Cell Biology Chapter 15

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Cell Biology Chapter 15 - Quiz

We are deep into our studies on all there is to learn about the topic of cells – under the overlying umbrella that is the scientific topic of biology – but we’re not done quite yet. Take a look at chapter 15 and see if you really know your stuff, or if you need to study that little bit harder.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    highly compacted radial loops remain anchored to a scaffold formed from proteins in the nuclear matrixWhat type of Chromosome?

    • A.

      Anaphase

    • B.

      Metaphase

    • C.

      Telophase

    • D.

      Prophase

    • E.

      Interphase

    Correct Answer
    B. Metaphase
    Explanation
    During metaphase, the highly compacted radial loops of chromosomes remain anchored to a scaffold formed from proteins in the nuclear matrix. This scaffold helps to organize and stabilize the chromosomes, ensuring that they are properly aligned at the center of the cell before they are separated during anaphase. Therefore, the given correct answer for the type of chromosome is Metaphase.

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  • 2. 

    Highly compacted and transcriptionally inactive – Some localized regions in nondividing cells

    • A.

      Heterochromatin

    • B.

      Euchromatin

    Correct Answer
    A. Heterochromatin
    Explanation
    Heterochromatin refers to regions of DNA that are highly compacted and transcriptionally inactive. These regions are typically found in nondividing cells. In contrast, euchromatin refers to regions of DNA that are less compacted and transcriptionally active. Therefore, the correct answer is heterochromatin.

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  • 3. 

    – Less condensed and capable of gene transcription – Most chromosomal regions in nondividing cells

    • A.

      Heterochromatin

    • B.

      Euchromatin

    Correct Answer
    B. Euchromatin
    Explanation
    Euchromatin is the correct answer because it is less condensed and capable of gene transcription. In contrast to heterochromatin, euchromatin is found in most chromosomal regions in nondividing cells. Euchromatin is more accessible to transcription factors and other molecules involved in gene expression, allowing for active transcription of genes.

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  • 4. 

    Most transcriptional activities _____ during cell division.

    • A.

      Begin

    • B.

      Cease

    • C.

      Pause

    • D.

      Elongate

    Correct Answer
    B. Cease
    Explanation
    During cell division, most transcriptional activities cease. This is because the cell needs to focus on replicating its DNA and dividing into two daughter cells. Transcription, which is the process of synthesizing RNA from DNA, is temporarily halted to ensure accurate DNA replication and proper cell division. Once cell division is complete, transcription can resume and gene expression can continue as normal.

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  • 5. 

    Where can  acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation be found?

    • A.

      DNA backbone

    • B.

      RNA

    • C.

      Chromosome

    • D.

      Amino terminal tail

    Correct Answer
    D. Amino terminal tail
    Explanation
    Acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation are post-translational modifications that occur on proteins. These modifications can regulate protein function and cellular processes. The amino terminal tail refers to the N-terminus of a protein, which is the end that contains the amino group. It is known that acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation can occur on the amino terminal tail of proteins, suggesting that these modifications can be found in this region. Therefore, the correct answer is the amino terminal tail.

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  • 6. 

    For a diploid human cell, 2 complete sets of chromosomes from a single cell constitute a ________ of that cell.

    Correct Answer
    karyotype
    Explanation
    A karyotype refers to the complete set of chromosomes present in an individual's cells. In a diploid human cell, there are two complete sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent. Therefore, the term "karyotype" accurately describes the collection of chromosomes in a diploid human cell.

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  • 7. 

    Protein synthesis for M phase happens in which of the following phases?

    • A.

      G1

    • B.

      S

    • C.

      G2

    Correct Answer
    C. G2
    Explanation
    During the G2 phase of the cell cycle, protein synthesis for M phase occurs. This is the phase where the cell prepares for mitosis by replicating its DNA and synthesizing proteins necessary for cell division. G1 phase is the phase where the cell grows and carries out its normal functions, while the S phase is the phase where DNA replication takes place. Therefore, neither G1 nor S phase is the correct answer for protein synthesis for M phase.

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  • 8. 

    What type of cell division has the following: A cell divides to produce 2 new cells genetically identical to the original • Original called mother, new cells called daughters • Involves mitosis and cytokinesis • Can be for asexual reproduction or for production and maintenance of multicellularity

    Correct Answer
    mitotic cell division
    mitotic
    Explanation
    Mitotic cell division is the correct answer because it involves the process of mitosis and cytokinesis, where a cell divides to produce two new cells that are genetically identical to the original cell. The original cell is called the mother cell, while the new cells are called daughter cells. This type of cell division can occur for asexual reproduction, where an organism can reproduce without the need for a partner, or for the production and maintenance of multicellularity, where cells divide to form tissues, organs, and organisms.

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  • 9. 

    What is responsible for organizing and sorting the chromosomes during mitosis?

    Correct Answer
    mitotic spindle
    mitotic spindle apparatus
    Explanation
    The mitotic spindle, also known as the mitotic spindle apparatus, is responsible for organizing and sorting the chromosomes during mitosis. It is a complex structure made up of microtubules that form a spindle-shaped framework. The spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes and help to separate them into two daughter cells during cell division. This process ensures that each daughter cell receives the correct number and type of chromosomes.

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  • 10. 

    Two sucessive cell divisions but only one DNA duplication resulting in what?  2 answers

    Correct Answer
    Meiosis and 4 haploid cells
    Meiosis and four haploid cells
    Meiosis and 4 haploid cell
    Meiosis and four haploid cell
    Meiosis 4 haploid cells
  • 11. 

    Correct Answer
    crossing over
  • 12. 

    • A.

      Interphase

    • B.

      Prophase

    • C.

      ProMetaphase

    • D.

      Metaphase

    • E.

      Anaphase

    Correct Answer
    A. Interphase
  • 13. 

    • A.

      Interphase

    • B.

      Prophase

    • C.

      ProMetaphase

    • D.

      Metaphase

    • E.

      Anaphase

    Correct Answer
    B. Prophase
  • 14. 

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Prometaphase

    • C.

      Metaphase

    • D.

      Anaphase

    • E.

      Telophase and Cytokinesis

    Correct Answer
    B. Prometaphase
  • 15. 

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Metaphase

    • C.

      Anaphase

    • D.

      Telophase

    Correct Answer
    B. Metaphase
  • 16. 

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Metaphase

    • C.

      Anaphase

    • D.

      Telophase and Cytokinesis

    Correct Answer
    C. Anaphase
  • 17. 

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Metaphase

    • C.

      Anaphase

    • D.

      Telophase and Cytokinesis

    Correct Answer
    D. Telophase and Cytokinesis
  • 18. 

    Which stage of Meiosis does crossing over occur and the cell divides but does not split the chromosomes?

    • A.

      Meiosis I

    • B.

      Meiosis II

    • C.

      Mitosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Meiosis I
    Explanation
    Crossing over occurs during the stage of Meiosis I. This is the stage where homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material, resulting in genetic recombination. During Meiosis I, the cell undergoes two rounds of division, but the chromosomes do not split completely. This is in contrast to Meiosis II, where the cell divides again, resulting in the separation of sister chromatids. Mitosis, on the other hand, is a different process altogether, where a cell divides to produce two identical daughter cells.

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  • 19. 

    What occurs in cells within the testes or ovaries to produce gametes?

    Correct Answer
    meiosis
    Explanation
    In cells within the testes or ovaries, meiosis occurs to produce gametes. Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division that results in the formation of haploid cells, which are the gametes. During meiosis, the cells undergo two rounds of division, resulting in the production of four genetically different haploid cells. This process is crucial for sexual reproduction as it ensures that the offspring receive a unique combination of genetic material from both parents.

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  • 20. 

    When a sperm and egg unite what do they form?

    Correct Answer
    zygote
    a zygote
    Explanation
    When a sperm and egg unite, they form a zygote. A zygote is the initial cell formed after fertilization, which contains the genetic material from both the sperm and egg. This single-celled organism will undergo cell division and development to eventually form a complete organism.

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  • 21. 

    In animals which is dominant diploid or haploid?

    Correct Answer
    diploid
    Explanation
    In animals, the dominant form is diploid. This means that the cells of animals typically have two sets of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent. This allows for genetic diversity and the ability to produce offspring through sexual reproduction. Haploid organisms, on the other hand, have only one set of chromosomes and are typically found in certain stages of the reproductive cycle, such as eggs and sperm.

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  • 22. 

    In fungi which is dominant diploid or haploid?

    Correct Answer
    haploid
    Explanation
    Fungi are predominantly haploid, meaning they have only one set of chromosomes. This is because their life cycle involves a dominant haploid phase, where most of their growth and reproduction occurs. During this phase, haploid cells undergo mitosis to produce more haploid cells. The diploid phase, where two sets of chromosomes are present, is usually short-lived and occurs during sexual reproduction when haploid cells fuse to form a diploid zygote. However, the haploid phase remains dominant throughout the fungal life cycle.

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  • 23. 

    In plants which is dominant diploid or haploid?

    Correct Answer
    neither
    both
    alteration
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "neither, both, alteration." This is because in plants, the dominance of diploid or haploid forms can vary depending on the specific stage of the plant's life cycle. During different phases, plants can exhibit both diploid and haploid dominance, or they can undergo alternation between the two forms. Therefore, neither diploid nor haploid is consistently dominant in plants.

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  • 24. 

    What is The characterization of the chromosomal complement of an individual or a species, including number, form, and size of the chromosomes?

    Correct Answer
    karyotype
    Explanation
    The term "karyotype" refers to the characterization of the chromosomal complement of an individual or a species, which includes information about the number, form, and size of the chromosomes. It is a visual representation or description of the chromosomes in a cell. Karyotyping is commonly used in genetic testing and research to identify chromosomal abnormalities or to determine an individual's sex.

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  • 25. 

    Chemical dye gives a distinctive ______ pattern.

    Correct Answer
    banding
    band
    Explanation
    Chemical dye gives a distinctive pattern known as banding. This pattern is characterized by the presence of bands or stripes of different colors or shades. The term "banding" refers to the visible bands that are formed when the dye is applied or reacts with a material, such as fabric or paper. These bands can be seen as a result of the dye molecules binding to specific areas or regions, creating a unique and recognizable pattern. The term "band" is also used to describe these individual stripes or bands that make up the overall pattern.

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  • 26. 

    Name in order

    • A.

      Metacentric, Acrocentric, Submetacentric, Telocentric

    • B.

      Telocentric, Metacentric, Submetacentric, Acrocentric

    • C.

      Submetacentric, Metacentric, Acrocentric, Telocentric

    • D.

      Metacentric, Submetacentric, Acrocentric, Telocentric

    Correct Answer
    D. Metacentric, Submetacentric, Acrocentric, Telocentric
    Explanation
    The order of the names in the answer corresponds to the order of the types of chromosomes based on their centromere position. Metacentric chromosomes have the centromere located in the middle, Submetacentric chromosomes have the centromere located slightly off-center, Acrocentric chromosomes have the centromere located near one end, and Telocentric chromosomes have the centromere located at the very end. Therefore, the correct order is Metacentric, Submetacentric, Acrocentric, Telocentric.

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  • 27. 

    True of False: Polyploidy is an excessive amount of chromosome composition and Aneuploidy is a less amount of chromosome composition.

    Correct Answer
    True
    Explanation
    Polyploidy refers to the condition where an organism has more than two complete sets of chromosomes. This means that there is an excessive amount of chromosome composition. On the other hand, aneuploidy refers to the condition where an organism has an abnormal number of chromosomes, which can be either more or less than the usual diploid number. Therefore, it can be concluded that polyploidy is an excessive amount of chromosome composition, while aneuploidy is an abnormal or less amount of chromosome composition.

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  • 28. 

    What is it called when homologues fail to separate?

    Correct Answer
    Nondisjunction
    Explanation
    Nondisjunction refers to the failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during cell division, resulting in an abnormal distribution of chromosomes in the daughter cells. This can occur during both meiosis and mitosis and can lead to genetic disorders or abnormalities.

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  • 29. 

    Removes a segment of chromosome is called what?

    Correct Answer
    Deficiency
    Explanation
    Deficiency refers to the removal of a segment of a chromosome. This process can result in the loss of specific genes or genetic material, leading to various genetic disorders or abnormalities.

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  • 30. 

    For Trisonomy 21 which of the following is incorrect?

    • A.

      1/800 live births

    • B.

      Down syndrome

    • C.

      Flattened Face

    • D.

      Tall

    • E.

      Mental retardation

    Correct Answer
    D. Tall
    Explanation
    Tall is the incorrect option for Trisomy 21. Trisomy 21, also known as Down syndrome, is a genetic disorder that occurs in approximately 1 in 800 live births. It is characterized by physical features such as a flattened face, mental retardation, and various health issues. However, individuals with Down syndrome typically have shorter stature rather than being tall.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is true of Trisonomy 18?

    • A.

      Edward, 1/6000, Mental and physical, extreme muscle tone, early death

    • B.

      Edward, 1/800, Mental and physical, extreme muscle tone, early death

    • C.

      Down, 1/6000, Mental and physical, extreme muscle tone, early death

    • D.

      Patau, 1/15000, Mental and physical, extreme muscle tone, early death

    Correct Answer
    A. Edward, 1/6000, Mental and physical, extreme muscle tone, early death
    Explanation
    Trisomy 18, also known as Edward syndrome, is a genetic disorder characterized by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 18. It occurs in approximately 1 in 6,000 live births. Individuals with Trisomy 18 experience both mental and physical developmental delays, along with extreme muscle tone abnormalities. Sadly, the condition often leads to early death, with many affected individuals not surviving beyond their first year of life. The given answer accurately describes Trisomy 18, making it the correct choice.

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  • 32. 

    Trisonomy 13, which of the following is true?

    • A.

      Edward, 1/6000, mental and physical, early death, extreme muscle tone

    • B.

      Down, 1/800, mental, short, flattened face

    • C.

      Patau, 1/15000, mental and physical, early death, defects in organs

    • D.

      Patau 1/6000, mental and physical, early death, flattened face

    Correct Answer
    C. Patau, 1/15000, mental and physical, early death, defects in organs
    Explanation
    Trisomy 13, also known as Patau syndrome, is a genetic disorder characterized by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 13. The given answer correctly states that Patau syndrome occurs in approximately 1 in 15,000 births. Individuals with Patau syndrome experience both mental and physical abnormalities, which can include intellectual disabilities, developmental delays, and physical malformations. Early death is also common, with many affected individuals not surviving past infancy. Additionally, Patau syndrome often presents with defects in various organs, such as the heart, brain, and kidneys.

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  • 33. 

    1/1000(males)KlinefelterNo spermBreast swelling

    • A.

      X

    • B.

      XXX

    • C.

      XXY

    • D.

      XYY

    Correct Answer
    C. XXY
    Explanation
    XXY is the correct answer because Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic disorder that occurs in males and is characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome. This results in a total of 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. Individuals with XXY have reduced fertility and may experience symptoms such as breast swelling. The other options (XXX, X, and XYY) do not match the characteristics of Klinefelter syndrome.

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  • 34. 

    1/1000 malesTallJacobs

    • A.

      X

    • B.

      XYY

    • C.

      XXX

    • D.

      XXY

    Correct Answer
    B. XYY
    Explanation
    The given answer XYY is correct because it represents a chromosomal abnormality in males where they have an extra Y chromosome. This condition is known as XYY syndrome and it occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 males. Individuals with XYY syndrome may be taller than average and can have certain behavioral and developmental differences, although the effects can vary widely among individuals. The other options (XXX and XXY) do not accurately represent this specific chromosomal abnormality.

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  • 35. 

    1/1500 femalesTriple XTall and ThinMenstrual irregularity

    • A.

      XXX

    • B.

      X

    • C.

      XYY

    • D.

      XXY

    Correct Answer
    A. XXX
    Explanation
    The correct answer is XXX because it represents a condition called Triple X Syndrome, which occurs when a female has an extra X chromosome in each of her cells. This genetic condition can cause tall stature and thin body build, as well as menstrual irregularities. The other options (X, XYY, XXY) represent different chromosomal abnormalities but do not match the specific characteristics mentioned in the question.

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  • 36. 

    Turner1/5000 femalesshortwebbed neck

    • A.

      X

    • B.

      XYY

    • C.

      XXX

    • D.

      XXY

    Correct Answer
    A. X
    Explanation
    The given answer is "X". This suggests that the individual has two X chromosomes, indicating that they are female. The presence of only two X chromosomes also suggests that they do not have any additional chromosomes, such as XYY, XXX, or XXY. The mention of "Turner" and "short webbed neck" in the question may imply that the individual has Turner syndrome, a genetic condition that affects females and is characterized by the absence or partial absence of one X chromosome.

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  • 37. 

    What does Duplication do?

    Correct Answer
    Doubles a particular region
    doubles
    duplicates a particular region
    Explanation
    Duplication refers to the act of creating an identical copy of something. In the context of the question, it specifically relates to doubling or creating a duplicate of a particular region. This means that the region is replicated, resulting in two identical versions of it. Therefore, the correct answer is that duplication doubles or duplicates a particular region.

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  • 38. 

    What flips a region to the opposite orientation?

    Correct Answer
    Inversion
    Explanation
    Inversion is the process that flips a region to the opposite orientation. In genetics, inversion refers to a type of chromosomal rearrangement where a segment of DNA is reversed within the chromosome. This inversion can lead to changes in gene expression and disrupt normal genetic processes. Therefore, inversion is the correct answer to the question.

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  • 39. 

    What moves a segment of one chromosome to a different chromosome?

    Correct Answer
    Simple translocation
    Explanation
    Simple translocation is a type of chromosomal rearrangement where a segment of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to a different chromosome. This can occur when there is an error during DNA replication or repair. The movement of the segment to a different chromosome can lead to changes in the genetic material, potentially affecting the expression of genes and causing genetic disorders.

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  • 40. 

    The exchange of pieces between 2 different chromosomes is called what?

    Correct Answer
    reciprocal translocation
    Explanation
    Reciprocal translocation refers to the exchange of genetic material between two non-homologous chromosomes. It occurs when two chromosomes break and the broken segments are exchanged, resulting in a rearrangement of genetic material. This process can lead to genetic disorders or abnormalities, as it may disrupt the normal functioning of genes. Therefore, the correct answer to the question is reciprocal translocation.

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  • 41. 

    What promotes cell division in plants?

    Correct Answer
    cytokinins
    cytokinin
    Explanation
    Cytokinins are a type of plant hormone that promotes cell division in plants. They stimulate the growth of lateral buds and promote the division of cells in the root and shoot meristems. Cytokinins also play a role in regulating various physiological processes in plants, such as leaf senescence and nutrient uptake. Overall, cytokinins are essential for the growth and development of plants by promoting cell division and maintaining the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation.

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  • 42. 

    What stimulates certain cells to grow in animals?

    Correct Answer
    Growth factors
    growth factor
    Explanation
    Growth factors are responsible for stimulating certain cells to grow in animals. These are proteins that bind to specific receptors on the surface of cells, triggering a cascade of signals that ultimately lead to cell division and growth. By binding to these receptors, growth factors regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. They play a crucial role in various physiological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and immune response. Overall, growth factors are essential for the growth and development of cells in animals.

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  • 43. 

    The two cell cycle controls are _______ and _______.

    Correct Answer
    cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases
    Explanation
    The two cell cycle controls are cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. Cyclins are proteins that regulate the progression of the cell cycle by binding to and activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). CDKs are enzymes that control the cell cycle by phosphorylating target proteins, which in turn regulate various cell cycle events such as DNA replication and cell division. Together, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases play a crucial role in ensuring the orderly progression of the cell cycle.

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  • 44. 

    What are : protein kinases that control cell cycle –active only when bound to cyclins

    Correct Answer
    cdk
    cyclin-dependent kinases
    cyclin dependent kinase
    Explanation
    Protein kinases are enzymes that regulate various cellular processes, including the cell cycle. They become active when they bind to cyclins, which are regulatory proteins. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a group of protein kinases that control the progression of the cell cycle. They are called "cyclin-dependent" because their activity is dependent on the presence of cyclins. Cyclin-dependent kinase is another term used to refer to these kinases. Therefore, the correct answer includes all three terms: cdk, cyclin-dependent kinases, and cyclin dependent kinase.

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  • 45. 

    What are : regulatory proteins levels fluctuate during cell cycle

    Correct Answer
    cyclins
    cyclin
    Explanation
    Cyclins are regulatory proteins that control the progression of the cell cycle. These proteins are present in varying levels throughout the cell cycle, with their levels fluctuating at different stages. Cyclins bind to and activate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which are enzymes responsible for driving the cell cycle forward. By regulating the activity of CDKs, cyclins play a crucial role in coordinating the events of the cell cycle, ensuring that each stage is completed before moving on to the next. Therefore, the statement that "cyclins" and "cyclin" are regulatory proteins whose levels fluctuate during the cell cycle is correct.

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  • 46. 

    Which checkpoint determines if conditions are favorable for division?

    • A.

      G1

    • B.

      S

    • C.

      G2

    • D.

      M

    Correct Answer
    A. G1
    Explanation
    G1 is the checkpoint that determines if conditions are favorable for division. During the G1 phase of the cell cycle, the cell checks for various factors such as the availability of nutrients, growth factors, and DNA damage. If all these conditions are favorable, the cell proceeds to the S phase for DNA replication and division. If any of these conditions are not met, the cell may enter a resting state called the G0 phase or undergo cell death. Therefore, G1 acts as a crucial checkpoint to ensure that the cell is ready and conditions are favorable for division.

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  • 47. 

    Which checkpoint determines DNA replication errors/damage and proteins for M phase?

    • A.

      G1

    • B.

      S

    • C.

      G2

    • D.

      M

    Correct Answer
    C. G2
    Explanation
    G2 is the checkpoint that determines DNA replication errors/damage and proteins for M phase. During G2, the cell checks for any mistakes or damage in the replicated DNA before entering the M phase. If any errors or damage are detected, the cell will attempt to repair them before proceeding to the next phase. This checkpoint ensures that the cell has accurately replicated its DNA and is ready for cell division.

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  • 48. 

    Which checpoint determines the chromosomal sorting on spindle apparatus?

    • A.

      G1

    • B.

      S

    • C.

      G2

    • D.

      M

    Correct Answer
    D. M
    Explanation
    The checkpoint that determines the chromosomal sorting on the spindle apparatus is the M checkpoint. This checkpoint occurs during the metaphase stage of mitosis and ensures that all chromosomes are properly aligned and attached to the spindle fibers before they are separated and pulled to opposite ends of the cell during anaphase. This checkpoint is crucial for maintaining the correct number and distribution of chromosomes in the daughter cells.

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  • 49. 

    The loss of ______ _______ can lead to mutation and cancer

    Correct Answer
    checkpoint function
    Explanation
    Checkpoint function refers to the process in which cells regulate and monitor their own DNA replication and repair. It ensures that DNA damage is repaired before the cell progresses to the next stage of the cell cycle. The loss of checkpoint function can lead to the accumulation of DNA mutations, as damaged DNA may go unrepaired, increasing the risk of developing cancer.

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