Chapter 10 Quiz 1 - Chemistry

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Chemistry Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _______________ is a measure of the random motion of all the components of a substance.

    • A.

      Heat

    • B.

      Temperature

    • C.

      Exothermic

    • D.

      Endothermic

    Correct Answer
    B. Temperature
    Explanation
    Temperature is a measure of the random motion of all the components of a substance. It is a scalar quantity that indicates the degree of hotness or coldness of a substance. The higher the temperature, the faster the particles of the substance are moving, and the lower the temperature, the slower the particles are moving. Temperature is a fundamental concept in thermodynamics and is commonly measured using various scales such as Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin.

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  • 2. 

    In a ________ system, a system is able to exchange energy with its surroundings.

    • A.

      Open

    • B.

      Closed

    • C.

      Kinetic

    • D.

      Potential

    Correct Answer
    A. Open
    Explanation
    An open system is able to exchange energy with its surroundings. This means that energy can flow freely in and out of the system, allowing for interactions and exchanges with the environment. In contrast, a closed system does not allow for energy transfer with the surroundings, while kinetic and potential refer to types of energy rather than the system's ability to exchange energy.

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  • 3. 

    In ____________ reaction, one of the reactants is heat.

    • A.

      A potential

    • B.

      A chemical

    • C.

      An endothermic

    • D.

      An exothermic

    Correct Answer
    C. An endothermic
    Explanation
    In an endothermic reaction, heat is one of the reactants. This means that the reaction requires an input of heat energy in order to proceed. The reactants absorb heat from the surroundings, causing the temperature to decrease. The energy absorbed is used to break bonds and initiate the reaction. As a result, the products of an endothermic reaction have higher energy than the reactants.

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  • 4. 

    According to the law of conservation of energy, energy can be ___________.

    • A.

      Created

    • B.

      Destroyed

    • C.

      Contained

    • D.

      Transformed

    Correct Answer
    D. Transformed
    Explanation
    According to the law of conservation of energy, energy cannot be created or destroyed. However, it can be transformed from one form to another. This means that energy can change from potential energy to kinetic energy, or from electrical energy to thermal energy, for example. The law states that the total amount of energy in a closed system remains constant, but it can be converted and transferred between different forms. Therefore, the correct answer is "transformed".

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  • 5. 

    If a chemical reaction is exothermic, the products have ________ potential energy compared to the reactants.

    • A.

      Greater

    • B.

      Lower

    • C.

      The same

    • D.

      Unrelated

    Correct Answer
    B. Lower
    Explanation
    In an exothermic reaction, energy is released in the form of heat. This means that the products have lower potential energy compared to the reactants. The reactants start with a higher potential energy, which is then converted into heat energy as the reaction proceeds. Therefore, the correct answer is "lower".

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  • 6. 

    In any process, the energy gained by the surroundings must be _______ the energy lost by the system.

    • A.

      Greater than

    • B.

      Less than

    • C.

      Equal to

    • D.

      Unrelated to

    Correct Answer
    C. Equal to
    Explanation
    In any process, the energy gained by the surroundings must be equal to the energy lost by the system. This is based on the principle of conservation of energy, which states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred or transformed. Therefore, the total energy of the system and its surroundings remains constant. If the energy gained by the surroundings is greater than the energy lost by the system, there would be a net gain of energy in the system, which violates the conservation of energy. Similarly, if the energy gained by the surroundings is less than the energy lost by the system, there would be a net loss of energy in the system, which is also not possible. Therefore, the energy gained by the surroundings must be equal to the energy lost by the system.

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  • 7. 

    Energy represents the ability to do ______ or to produce heat.

    Correct Answer
    work
    Explanation
    Energy is defined as the capacity to do work or produce heat. Work refers to the transfer of energy that occurs when a force is applied to an object and it causes the object to move in the direction of the force. Therefore, energy is directly related to the ability to perform work.

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  • 8. 

    The energy due to the position or composition of a material is ________ energy.

    Correct Answer
    potential
    Explanation
    Potential energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its position or composition. It is stored energy that can be converted into other forms of energy. In the context of the given question, the blank is filled with "potential" to complete the statement.

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  • 9. 

    The energy an object possesses because the object is moving is called _______ energy.

    Correct Answer
    kinetic
    Explanation
    Kinetic energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its motion. When an object is in motion, it has the ability to do work and transfer energy. This energy is known as kinetic energy. It depends on the mass and velocity of the object. The faster an object is moving, or the heavier it is, the more kinetic energy it possesses. Therefore, the correct answer is kinetic.

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  • 10. 

    The total energy of a system is the sum of the energy used for work and ______________.

    Correct Answer
    heat
    Explanation
    The total energy of a system is the sum of the energy used for work and heat. Heat is a form of energy that is transferred between objects or systems due to a temperature difference. It represents the energy transfer that occurs due to the random motion of particles within a substance. In a system, energy can be used to perform work, such as moving an object against a force, and also transferred as heat, which can increase the temperature of the system. Therefore, when calculating the total energy of a system, both the energy used for work and the energy transferred as heat need to be considered.

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  • 11. 

    The fundamental equation of thermodynamics is as follows: q + w = E. What does the q stand for?

    • A.

      Heat

    • B.

      Work

    • C.

      Temperature

    • D.

      Energy

    Correct Answer
    A. Heat
    Explanation
    The correct answer is heat. In the fundamental equation of thermodynamics, q represents heat. Heat is a form of energy transfer between two objects or systems due to a temperature difference. It is often measured in calories or joules and can cause a change in the internal energy of a system.

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  • 12. 

    Earth is an example of a/an  __________ system

    Correct Answer
    open
    Explanation
    Earth is an example of an open system because it exchanges matter and energy with its surroundings. It receives energy from the sun, which fuels various processes on Earth such as photosynthesis and weather patterns. Additionally, Earth interacts with its surroundings through the exchange of gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, with the atmosphere. This constant exchange of matter and energy allows Earth to maintain a dynamic equilibrium with its environment, making it an open system.

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  • 13. 

    If a chemical reaction is ___________, then the potential energy of the reactants is higher than the products.

    • A.

      Endothermic

    • B.

      Exothermic

    • C.

      Explosive

    • D.

      Hot

    Correct Answer
    A. Endothermic
    Explanation
    In an endothermic chemical reaction, the potential energy of the reactants is higher than the products. This means that energy is absorbed from the surroundings in order for the reaction to occur. As a result, the products have a lower potential energy than the reactants, making the reaction endothermic.

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  • 14. 

    Which temperature scale is based upon the freezing and boiling point of water being set at 0 degrees and 100 degrees?

    • A.

      Fahrenheit

    • B.

      Kelvin

    • C.

      Celsius

    • D.

      Doppler

    Correct Answer
    C. Celsius
    Explanation
    The Celsius temperature scale is based on the freezing and boiling points of water. In this scale, the freezing point of water is set at 0 degrees and the boiling point is set at 100 degrees. This scale is widely used in scientific and everyday applications, making it the correct answer. Fahrenheit and Kelvin are also temperature scales, but they have different reference points and intervals. Doppler, on the other hand, is not a temperature scale and is unrelated to the freezing and boiling points of water.

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  • 15. 

    Which temperature scale is based upon the total absence of kinetic energy being set at 0?

    • A.

      Fahrenheit

    • B.

      Kelvin

    • C.

      Celsius

    • D.

      Doppler

    Correct Answer
    B. Kelvin
    Explanation
    The Kelvin temperature scale is based on the total absence of kinetic energy being set at 0. In this scale, absolute zero is considered to be the point at which all molecular motion ceases. This means that no kinetic energy is present at 0 Kelvin, making it the lowest possible temperature. The Kelvin scale is commonly used in scientific and engineering applications, especially in physics and chemistry, where precise measurements of temperature are required.

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