Learning Theory: Psychology Exam! Quiz

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Learning Theory: Psychology Exam! Quiz - Quiz


Have you ever heard of the learning theory? The learning theory describes how students receive, process, and retain knowledge during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences shape a person’s worldview. Behaviorists see learning as an effect of conditioning and an advocate system throughout their education. Obtaining knowledge should be a unique and productive experience for everyone. If you are studying psychology, this quiz is perfect for you.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In __________ reinforcement, the reinforcer follows every correct response.

    • A.

      intermittent

    • B.

      Partial

    • C.

      Negative

    • D.

      Continuous

    Correct Answer
    D. Continuous
    Explanation
    Remember that continuous reinforcement is the fastest at acquisition but also has the fastest extinction rates.

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  • 2. 

    In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, salivation was the

    • A.

      Conditioned response.

    • B.

      Unconditioned stimulus.

    • C.

      Conditioned stimulus

    • D.

      Unconditioned response.

    Correct Answer
    D. Unconditioned response.
    Explanation
    Technically the salivating started out as the unconditioned response to the food. It later becomes the conditioned response to the bell/tone. Remember that C.C is based on naturally occurring reflexes.

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  • 3. 

    The presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a positive stimulus are both examples of?

    • A.

      negative reinforcement.

    • B.

      Punishment.

    • C.

      positive reinforcement.

    • D.

      Secondary reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    B. Punishment.
    Explanation
    Both of these would weaken a behavior therefore they are types of punishment. Remember to always ask yourself when dealing with Op. Cond., 1) Was the behavior strengthened or weakened? 2) Was something added or taken away.

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  • 4. 

    If you have a snake phobia because you once heard a loud noise while looking at a snake, for you a snake is a(n)

    • A.

      US.

    • B.

      CS.

    • C.

      UR.

    • D.

      CR.

    Correct Answer
    B. CS.
    Explanation
    The snake should not naturally elicit fear therefore it starts as the neutral stimuli and then becomes the Conditioned Stimulus.

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  • 5. 

    If the conditioned stimulus is presented many times without reinforcement, we can expect:

    • A.

      an increase in stimulus generalization.

    • B.

      The strength of the UR to increase.

    • C.

      An increase in response generalization.

    • D.

      Extinction to occur.

    Correct Answer
    D. Extinction to occur.
    Explanation
    This is the definition of extinction.

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  • 6. 

    A child has learned to avoid a furry, black cat. However, she still plays with her grandmother's short-haired tabby. Her response demonstrates:

    • A.

      negative transfer.

    • B.

      Extinction.

    • C.

      Discrimination.

    • D.

      Successive approximation.

    Correct Answer
    C. Discrimination.
    Explanation
    This is the concept of discrimination. She only associated the furry black cat as having the negative pairing and therefore still plays with her grandma's cat. Now if she avoided them both, she would be demonstrating generalization.

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  • 7. 

    The greatest degree of resistance to extinction is typically caused by a __________ schedule of reinforcement.

    • A.

      Variable interval

    • B.

      Variable ratio

    • C.

      fixed interval

    • D.

      Fixed ratio

    Correct Answer
    A. Variable interval
    Explanation
    The reason for this is because you are dealing with time and it is variable, therefore regardless of response and a set time, the subject doesn't know when they will be rewarded. The next strongest would be variable ratio, then the fixed interval, followed by a fixed ratio, then continuous reinforcement.

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  • 8. 

    In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, the conditioned stimulus was the:

    • A.

      food.

    • B.

      Bell.

    • C.

      Salivation to the food

    • D.

      Salivation to the bell.

    Correct Answer
    B. Bell.
    Explanation
    The bell. Remember that the conditioned stimulus starts out as the neutral stimulus and should not elicit the response but only through its paring with the UCS does it begin to elicit the CR.

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  • 9. 

    In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, the bell (prior to conditioning) was the

    • A.

      Neutral stimulus.

    • B.

      Unconditioned stimulus.

    • C.

      Conditioned stimulus.

    • D.

      Unconditioned response.

    Correct Answer
    A. Neutral stimulus.
    Explanation
    See above

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  • 10. 

    Jimmy helps his father put away the dishes after dinner. Jimmy's father wants to increase the probability of this behavior and will be most successful by praising Jimmy.

    • A.

      after all the dishes are put away.

    • B.

      At bedtime.

    • C.

      The next morning at breakfast.

    • D.

      The next time they are putting away dishes.

    Correct Answer
    A. after all the dishes are put away.
    Explanation
    This is a schedule of reinforcement and to achieve the behavior quickly, Jimmy's dad should do this every time Jimmy puts away the dishes.

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  • 11. 

    After a response has been extinguished, it will often reappear after a short time has passed. This is called

    • A.

      adaptiveness.

    • B.

      expectation checking.

    • C.

      Extinction recovery.

    • D.

      Spontaneous recovery.

    Correct Answer
    D. Spontaneous recovery.
    Explanation
    This C.C pricnciple is defined as Spontaneous Recovery.

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  • 12. 

    The first-grade teacher gives students stickers when they perform well. If they earn five stickers in one day they are exempt from homework. The stickers in this example could also be called

    • A.

      tokens.

    • B.

      primary reinforcers.

    • C.

      Generalized reinforcers.

    • D.

      Prepotent responses

    Correct Answer
    A. tokens.
    Explanation
    This is the concept of a token economy. Token economies should always be associated with op. cond.

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  • 13. 

    A student does a good job on math problems for homework, and the teacher awards a sticker. Does this demonstrate the use of?

    • A.

      extinction.

    • B.

      Reinforcement.

    • C.

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • D.

      Antecedents.

    Correct Answer
    B. Reinforcement.
    Explanation
    The sticker acts as a reinforcer. This behavior is not based on reflexes but rather higher-order behavior and therefore strengthens the behavior.

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  • 14. 

    A dog that gets rewarded for the first bark it makes in each ten minute period is being reinforced on a __________ schedule of reinforcement.

    • A.

      Continuous

    • B.

      Fixed interval

    • C.

      Variable interval

    • D.

      Fixed ratio

    Correct Answer
    B. Fixed interval
    Explanation
    No matter how many times the dog barks, he will still not be rewarded until 10 minutes has gone by and it is always ten minutes therefore we are dealing with a fixed amount of time so this is a fixed interval schedule.

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  • 15. 

    Operant conditioning was studied by:

    • A.

      Pavlov.

    • B.

      Maslow.

    • C.

      Freud.

    • D.

      Skinner.

    Correct Answer
    D. Skinner.
    Explanation
    Pavlov and Watson are Classical Cond. Maslow is a Humanist, Freud is a psychoanalysist, Bandura studied Observable Learning. Skinner is your key Op. Cond. guy

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following might serve as a secondary reinforcer?

    • A.

      sex

    • B.

      Grades

    • C.

      Food

    • D.

      A pain-relieving drug

    Correct Answer
    B. Grades
    Explanation
    Remember that secondary reinforcers are NOT essentail for survival and often times will help aid in getting primary inforcers.

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  • 17. 

    In a classic experiment, "Little Albert," a very young boy, was conditioned to be afraid of a rat. He also became fearful of white furry rabbits and bearded men. This is an example of

    • A.

      Spontaneous recovery.

    • B.

      Higher order conditioning.

    • C.

      Extinction.

    • D.

      Stimulus generalization

    Correct Answer
    D. Stimulus generalization
    Explanation
    This is the concept of generalization

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  • 18. 

    Negative reinforcement __________ responding; punishment __________ responding.

    • A.

      Increases; increases

    • B.

      Decreases; decreases

    • C.

      increases; decreases

    • D.

      Decreases; increases

    Correct Answer
    C. increases; decreases
    Explanation
    This follows my op.cond 2 questions rules.

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  • 19. 

    Two schedules of reinforcement that produce the highest rates of response are

    • A.

      Continuous and fixed interval.

    • B.

      Fixed interval and variable interval.

    • C.

      Variable interval and variable ratio.

    • D.

      Fixed ratio and variable ratio.

    Correct Answer
    C. Variable interval and variable ratio.
    Explanation
    We discussed this above

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  • 20. 

    __________ occurs when making a response removes an unpleasant event.

    • A.

      Positive reinforcement

    • B.

      Negative reinforcement

    • C.

      Extinction

    • D.

      Punishment

    Correct Answer
    B. Negative reinforcement
    Explanation
    This is the concept of Neg. Reinforcement. Remember that the concepts of Escape and Avoidance learning fall under this principle.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 26, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Kender
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