Changes To Earth's Surface-test A

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Changes To Earths Surface-test A - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The theory that the plates of the crust are always moving is called

    • A.

      Plate tectonics

    • B.

      Rift

    • C.

      Fault

    • D.

      Focus

    Correct Answer
    A. Plate tectonics
    Explanation
    Plate tectonics is the correct answer because it refers to the theory that explains how the Earth's lithosphere is divided into several large and small plates that are constantly moving and interacting with each other. This movement is responsible for various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountains and oceanic trenches. Plate tectonics provides a comprehensive explanation for the distribution of continents and the occurrence of geological events, making it the most accurate and widely accepted theory in the field of geology.

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  • 2. 

    The point inside Earth's crust where an earthquake begins is the 

    • A.

      Focus

    • B.

      Epicenter

    • C.

      Crust

    • D.

      Mantle

    Correct Answer
    A. Focus
    Explanation
    The point inside Earth's crust where an earthquake begins is called the focus. This is the actual location where the seismic energy is released and the rocks break, causing the ground to shake. The focus is usually located underground, and its depth can vary depending on the type and magnitude of the earthquake. The epicenter, on the other hand, is the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus.

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  • 3. 

    The removal and transport of weathered material is

    • A.

      Erosion

    • B.

      Deposition

    • C.

      Plate tectonics

    • D.

      Rift

    Correct Answer
    A. Erosion
    Explanation
    Erosion refers to the process of removing and transporting weathered material, such as rocks and soil, from one location to another. It is typically caused by natural forces like wind, water, and ice. These forces can wear away the surface of the Earth and carry away the eroded material, leading to changes in the landscape over time. Erosion plays a crucial role in shaping the Earth's surface and can create various landforms such as valleys, canyons, and deltas.

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  • 4. 

    The deep valley along the mid-ocean ridge is a 

    • A.

      Rift

    • B.

      Fault

    • C.

      Focus

    • D.

      Epicenter

    Correct Answer
    A. Rift
    Explanation
    The deep valley along the mid-ocean ridge is a rift. A rift is a long, narrow valley that forms when tectonic plates move apart, creating a gap in the Earth's crust. In the case of the mid-ocean ridge, this rift occurs underwater where two oceanic plates are diverging. As the plates move apart, magma rises from the mantle and fills the gap, creating new oceanic crust. This process is known as seafloor spreading and is responsible for the formation of new ocean basins. The deep valley along the mid-ocean ridge is a result of this rift and the ongoing process of seafloor spreading.

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  • 5. 

    The process by which eroded material drops or settles is 

    • A.

      Deposition

    • B.

      Plate tectonics

    • C.

      Rift

    • D.

      Fault

    Correct Answer
    A. Deposition
    Explanation
    Deposition is the process by which eroded material, such as sediment or rocks, is dropped or settled. This occurs when the transporting agent, such as water, wind, or ice, loses energy and is no longer able to carry the sediment. As a result, the sediment is deposited and accumulates in a new location. This process plays a crucial role in shaping the Earth's surface, as it contributes to the formation of various landforms, such as deltas, beaches, and sand dunes.

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  • 6. 

    A break in Earth's crust where rocks can slide past each other is a

    • A.

      Fault

    • B.

      Focus

    • C.

      Epicenter

    • D.

      Crust

    Correct Answer
    A. Fault
    Explanation
    A break in Earth's crust where rocks can slide past each other is called a fault. Faults occur due to tectonic forces that cause the Earth's crust to fracture and move. This movement can be horizontal, vertical, or a combination of both. Faults play a significant role in the formation of earthquakes as the accumulated stress along the fault line is released in the form of seismic waves. Faults can vary in size and shape, and they are essential in understanding the dynamics of the Earth's crust and the occurrence of earthquakes.

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  • 7. 

    Earth's center is called its

    • A.

      Core

    • B.

      Erosion

    • C.

      Deposition

    • D.

      Plate tectonics

    Correct Answer
    A. Core
    Explanation
    The correct answer is core. The core of the Earth refers to its innermost layer, located beneath the mantle. It is primarily composed of iron and nickel and is divided into two parts: the inner core and the outer core. The core plays a crucial role in generating Earth's magnetic field and is responsible for the high temperatures and pressures found in the Earth's interior.

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  • 8. 

    The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus is the 

    • A.

      Epicenter

    • B.

      Crust

    • C.

      Mantle

    • D.

      Core

    Correct Answer
    A. Epicenter
    Explanation
    The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus is known as the epicenter. This is because seismic waves radiate outwards from the focus, causing the most intense shaking and damage at the point directly above it. By locating the epicenter, scientists can determine the location and magnitude of the earthquake, as well as study its effects and potential risks to surrounding areas.

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  • 9. 

    Earth's outer layer is the 

    • A.

      Crust

    • B.

      Mantle

    • C.

      Core

    • D.

      Erosion

    Correct Answer
    A. Crust
    Explanation
    The correct answer is crust. The Earth's outer layer is called the crust. It is the thinnest layer of the Earth and is made up of solid rocks and minerals. The crust is divided into two types: the continental crust, which forms the continents, and the oceanic crust, which forms the ocean floors. The crust is where we live and where most geological activity occurs, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

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  • 10. 

     Which layer is responsible for Earth's magnetic field?

    • A.

      Crust

    • B.

      Inner core

    • C.

      Mantle

    • D.

      Outer core

    Correct Answer
    D. Outer core
    Explanation
    The outer core is responsible for Earth's magnetic field. It is a layer of liquid iron and nickel that surrounds the solid inner core. The movement of this molten material generates electric currents, which in turn create the magnetic field. The outer core's high temperatures and fluid nature allow for convection currents to occur, causing the liquid metal to circulate and produce the magnetic field.

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  • 11. 

    Which process is responsible for forming a sea cave?

    • A.

      Deposition

    • B.

      Earthquake

    • C.

      Weathering

    • D.

      Volcanic activity

    Correct Answer
    C. Weathering
    Explanation
    Weathering is the correct answer because it is the process responsible for forming sea caves. Weathering refers to the breakdown and disintegration of rocks and minerals at or near the Earth's surface. In the case of sea caves, weathering occurs as the constant pounding of waves against coastal cliffs gradually erodes and wears away the rock, forming a cave-like structure over time.

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  • 12. 

    What are Earth's plates composed of?

    • A.

      The crust alone

    • B.

      The crust and the upper asthenosphere

    • C.

      The crust and the upper part of the mantle (lithosphere)

    • D.

      The inner and outer core

    Correct Answer
    C. The crust and the upper part of the mantle (lithosphere)
    Explanation
    The Earth's plates are composed of the crust and the upper part of the mantle, known as the lithosphere. The lithosphere is made up of the rigid outer layer of the Earth, which includes the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle. This is where tectonic plates are formed and where they interact with each other. The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth, while the mantle is the layer beneath it. Together, the crust and the upper part of the mantle make up the Earth's plates.

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  • 13. 

    How do the positions of the continents today compare with their positions 220 million years ago?

    • A.

      The continents are now closer together.

    • B.

      The continents are now farther apart.

    • C.

      The continents are now farther north.

    • D.

      The continents are now farther south.

    Correct Answer
    B. The continents are now farther apart.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the continents are now farther apart. This is supported by the theory of plate tectonics, which suggests that the Earth's continents were once joined together in a supercontinent called Pangaea. Over millions of years, the continents have moved apart due to the movement of tectonic plates. This process is known as continental drift. Therefore, the positions of the continents today are indeed farther apart compared to 220 million years ago.

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  • 14. 

    An earthquake occurs.  Which type of waves will be detected first?

    • A.

      P waves

    • B.

      S waves

    • C.

      Surface waves

    • D.

      Tsunamis

    Correct Answer
    A. P waves
    Explanation
    P waves, also known as primary waves or compressional waves, are the first type of seismic waves to be detected during an earthquake. These waves travel through the Earth's interior and can move through solid and liquid materials. P waves are characterized by their ability to compress and expand the material they pass through, causing particles to move in the same direction as the wave. Due to their faster speed, P waves are typically the first to be detected by seismographs, followed by S waves and surface waves.

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  • 15. 

    What caused the Hawaiian Islands to form?

    • A.

      A convergent boundary

    • B.

      A divergent boundary

    • C.

      A hot spot

    • D.

      An earthquake

    Correct Answer
    C. A hot spot
    Explanation
    The Hawaiian Islands formed due to a hot spot. A hot spot is an area of volcanic activity in the Earth's mantle that remains relatively stationary while the tectonic plates move above it. As the Pacific tectonic plate moved over the hot spot, a chain of volcanic islands formed. The oldest island in the chain is located further northwest, while the youngest and most active island, Hawaii, is located in the southeast. This formation process is known as "hot spot volcanism" and has created the unique and beautiful Hawaiian Islands.

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  • 16. 

    What type of volcano is wide and large and erupts with "safe"  flowing lava?

    • A.

      A composite volcano

    • B.

      A cinder cone volcano

    • C.

      A shield volcano

    • D.

      A really big volcano

    Correct Answer
    C. A shield volcano
    Explanation
    A shield volcano is a type of volcano that is wide and large in size and erupts with "safe" flowing lava. Unlike composite volcanoes, which have steep slopes and explosive eruptions, shield volcanoes have gentle slopes and eruptions characterized by the effusion of basaltic lava. This type of volcano is named after its shape, which resembles a warrior's shield lying on the ground. Shield volcanoes are typically formed by the accumulation of numerous lava flows over time, creating a broad and low-profile structure.

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  • 17. 

    What would happen to an active composite volcano if its vent becomes plugged by hardened lava?

    • A.

      Nothing would happen.

    • B.

      The pressure from the magma chamber would build up and the volcano might explode.

    • C.

      The volcano would become extinct.

    • D.

      The volcano would be really sad.

    Correct Answer
    B. The pressure from the magma chamber would build up and the volcano might explode.
    Explanation
    If the vent of an active composite volcano becomes plugged by hardened lava, the magma chamber beneath the volcano would continue to receive new magma from the Earth's mantle. As the pressure from the accumulating magma increases, it would eventually reach a point where it overcomes the obstruction in the vent. This buildup of pressure could lead to a violent eruption, causing the volcano to explode. Therefore, the correct answer is that the pressure from the magma chamber would build up and the volcano might explode.

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  • 18. 

    The thin outer skin of Earth

    • A.

      Core

    • B.

      Crust

    • C.

      Erosion

    • D.

      Fault

    Correct Answer
    B. Crust
    Explanation
    The correct answer is crust. The Earth's crust is the thin outermost layer of the planet. It is composed of solid rock and is divided into several large and small tectonic plates. The crust is where all life on Earth exists, including humans. It is also where most geological processes occur, such as volcanic activity and earthquakes. The crust is relatively thin compared to the other layers of the Earth, including the mantle and the core.

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  • 19. 

    The layer of Earth that extends from the bottom of the mantle to Earth's center

    • A.

      Core

    • B.

      Crust

    • C.

      Erosion

    • D.

      Fault

    Correct Answer
    A. Core
    Explanation
    The correct answer is core. The core is the layer of Earth that extends from the bottom of the mantle to Earth's center. It is divided into two parts: the outer core and the inner core. The outer core is composed mainly of liquid iron and nickel, while the inner core is solid due to the immense pressure. The core plays a crucial role in Earth's magnetic field and is responsible for generating the heat that drives the movement of tectonic plates.

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  • 20. 

    The removal and transportation of weathered material

    • A.

      Core

    • B.

      Crust

    • C.

      Erosion

    • D.

      Fault

    Correct Answer
    C. Erosion
    Explanation
    Erosion refers to the process of removing and transporting weathered material. It involves the wearing away of rocks and soil by natural forces such as wind, water, and ice. These forces gradually break down the surface of the Earth and carry away the loosened particles, leading to the formation of new landforms over time. Erosion plays a significant role in shaping the Earth's surface and is responsible for the creation of various features like valleys, canyons, and deltas.

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  • 21. 

    A huge sheet of ice that stays frozen all year

    • A.

      Glacier

    • B.

      Crust

    • C.

      Erosion

    • D.

      Fault

    Correct Answer
    A. Glacier
    Explanation
    A glacier is a huge sheet of ice that remains frozen throughout the year. It is formed by the accumulation of snow over many years, which then compresses into ice. Glaciers are found in areas where the temperature remains below freezing, and they move slowly due to the force of gravity. They are responsible for shaping the landscape through processes such as erosion and deposition, as they carve out valleys and leave behind moraines.

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  • 22. 

    A deep valley in mid-ocean formed where two plates move apart

    • A.

      Rift

    • B.

      Crust

    • C.

      Erosion

    • D.

      Fault

    Correct Answer
    A. Rift
    Explanation
    A rift is a correct answer because it refers to a deep valley in the mid-ocean that forms when two tectonic plates move apart. This process is known as seafloor spreading, where molten rock rises to the surface, creating new crust and pushing the existing crust apart. As the plates separate, a rift valley is formed, which can eventually fill with water and become an ocean. This geological phenomenon is commonly observed in areas such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

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  • 23. 

    A break in Earth's crust where rocks slide past each other

    • A.

      Core

    • B.

      Crust

    • C.

      Erosion

    • D.

      Fault

    Correct Answer
    D. Fault
    Explanation
    A fault is a break in Earth's crust where rocks slide past each other. This occurs due to tectonic forces causing the Earth's crust to fracture and move. Faults are responsible for earthquakes and can range in size from small, localized fractures to large, regional fault systems. They are an important feature in the study of plate tectonics and the understanding of Earth's dynamic processes.

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  • 24. 

    The point inside Earth where an earthquake begins

    • A.

      Core

    • B.

      Crust

    • C.

      Erosion

    • D.

      Focus

    Correct Answer
    D. Focus
    Explanation
    The point inside Earth where an earthquake begins is called the focus. This is the location where the seismic energy is released and originates. It is typically located beneath the Earth's surface along a fault line. The focus is responsible for generating seismic waves that travel through the Earth, causing the ground to shake during an earthquake.

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  • 25. 

    The layer of Earth under the crust

    • A.

      Mantle

    • B.

      Crust

    • C.

      Erosion

    • D.

      Fault

    Correct Answer
    A. Mantle
    Explanation
    The mantle is the layer of Earth that lies beneath the crust. It is located between the crust and the core. The mantle is composed of solid rock, but it is capable of flowing slowly over long periods of time. This movement of the mantle is responsible for plate tectonics and the formation of mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes. The mantle is also the largest layer of Earth by volume, and it plays a crucial role in the overall dynamics and geology of our planet.

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  • 26. 

    Which of these is the result of energy being released as rocks in a fault slide past each other?

    • A.

      Earthquake

    • B.

      Erosion

    • C.

      Volcanic eruption

    • D.

      Weathering

    Correct Answer
    A. Earthquake
    Explanation
    When rocks in a fault slide past each other, the energy that is released causes vibrations and shaking of the Earth's surface, resulting in an earthquake. This is a common occurrence along fault lines where tectonic plates interact. Erosion is the process of wearing away of rocks and soil by natural forces such as wind and water. Volcanic eruption refers to the release of molten rock, ash, and gases from a volcano. Weathering is the breakdown and alteration of rocks by natural processes such as temperature changes and chemical reactions.

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  • 27. 

    Which part of Earth consists of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle?

    • A.

      Asthenosphere

    • B.

      Inner core

    • C.

      Lithosphere

    • D.

      Outer core

    Correct Answer
    C. Lithosphere
    Explanation
    The lithosphere is the correct answer because it consists of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle. The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth, while the uppermost part of the mantle is the solid, rigid layer beneath the crust. Together, they form the lithosphere, which is the relatively cool and rigid outer layer of the Earth's surface. The asthenosphere is a partially molten layer beneath the lithosphere, the inner core is the solid innermost layer of the Earth, and the outer core is the liquid layer surrounding the inner core.

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  • 28. 

    During an earthquake, why do S and P waves arrive at a seismometer at different times?

    • A.

      They start from different points.

    • B.

      They travel at different speeds.

    • C.

      They expand and compress as they move.

    • D.

      They travel through different layers of rock.

    Correct Answer
    B. They travel at different speeds.
    Explanation
    During an earthquake, S and P waves are generated at the focus of the earthquake and travel through the Earth to reach a seismometer. The P waves, also known as primary waves, are the fastest seismic waves and can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. On the other hand, the S waves, also known as secondary waves, are slower and can only travel through solids. This difference in speed causes the P waves to arrive at the seismometer before the S waves. Therefore, the correct answer is that they travel at different speeds.

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  • 29. 

    Which are formed by violent volcanic eruptions?

    • A.

      Cinder cone and composite volcanoes

    • B.

      Shield volcanoes

    Correct Answer
    A. Cinder cone and composite volcanoes
    Explanation
    Cinder cone and composite volcanoes are formed by violent volcanic eruptions. Cinder cone volcanoes are small, steep-sided volcanoes that form from explosive eruptions of gas-rich magma. These eruptions eject cinders, ash, and volcanic bombs into the air, which then fall back to the ground and accumulate around the vent, forming a cone-shaped mountain. Composite volcanoes, also known as stratovolcanoes, are large and symmetrical volcanoes that form from alternating eruptions of lava flows and explosive eruptions. These explosive eruptions produce ash, pyroclastic flows, and volcanic bombs, creating layers of different materials that build up over time.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following lists Earth's layers from outer layer to inner layer?

    • A.

      Crust, inner core, outer core, mantle

    • B.

      Mantle, outer core, inner core, crust

    • C.

      Inner core, outer core, mantle, crust

    • D.

      Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core

    Correct Answer
    D. Crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
    Explanation
    The correct answer is crust, mantle, outer core, inner core. This is the correct order of Earth's layers from the outermost layer to the innermost layer. The crust is the outermost layer, followed by the mantle, then the outer core, and finally the inner core.

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  • 31. 

    Where does sea-floor spreading occur?

    • A.

      Where two continental plates collide

    • B.

      Along a transform fault boundary

    • C.

      Where two oceanic plates collide

    • D.

      Along the mid-ocean ridge

    Correct Answer
    D. Along the mid-ocean ridge
    Explanation
    Sea-floor spreading occurs along the mid-ocean ridge. This is where two oceanic plates are moving away from each other, causing magma to rise up and create new oceanic crust. As the magma cools and solidifies, it forms new oceanic crust, which pushes the older crust away from the ridge. This process of spreading creates new oceanic crust and helps in the continuous movement of the Earth's tectonic plates.

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  • 32. 

    Which instrument is used to detect an earthquake?

    • A.

      Barometer

    • B.

      Hydrometer

    • C.

      Thermometer

    • D.

      Seismometer

    Correct Answer
    D. Seismometer
    Explanation
    A seismometer is used to detect earthquakes. It is an instrument that measures the motion of the ground during an earthquake. It consists of a mass attached to a fixed base, and when the ground shakes, the mass remains stationary due to inertia, while the base moves with the ground. This relative motion is recorded by the seismometer and can be used to analyze and study earthquakes.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jan 05, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Jhuneycutt
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