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The test covers ch 2 which provides students with an understanding of measurements commonly used to gauge economic activity and business conditions in our society.

• 1.

The most widely used measure of national output is called:

• A.

GDP

• B.

CPI

• C.

Unemployment rate

• D.

Retail sales

A. GDP
Explanation
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the most widely used measure of national output. It represents the total value of goods and services produced within a country's borders over a specific period of time. GDP provides a comprehensive measure of economic activity and is used to assess the overall health and growth of an economy. It takes into account consumption, investment, government spending, and net exports, making it a comprehensive indicator of a country's economic performance.

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• 2.

This measure compares the prices of a group of selected items each year to some earlier year:

• A.

GDP

• B.

CPI

• C.

Retail sales

• D.

Unemployment rate

B. CPI
Explanation
The correct answer is CPI, which stands for Consumer Price Index. CPI is a measure that compares the prices of a group of selected items each year to some earlier year. It is used to track inflation and changes in the cost of living over time. By comparing the prices of goods and services, CPI helps to gauge the purchasing power of consumers and the overall health of the economy.

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• 3.

Another way to measure economic growth is output per person also known as:

• A.

GDP per capita

• B.

CPI per capita

• C.

• D.

Population per capita

A. GDP per capita
Explanation
GDP per capita is a measure of economic growth that calculates the average economic output per person in a country. It is obtained by dividing the total GDP of a country by its population. This measure provides a more accurate representation of the economic well-being of individuals in a country, as it takes into account both the size of the economy and the population. By comparing GDP per capita over time or between different countries, one can assess changes in living standards and economic development.

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• 4.

Which of the following would not be included in GDP?

• A.

Exports to other countries

• B.

Purchases of computers by government

• C.

Automobiles purchased

• D.

D. Dinner preparation for your family
Explanation
Dinner preparation for your family would not be included in GDP because GDP measures the total value of goods and services produced within a country's borders. Dinner preparation for your family is considered a non-market activity and does not contribute to the overall production of goods and services in the economy.

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• 5.

Productivity would likely increase as a result of:

• A.

Higher taxes

• B.

Expanded production technology

• C.

Decreased training programs

• D.

Lower government spending

B. Expanded production technology
Explanation
Expanding production technology would likely increase productivity because it allows for more efficient and streamlined processes. By implementing advanced technology and automation, tasks can be completed faster and with fewer errors, leading to higher output levels. This can also result in cost savings and improved quality control. Therefore, expanded production technology is a plausible explanation for the increase in productivity.

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• 6.

Retail sales include:

• A.

Taxes collected

• B.

• C.

• D.

School supplies bought by students

D. School supplies bought by students
Explanation
Retail sales refer to the purchases made by consumers directly from retailers. This includes various goods and services that individuals buy for personal use. In the given options, "school supplies bought by students" is the only one that aligns with this definition. It represents a typical retail transaction where students purchase school supplies for their personal use. The other options, such as "taxes collected," "companies buying new equipment," and "borrowing by business," do not fall under the category of retail sales as they involve different types of transactions and entities.

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• 7.

The movement of the economy from one condition to another and back again is called:

• A.

• B.

Prosperity

• C.

Production cycle

• D.

Peak level

Explanation
The correct answer is business cycle because it refers to the pattern of economic expansion and contraction. The economy goes through periods of growth (prosperity), followed by a peak level, and then enters a period of decline (recession or depression). This cycle repeats itself over time, reflecting the natural fluctuations in economic activity. The term "production cycle" is not a suitable explanation as it only refers to the process of producing goods and services, while "peak level" is not a comprehensive term to describe the entire cycle.

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• 8.

A period in usually the high point of the business cycle is known as:

• A.

Recovery

• B.

Prosperity

• C.

Deflation

• D.

Reverse Recession

B. Prosperity
Explanation
Prosperity refers to a period in the business cycle characterized by economic growth, high employment rates, increased consumer spending, and overall financial success. During this phase, businesses thrive, profits increase, and there is a general sense of economic well-being. This is typically considered the high point of the business cycle as it represents a period of expansion and prosperity for the economy as a whole.

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• 9.

An increase in the general level of prices is called:

• A.

Inflation

• B.

Deflation

• C.

CPI

• D.

Price recovery

A. Inflation
Explanation
An increase in the general level of prices is called inflation. Inflation refers to the sustained increase in the average price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. It is typically measured by calculating the percentage change in a price index, such as the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Inflation erodes the purchasing power of money, as the same amount of money can buy fewer goods and services. It is an important economic indicator that affects various aspects of the economy, including interest rates, wages, and investment decisions.

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• 10.

Deflation results in lower buying power of money.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Deflation actually results in higher buying power of money, not lower. In a deflationary period, the overall price level decreases, which means that the same amount of money can buy more goods and services. This is opposite to inflation, where the price level increases and the buying power of money decreases. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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• 11.

When consumers increase their borrowing, interest rates tend to decline.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
When consumers increase their borrowing, it creates a higher demand for loans, which in turn leads to an increase in interest rates. This is because lenders need to compensate for the increased risk associated with lending more money. Therefore, the statement that interest rates tend to decline when consumers increase their borrowing is false.

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• 12.

The phase of a business cycle in which unemployment is the highest is:

• A.

Recovery

• B.

Recession

• C.

Prosperity

• D.

Depression

D. Depression
Explanation
During a depression, the economy experiences a significant downturn, resulting in a high level of unemployment. This phase is characterized by a decline in economic activity, decreased consumer spending, and reduced business investments. As a result, many businesses struggle or shut down, leading to widespread job losses and a surge in unemployment rates. Therefore, depression is the phase of the business cycle in which unemployment is the highest.

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• 13.

Money spent by a business for items, such as land, buildings, equipment, that will be used for a long period of time:

• A.

Discount spending

• B.

Capital spending

• C.

Personal spending

• D.

Debt spending

B. Capital spending
Explanation
Capital spending refers to the money spent by a business on assets that will be used for a long period of time, such as land, buildings, and equipment. This type of spending is considered an investment in the business's infrastructure and is essential for its long-term growth and success. Unlike personal spending, which is for individual expenses, or debt spending, which involves borrowing money, capital spending is focused on acquiring and maintaining assets that will generate future returns for the business.

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• 14.

This investment item represents debt for an organization:

• A.

Stock

• B.

Bond

• C.

Annuity

• D.

Equity

B. Bond
Explanation
A bond is a type of investment item that represents debt for an organization. When an organization issues a bond, it is essentially borrowing money from investors. The bondholder becomes a creditor to the organization and is entitled to receive regular interest payments on the bond, as well as the return of the principal amount at the bond's maturity. Unlike stocks, which represent ownership in a company, bonds do not provide ownership rights but rather a fixed income stream. Therefore, the correct answer is Bond.

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• 15.

When a government spends more than it takes it, this situation creates a:

• A.

Budget surplus

• B.

Budget deficit

• C.

Budget windfall

• D.

Budget debt ceiling

B. Budget deficit
Explanation
When a government spends more than it takes in, it creates a budget deficit. This means that the government is operating at a financial shortfall, as its expenses exceed its revenue. A budget deficit often leads to an increase in government debt, as the government may need to borrow money to cover the shortfall. This can have long-term implications for the economy, as it may require the government to implement austerity measures or increase taxes to address the deficit.

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• 16.

Equity refers to:

• A.

Reduced spending by government

• B.

Ownership in a company or other asset

• C.

Borrowing to finance a capital project

• D.

Increased government taxes

B. Ownership in a company or other asset
Explanation
Equity refers to ownership in a company or other asset. It represents the value of an individual's or entity's interest in an asset after deducting any liabilities. Equity can be in the form of shares in a company, ownership in real estate, or any other investment that gives the owner a claim on the asset's value. It signifies the ownership rights and the potential for financial gain or loss associated with the asset.

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• 17.

Which of the following would most likely cause a budget surplus for government?

• A.

Higher sepnding

• B.

Lower spending

• C.

Higher borrowing

• D.

Lower taxes

B. Lower spending
Explanation
Lower spending would most likely cause a budget surplus for the government because when the government spends less money, it reduces its expenses and creates a surplus. This means that the government is taking in more money through taxes and other sources than it is spending on various programs and services. As a result, there is a surplus of funds that can be used for other purposes such as paying off debt, investing, or saving for future expenses.

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• 18.

Which country has the highest GDP per capita as of reported in February 2020?

• A.

United States

• B.

• C.

China

• D.

Japan

A. United States
Explanation
The United States has the highest GDP per capita as of February 2020. This means that on average, each person in the United States has a higher income compared to the other countries listed. The GDP per capita is a measure of the economic output of a country divided by its population, indicating the average wealth or standard of living.

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• 19.

The total amount owed by the federal government is called the:

• A.

National debt

• B.

Federal deficit

• C.

Debt ceiling

• D.

US budget

A. National debt
Explanation
The national debt refers to the total amount of money that the federal government owes to its creditors. It includes both the debt held by the public, such as bonds and treasury bills, as well as the debt owed to government agencies and trust funds. The national debt is accumulated over time through government borrowing to finance budget deficits. It is an important measure of the country's fiscal health and can have implications for interest rates, inflation, and the overall economy.

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• 20.

This represents ownership in a corporations:

• A.

Stock

• B.

Bond

• C.

Certificate

• D.

Budget

A. Stock
Explanation
Stock represents ownership in a corporation. When an individual or entity purchases stock, they are buying a share or portion of ownership in the company. This ownership entitles them to certain rights, such as voting on company matters and receiving a portion of the company's profits through dividends. Stocks can be bought and sold on the stock market, allowing investors to potentially earn a return on their investment if the company's value increases over time. Bonds, certificates, and budgets do not represent ownership in a corporation.

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• Current Version
• Mar 18, 2023
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• Mar 22, 2013
Quiz Created by
Jfoisy

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