1.
Modeling can be viewed as a science in its entirety.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Modeling can be viewed as a science in its entirety. This statement is false. While modeling does involve scientific principles and methods, it is not a science in itself. Modeling is a tool or technique used in various scientific disciplines to represent and understand complex systems or phenomena. It is an interdisciplinary field that combines elements of mathematics, statistics, computer science, and domain-specific knowledge. Therefore, it is incorrect to consider modeling as a science in its entirety.
2.
In order to be effective, analysts must use models to solve problems with no regard to the organizational culture to find optimal results.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The explanation for the given answer "False" is that analysts should consider the organizational culture when using models to solve problems. The organizational culture can greatly impact the effectiveness of the models and the results they produce. By taking into account the organizational culture, analysts can better understand the context in which they are working and tailor their models and solutions accordingly. Ignoring the organizational culture may lead to suboptimal results and ineffective problem-solving.
3.
AHP can be used effectively for optimization with problems containing a small number of alternatives
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
AHP, or Analytic Hierarchy Process, is a decision-making tool that helps to prioritize and make choices between alternatives. It involves breaking down complex problems into a hierarchy of criteria and then comparing alternatives against those criteria. AHP is particularly effective when dealing with problems that have a small number of alternatives because it allows for a systematic and structured approach to decision-making. With a limited number of alternatives, it becomes easier to evaluate and compare them against the criteria, resulting in more accurate and efficient optimization.
4.
The trend is towards developing and using Web tools and software to access and run modeling software
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement is suggesting that there is a shift in the direction of utilizing web tools and software to access and operate modeling software. This implies that traditional methods of accessing and running modeling software are being replaced by more modern and convenient web-based alternatives. Therefore, the correct answer is "True" as it aligns with the given statement.
5.
Using data cubes in OLAP systems opens the data up to analysis by more classes of models
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Using data cubes in OLAP systems does not open the data up to analysis by more classes of models. Data cubes are used to organize and summarize data in a multidimensional structure, allowing for efficient and fast analysis. However, the availability of data cubes does not inherently expand the range of models that can be used for analysis. The ability to analyze data using different models depends on the capabilities and functionality of the specific OLAP system being used. Therefore, the given statement is false.
6.
Taking a decision under risk is different from taking the decision under uncertainty
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Taking a decision under risk means that the decision-maker has some knowledge about the probabilities of different outcomes and can assess the potential risks involved. In this case, the decision-maker can use this information to make an informed decision by weighing the potential outcomes and their probabilities. On the other hand, taking a decision under uncertainty means that the decision-maker lacks information or cannot accurately assess the probabilities of different outcomes. In this case, the decision-maker has to rely on intuition, judgment, or other subjective factors to make a decision. Therefore, the statement that taking a decision under risk is different from taking a decision under uncertainty is true.
7.
Spreadsheets are the second most popular tool for modeling
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Spreadsheets are not the second most popular tool for modeling. The statement implies that there is another tool that is more popular than spreadsheets for modeling purposes. However, without further information, it is not possible to determine what that tool is. Therefore, the correct answer is False.
8.
Inear programming seeks to optimally allocate resources among competing activities and is likely the best known optimization model.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Linear programming is a mathematical technique used to find the best possible outcome in a given situation, by allocating limited resources among various activities. It involves maximizing or minimizing an objective function, subject to a set of constraints. Linear programming is widely used in various fields such as operations research, economics, finance, and supply chain management. It is considered one of the most well-known and commonly used optimization models due to its versatility and applicability in a wide range of real-world problems. Therefore, the statement that linear programming seeks to optimally allocate resources among competing activities and is likely the best known optimization model is true.
9.
. When using Excel's Solver, we can have multiple constraints and multiple objective cells.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
When using Excel's Solver, it is not possible to have multiple objective cells. Solver can only optimize one objective cell at a time. Therefore, the correct answer is false.
10.
Most managerial problems can be properly evaluated and solved using a single goal, such as profit maximization.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement suggests that most managerial problems can be effectively addressed by focusing on a single goal, specifically profit maximization. However, this is not entirely accurate as managerial problems are often complex and multifaceted, requiring consideration of various factors such as employee satisfaction, customer needs, ethical considerations, and long-term sustainability. While profit maximization is an important objective for many businesses, it cannot be the sole focus for effective problem-solving in managerial decision-making.
11.
Sensitivity analysis seeks to assess the impact of changes in the input data and parameters on the proposed solution
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Sensitivity analysis is a technique used to evaluate how sensitive the proposed solution is to changes in input data and parameters. It helps to understand the impact of these changes on the overall solution and can be used to identify the most critical factors affecting the solution. Therefore, the statement "Sensitivity analysis seeks to assess the impact of changes in the input data and parameters on the proposed solution" is true.
12.
Goal seeking is roughly the opposite of "what-if" analysis.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Goal seeking is a process used to determine the input required to achieve a specific goal or target. It involves working backwards from the desired outcome to find the necessary input values. On the other hand, "what-if" analysis involves exploring different scenarios and their potential outcomes by changing input values. Therefore, goal seeking and "what-if" analysis can be considered opposite approaches in terms of analyzing and determining outcomes.
13.
Using expected value (EV) with decision trees is totally appropriate for situations where one outcome could lead to an immense loss for the company
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Using expected value (EV) with decision trees is not appropriate for situations where one outcome could lead to an immense loss for the company. Decision trees are based on probabilities and expected values, which may not accurately represent the potential impact of a catastrophic loss. In such situations, it is more appropriate to use techniques like risk analysis or scenario analysis to assess and mitigate potential losses.
14.
The analytic hierarchy process incorporates both qualitative and quantitative decision making criteria.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The analytic hierarchy process is a decision-making framework that considers both qualitative and quantitative criteria. It allows decision-makers to compare and prioritize different factors based on their relative importance. By incorporating both qualitative and quantitative aspects, the process provides a more comprehensive and balanced approach to decision making. Therefore, the statement that the analytic hierarchy process incorporates both qualitative and quantitative decision making criteria is true.
15.
. Using modeling for decision support can currently achieve all of the following EXCEPT
Correct Answer
B. Replace strategy formulation at top levels of the organization.
Explanation
Using modeling for decision support can enable organizations to see likely results of their decisions, enhance the decision-making process, and reduce the costs of providing services to customers. However, it cannot replace strategy formulation at top levels of the organization. Strategy formulation involves the development of long-term plans and goals, which require a combination of experience, expertise, and judgment that modeling alone cannot provide.
16.
Environmental scanning is important for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
Correct Answer
B. environments have greater impact on a model than the organization does
Explanation
Environmental scanning is important for all of the given reasons except for the statement that "environments have greater impact on a model than the organization does." This statement suggests that the impact of the environment on a model is greater than the impact of the organization itself, which is not true. In reality, both the environment and the organization have significant impacts on a model, and both need to be considered during the scanning process.
17.
. Today, it is critical for companies to consider
Correct Answer
D. All of the above
Explanation
Today, it is critical for companies to consider how to package products in the right format, how to sell products at the right price, and how to get products to the right customer. This is because packaging plays a crucial role in attracting customers and protecting the product, pricing affects profitability and competitiveness, and effective distribution ensures that the product reaches the intended target market. Therefore, considering all these factors is essential for companies to succeed in the market.
18.
. Models can be built with the help of human knowledge and expertise. Another source of help in building these models is
Correct Answer
A. classification and clustering methods.
Explanation
Classification and clustering methods are additional sources of help in building models. These methods involve organizing and grouping data based on similarities or patterns. By using these methods, businesses can gain insights into customer behavior, preferences, and trends. This information can be used to develop effective marketing strategies, improve customer service, and make informed business decisions. Therefore, classification and clustering methods are valuable tools in building models that can enhance business operations and customer satisfaction.
19.
. What is an influence diagram?
Correct Answer
D. A graphical representation of a model
Explanation
An influence diagram is a graphical representation of a model. It is used to visually depict the relationships and dependencies between different variables and factors in a system or decision-making process. It helps decision makers understand the cause and effect relationships within the model and identify the key factors that influence the outcomes. By representing the model in a visual format, it becomes easier to analyze and communicate complex systems and make informed decisions based on the understanding of the interdependencies between different variables.
20.
. Spreadsheets are particularly useful for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
Correct Answer
B. they easily import and manipulate massive databases.
Explanation
Spreadsheets are particularly useful for all of the following reasons except for easily importing and manipulating massive databases. While spreadsheets are capable of importing and exporting to different file formats, building static and dynamic models, and manipulating data to see results instantly, they are not designed to handle massive databases efficiently. Spreadsheets are better suited for smaller datasets and may become slow or unresponsive when dealing with large amounts of data.
21.
Linear programming belongs to a family of tools called
Correct Answer
B. mathematical programming models
Explanation
Linear programming is a mathematical technique used to optimize a linear objective function subject to linear constraints. It is a part of mathematical programming models because it involves formulating and solving mathematical equations to find the best solution. Decision tree models, qualitative models, and heuristic programming models are different tools or techniques that are not specifically related to linear programming.
22.
Which of the following is NOT a component of a linear programming problem?
Correct Answer
A. internal metrics
Explanation
Internal metrics are not a component of a linear programming problem. Linear programming problems involve decision variables, constraints, and an objective function. Internal metrics refer to the measures or indicators used within a company or organization to assess performance or progress, and they are not directly related to the components of a linear programming problem.
23.
Managers in organizations typically have
Correct Answer
A. multiple goals that need to be simultaneously or jointly optimized
Explanation
Managers in organizations typically have multiple goals that need to be simultaneously or jointly optimized. This means that they have various objectives or targets that they need to achieve, and these goals are interconnected and dependent on each other. Therefore, they cannot focus on optimizing only one goal while neglecting the others. Instead, they need to find a balance and make decisions that will optimize all the goals collectively. Linear and nonlinear programming techniques can be used to help managers in this process by providing mathematical models and algorithms to find the best possible solutions that satisfy multiple goals.
24.
In an LP model, what does the fourth hidden component contain?
Correct Answer
D. slack and surplus variables
Explanation
The fourth hidden component in an LP model contains slack and surplus variables. Slack variables represent the amount by which a constraint is underutilized, while surplus variables represent the amount by which a constraint is overutilized. These variables are introduced to ensure that all constraints are satisfied and to provide flexibility in the solution space.
25.
Sensitivity analysis is important in management support systems for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
Correct Answer
D. it improves the mathematical optimality of the generated solutions.
Explanation
Sensitivity analysis is important in management support systems for several reasons. It permits the manager to input data to increase his/her confidence in the model, allowing flexibility and adaptation to changing conditions. It also provides a better understanding of the model and the decision-making situation. However, sensitivity analysis does not directly improve the mathematical optimality of the generated solutions. Instead, it focuses on examining how changes in input variables affect the output of the model, helping managers understand the sensitivity of the results to different scenarios.
26.
The question "What will total earnings be if we reduce our inventory stocking costs by 10%?" is a type of
Correct Answer
B. what-if analysis.
Explanation
The question is asking about the total earnings if the inventory stocking costs are reduced by 10%. This type of analysis is known as what-if analysis, which involves exploring different scenarios and assessing the impact of changes on outcomes. In this case, the question is specifically asking about the impact on total earnings when the inventory stocking costs are reduced, making it a what-if analysis.
27.
The question "What advertising budget is needed to increase market share by 7%?" is a type of
Correct Answer
A. Goal-seeking analysis.
Explanation
Goal-seeking analysis is a type of analysis that helps determine the necessary inputs or actions needed to achieve a specific goal. In this case, the goal is to increase market share by 7%. By conducting a goal-seeking analysis, one can determine the advertising budget required to achieve this goal. This type of analysis allows for the identification of the specific actions or inputs needed to reach a desired outcome.
28.
The question "How many servers will be needed to reduce the waiting time of restaurant customers to less than 9 minutes?" is a type of
Correct Answer
A. goal-seeking analysis.
Explanation
The question is asking about the number of servers needed to achieve a specific goal, which is reducing the waiting time of restaurant customers to less than 9 minutes. This is an example of goal-seeking analysis, as it involves determining the necessary actions to reach a desired outcome.
29.
Decision trees are best suited to solve what types of problems?
Correct Answer
A. Problems with a single goal
Explanation
Decision trees are best suited to solve problems with a single goal because they are designed to make sequential decisions based on a set of conditions or criteria. In these types of problems, the decision tree can effectively analyze the available options and determine the best course of action to achieve the desired outcome. Decision trees are particularly useful when there is a clear objective or goal that needs to be reached, as they can provide a structured and systematic approach to decision-making.
30.
. In handling uncertainty in decision modeling, the optimistic approach assumes
Correct Answer
B. the best possible outcome of each alternative will occur.
Explanation
The optimistic approach in handling uncertainty in decision modeling assumes that the best possible outcome of each alternative will occur. This means that when making decisions, the optimistic approach assumes that everything will go perfectly and that the best possible outcome will be achieved for each alternative. This approach tends to be more optimistic and positive, focusing on the potential benefits and disregarding potential risks or negative outcomes.
31.
In handling uncertainty in decision modeling, what does the pessimistic approach do?
Correct Answer
C. It assumes the worst possible outcome of each alternative will occur and then selects the best of them
Explanation
The pessimistic approach in handling uncertainty in decision modeling assumes that the worst possible outcome of each alternative will occur. However, instead of selecting the worst outcome, it selects the best alternative among them. This approach is used to minimize risk and make decisions based on the worst-case scenario.
32.
Which of the following statements about expected utility is true?
Correct Answer
B. Used in decision making, it can bring huge risk to a small startup with limited resources.
Explanation
Expected utility theory is a decision-making framework that considers both the probabilities and the utilities associated with different outcomes. It assumes that individuals make decisions by evaluating the expected utility of each option. In this context, the statement "Used in decision making, it can bring huge risk to a small startup with limited resources" suggests that applying expected utility theory to decision-making in a small startup with limited resources may lead to taking risky actions that could potentially harm the business due to the uncertainty and potential losses involved.
33.
. Which of the following statements about the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is true?
Correct Answer
A. It can handle multiple criteria and goals.
Explanation
The correct answer is that the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) can handle multiple criteria and goals. This means that AHP is a decision model that allows for the consideration of various factors and objectives when making decisions. Unlike the other options, it is not solely based on quantitative data or an opaque "black box" like neural networks.