that is 8cm wide, it cannot produce an image wider than 10cm. This is because the array's physical size limits the width of the image it can produce. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 40. 

    When one element in a linear sequential array is damaged,only the portionof the image extending directly below the damaged element is affected.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When one element in a linear sequential array is damaged, it means that only the specific element is affected. In the context of an image, this means that only the portion of the image directly below the damaged element will be affected. The rest of the image remains intact and unaffected by the damage to that particular element. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 41. 

    Can linear sequential array transducers steer sound beams electronically?

    • A.

      Yes

    • B.

      No

    Correct Answer
    A. Yes
    Explanation
    Linear sequential array transducers can steer sound beams electronically. This is possible because these transducers consist of multiple small transducer elements that can be individually activated and controlled. By adjusting the timing and amplitude of the electrical signals sent to each element, the transducer can focus and steer the sound beam in different directions. This electronic steering capability allows for improved imaging and targeting in medical ultrasound applications.

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  • 42. 

    Curvilinear array transducers is also known as :

    • A.

      Convex

    • B.

      Curved

    • C.

      Vector

    • D.

      Linear

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Convex
    B. Curved
    Explanation
    Curvilinear array transducers are also known as convex and curved transducers. These transducers have a curved shape which allows for a wider field of view and better focusing of the ultrasound beam. The term "convex" refers to the shape of the transducer, which is curved outward, while "curved" simply describes the shape. These transducers are commonly used in abdominal and obstetric ultrasound imaging due to their ability to capture a larger area and produce high-quality images. The term "vector" and "linear" do not accurately describe the shape or function of curvilinear array transducers.

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  • 43. 

    A convex array has up to how many crystals?

    • A.

      120-250

    • B.

      120-140

    • C.

      140-200

    • D.

      100-300

    Correct Answer
    A. 120-250
    Explanation
    A convex array can have anywhere from 120 to 250 crystals.

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  • 44. 

    In a convex array each crystal is about what width?

    • A.

      1 wavelength

    • B.

      2 wavelength

    Correct Answer
    A. 1 wavelength
    Explanation
    In a convex array, each crystal is about 1 wavelength in width. This means that the distance between the highest and lowest points of the crystal is approximately equal to the length of one complete wave. This width is important because it allows the convex array to effectively transmit and receive ultrasound waves, as the crystal size matches the wavelength of the ultrasound waves being used.

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  • 45. 

    In convex sequential array, some but not all crysatls are fired.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In a convex sequential array, the crystals are fired in a sequential manner but not all of them are fired at once. This means that only some of the crystals are fired while the others remain unfired. Therefore, the statement "some but not all crystals are fired" is true in the context of a convex sequential array.

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  • 46. 

    In convex array transducers focusing is achieved :

    • A.

      Mechanically

    • B.

      Electronically

    Correct Answer
    B. Electronically
    Explanation
    In convex array transducers, focusing is achieved electronically. This means that the transducer uses electronic signals to control the timing and intensity of the ultrasound waves emitted. By adjusting these parameters, the transducer can focus the ultrasound beams at a specific depth within the body. This electronic focusing allows for improved image resolution and clarity, as well as the ability to visualize structures at different depths. Mechanically focusing, on the other hand, would involve physically adjusting the position or shape of the transducer to achieve the desired focus, which is not the case in convex array transducers.

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  • 47. 

    The image shape of the convex array transucer is:

    • A.

      Blunted sector shaped

    • B.

      Sector shaped

    • C.

      Disc shaped

    Correct Answer
    A. Blunted sector shaped
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "blunted sector shaped". A convex array transducer is a type of ultrasound probe that is used for imaging internal organs. It is designed with a curved surface that allows for a wider field of view. The blunted sector shape refers to the rounded or curved shape of the transducer head, which helps to improve image quality and reduce artifacts. This shape is ideal for obtaining clear images of structures that are deep within the body, such as the liver or heart.

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  • 48. 

    The curvilinear array is damaged, only the portion of the image is affected

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is suggesting that if the curvilinear array is damaged, only a portion of the image will be affected. This implies that the damage does not completely disrupt the functionality of the array, but rather causes a localized impact. Therefore, the answer is true.

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  • 49. 

    A vector array is a combination of what?

    • A.

      Linear sequential and linear phased array

    • B.

      Linear phased array and convex array

    Correct Answer
    A. Linear sequential and linear phased array
    Explanation
    A vector array is a combination of linear sequential and linear phased array. This means that the vector array consists of elements arranged in a linear sequential manner, where each element is connected to the next in a straight line. Additionally, the vector array also incorporates linear phased array technology, which involves adjusting the phase of the signals emitted by each element to create specific beam patterns and steer the direction of the transmitted or received signals.

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  • 50. 

    The vector array has how many crystals?

    • A.

      120-250

    • B.

      100-300

    • C.

      150-300

    Correct Answer
    A. 120-250
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 120-250. This means that the vector array has a range of 120 to 250 crystals.

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  • Current Version
  • Aug 28, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Jan 24, 2012
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