# Ch. 3 Section 3.2.1 & 3.2.2 Nighttime Recognition Distance Research

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• 1.

### What is the approximate minimum lighting to respond to a dark clad pedestrian?

• A.

3 Lux (0.3 fc)

• B.

4 Lux (0.4 fc)

• C.

10 Lux (0.9 fc)

• D.

15 Lux (1.4 fc)

D. 15 Lux (1.4 fc)
Explanation
The approximate minimum lighting required to respond to a dark clad pedestrian is 15 Lux (1.4 fc). This means that in order to detect and respond to a pedestrian wearing dark clothing, the lighting should be at least 15 Lux or 1.4 foot-candles. This level of lighting is necessary to ensure visibility and prevent accidents or collisions with pedestrians who may be less visible in low light conditions.

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• 2.

### The equation Illumination = intensity / distance squared (e = I / d squared) applies to which one of the following?

• A.

Twilight Distance Method

• B.

Inverse Square Law

• C.

SAE J599

• D.

SAE J1383

• E.

B. Inverse Square Law
Explanation
The equation Illumination = intensity / distance squared (e = I / d squared) applies to the Inverse Square Law. This law states that the intensity of light decreases as the distance from the source increases, following a specific mathematical relationship. The equation demonstrates that the illumination, or the amount of light received per unit area, is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source. As the distance increases, the illumination decreases exponentially. This law is used in various fields, including physics, photography, and lighting design, to understand and calculate the behavior of light.

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• 3.

### Using the "HEADLIGHT" spreadsheet - Bullough & Skinner developed an equation that models driver recognition distances based upon which of the following?

• A.

Angle of the pedestrian relative to the driver

• B.

Illuminance cast onto the pedestrian

• C.

Size of the pedestrian

• D.

All of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
The correct answer is "All of the above". Bullough & Skinner developed an equation that models driver recognition distances based on the angle of the pedestrian relative to the driver, the illuminance cast onto the pedestrian, and the size of the pedestrian. All of these factors play a role in determining the driver's ability to recognize a pedestrian, and the equation takes all of them into account.

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• 4.

### The headlight type will usually offer an investigator enough information to determine when a pedestrian should be recognized on an unlit road.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because the type of headlight alone cannot determine when a pedestrian should be recognized on an unlit road. There are several other factors that can affect visibility, such as weather conditions, the position of the pedestrian, and the driver's attention and reaction time. Therefore, relying solely on the headlight type would not be sufficient for determining when a pedestrian should be recognized.

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• 5.

### Using the "HEADLIGHT" spreadsheet - A pedestrian is standing 0.6 m (2 ft.) right toward the opposite side of the road from the driver's side of the vehicle (2 ft. left in the US, 0.6 m right in the UK).  The pedestrian is wearing white pants and a black shirt.  The car is two years old and very well maintained (85th percentile headlights) with H11 bulbs (H7-13).  Which is the best recognition distance? [Assume the range is correct]

• A.

175 ft (50 m) (+/- 50 ft., 15 m)

• B.

311 ft (95 m) (+/- 50 ft., 15 m)

• C.

374 ft (114 m) (+/- 50 ft., 15 m)

B. 311 ft (95 m) (+/- 50 ft., 15 m)
Explanation
Based on the given information, the car has headlights that are in the 85th percentile, which means they are better than 85% of other headlights. The pedestrian is wearing contrasting colors, with white pants and a black shirt, which makes them more visible. Additionally, the car is assumed to have the correct range. Among the given options, the best recognition distance would be 311 ft (95 m) (+/- 50 ft., 15 m), as it provides the longest distance for the driver to recognize the pedestrian.

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• 6.

### Using the "NIGHT RECOGNITION A2B" spreadsheet - Which of the following variables has the least significance on a driver's ability to recognize an object on an unlit road?

• A.

• B.

Position of the object left or right

• C.

Darkness / lightness of the object

• D.

Movement of the object

Explanation
The least significant variable on a driver's ability to recognize an object on an unlit road is the headlight type. This means that the type of headlights a vehicle has does not have a significant impact on a driver's ability to recognize an object in darkness. Other factors such as the position of the object, darkness/lightness of the object, and movement of the object are more important in determining a driver's ability to recognize an object on an unlit road.

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• 7.

### Using the "NIGHT RECOGNITION A2B" spreadsheet - Which is the most on-point study if the case involves a gray object on a sharp curve?

• A.

Bullough & Skinner

• B.

Curry

• C.

McLaughlin

• D.

SCHP

C. McLaughlin
Explanation
The most on-point study in the given scenario would be McLaughlin. This study is likely to provide relevant information and insights specifically related to the case involving a gray object on a sharp curve.

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• 8.

### Using the "NIGHT RECOGNITION A2B" spreadsheet - Which is the most on-point study if the case involves a dark pedestrian laying in the road directly ahead?

• A.

Bullough & Skinner

• B.

Curry

• C.

McLaughlin

• D.

SCHP

D. SCHP
Explanation
The most on-point study in the given case involving a dark pedestrian laying in the road directly ahead would be SCHP.

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• 9.

### Same situation as question 8, but this time it is a dark car stopped in the road with no lights.

• A.

Bullough & Skinner

• B.

Curry or Fambro et al.

• C.

McLaughlin

• D.

SCHP

B. Curry or Fambro et al.
Explanation
The correct answer is Curry or Fambro et al. In this situation, a dark car stopped in the road with no lights can be a potential hazard for other drivers on the road. Curry or Fambro et al. refers to a study conducted by Curry and Fambro, or their team, which might have investigated the risks and dangers associated with dark cars without lights. Therefore, their research findings or recommendations would be relevant in this scenario to understand the implications and potential solutions for such situations.

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• 10.

### Using the "HEADLIGHT" spreadsheet - An adult is walking with his back to traffic directly ahead of the passenger's side A-pillar (6 ft., 1.8 m to the passenger's side of the left edge of the car).  He is wearing  dark clothing.  A driver is approaching in a Ford Expedition (9007 headlights) and is driving in the middle of his lane (12 ft. – 3.6 m).  Which is the best estimate of recognition distance?

• A.

111 ft. (34 m)

• B.

153 ft. (47 m)

• C.

197 ft. (60 m)

• D.

250 ft. (76 m)

A. 111 ft. (34 m)
Explanation
Based on the given information, the adult is walking with his back to traffic and wearing dark clothing. The driver is approaching in a Ford Expedition with 9007 headlights and is driving in the middle of his lane. The best estimate of recognition distance would be the distance at which the driver can clearly see and recognize the presence of the adult. Considering the factors such as the adult's position, dark clothing, and the type of headlights, the best estimate is 111 ft. (34 m).

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• Mar 20, 2023
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• Jan 06, 2012
Quiz Created by
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