Coagulation And Flocculation: Water Treatment Plant Operation Quiz

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Coagulation And Flocculation: Water Treatment Plant Operation Quiz - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Smaller sized particles, such as bacteria and fine clays andsilts, readily settle out of water.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Smaller sized particles, such as bacteria and fine clays and silts, do not readily settle out of water. Instead, they tend to remain suspended in the water for longer periods of time, leading to turbidity. This is why water treatment processes often involve filtration or coagulation to remove these particles. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 2. 

    The theory of coagulation is very simple.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement states that the theory of coagulation is very simple. However, the correct answer is False. This suggests that the theory of coagulation is not simple, implying that it is a complex or intricate concept.

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  • 3. 

    The operator has effective control over the pH and alkalinity of the source water.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that the operator has effective control over both the pH and alkalinity of the source water. However, this is not necessarily true. While the operator may have some control over the pH and alkalinity, there are various factors that can influence these parameters, such as the composition of the source water and natural processes. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that the operator has complete control over the pH and alkalinity of the source water.

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  • 4. 

    Overdoing as well as underdosing of coagulants may lead to reduced solids removal efficiency.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Overdosing or underdosing coagulants can disrupt the delicate balance needed for effective solids removal in the coagulation process. When too much coagulant is added, it can result in excessive formation of flocs, which can lead to poor settling and reduced solids removal efficiency. On the other hand, if too little coagulant is added, it may not be sufficient to effectively destabilize the particles, leading to inadequate floc formation and again, reduced solids removal efficiency. Therefore, both overdoing and underdosing of coagulants can negatively impact the efficiency of solids removal.

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  • 5. 

    Coagulation is slow stirring process that causes the gathering together of small, coagulated particles into larger, settleable particles.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. Coagulation is not a slow stirring process that causes the gathering together of small, coagulated particles into larger, settleable particles. Coagulation is actually a process in which particles in a liquid form clumps or aggregates together to form larger particles. This process can be induced by various factors such as the addition of chemicals or changes in pH. Stirring may be used to aid in the coagulation process, but it is not the main cause of particle aggregation.

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  • 6. 

    The solids-contact process (upflow clarifiers) combine the coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes into a single basin.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the solids-contact process, also known as upflow clarifiers, indeed combine the coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation processes into a single basin. This process involves the introduction of chemicals to coagulate and flocculate the suspended solids in the water, allowing them to form larger particles that settle more easily. The settled solids are then removed from the bottom of the basin. By combining these processes, the solids-contact process provides an efficient and compact solution for water treatment.

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  • 7. 

    The measurement of filtered water turbidity will give theoperator a good indication of overall process performance.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The measurement of filtered water turbidity is a reliable indicator of the overall process performance. Turbidity refers to the cloudiness or haziness of water caused by suspended particles. By measuring turbidity, operators can assess the effectiveness of the filtration process in removing these particles. A low turbidity value indicates that the filtration system is working efficiently, while a high turbidity value suggests potential issues with the process. Therefore, monitoring turbidity provides valuable insights into the quality and performance of the water treatment process.

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  • 8. 

    Visual observations and laboratory tests of coagulation-flocculation process performance should be performed on a routine basis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Performing visual observations and laboratory tests on a routine basis is important in order to assess the performance of the coagulation-flocculation process. These observations and tests can provide valuable information about the efficiency of the process, the quality of the treated water, and any potential issues or variations that may need to be addressed. Regular monitoring allows for timely adjustments and improvements to be made, ensuring that the process is consistently effective in achieving the desired outcomes. Therefore, the statement "Visual observations and laboratory tests of coagulation-flocculation process performance should be performed on a routine basis" is true.

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  • 9. 

    The jar test exactly duplicates the flow-through conditions that are occurring in your treatment plant.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The jar test does not exactly duplicate the flow-through conditions in a treatment plant. It is a laboratory test used to simulate and evaluate different treatment processes and determine the optimal conditions for water treatment. While it provides valuable information and insights, it cannot fully replicate the complex and dynamic conditions of a treatment plant. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 10. 

    A good practice is to prepare jar test reagents using samples of the chemicals actually used in the plant, rather than reagent grade chemicals.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Preparing jar test reagents using samples of the chemicals actually used in the plant is a good practice because it allows for more accurate and representative results. Reagent grade chemicals may not have the same composition or impurities as the chemicals used in the plant, which can affect the effectiveness of the jar test. By using actual plant chemicals, the jar test can provide a better indication of how the treatment process will perform in the actual plant conditions. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 11. 

    Most of the sludge volume from the coagulation-flocculation process consists of precipitates of the added chemicals rather than suspended solids (turbidity) removed.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because during the coagulation-flocculation process, chemicals are added to the water to destabilize and aggregate suspended particles. These particles then form larger, heavier precipitates that settle down as sludge. This means that the majority of the sludge volume comes from the precipitates of the added chemicals rather than the suspended solids or turbidity that is removed from the water.

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  • 12. 

    After evaluation of the jar test results, apply the dosage used to achieve the best jar test results to your water treatment plant operation

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that after evaluating the jar test results, the dosage that was successful in achieving the best results should be applied to the water treatment plant operation. This implies that the dosage used in the jar test was effective in treating the water and can be implemented on a larger scale in the water treatment plant. Therefore, the answer "True" indicates that the dosage used in the jar test can be applied to the water treatment plant operation.

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  • 13. 

    If the water has milky appearance of a bluish tint, the alum dose is probably too high.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    If the water has a milky appearance of a bluish tint, it indicates that the alum dose is probably too high. Alum is commonly used as a coagulant in water treatment processes to remove impurities. However, if the alum dose is excessive, it can result in the formation of fine suspended particles that give the water a milky appearance. Therefore, the statement is true as it correctly identifies the cause of the milky appearance in water.

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  • 14. 

    Excessive mixing speeds, mixing time, and the buildup of heat can break down the polymer chain and reduce its effectiveness.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Excessive mixing speeds, mixing time, and the buildup of heat can lead to the breakdown of the polymer chain. This breakdown can reduce the effectiveness of the polymer.

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  • 15. 

    The colloidal and dissolved organics found in some natural waters are the end products of decayed vegetable matter.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because colloidal and dissolved organics in natural waters are indeed the result of decayed vegetable matter. As plants and vegetation decompose, they release organic compounds into the water, which can exist in both colloidal and dissolved forms. These organics can include substances such as humic acids, tannins, and lignin, which contribute to the color, taste, and odor of the water. Therefore, it is accurate to say that the colloidal and dissolved organics found in natural waters are the end products of decayed vegetable matter.

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  • 16. 

    In the enhanced coagulation process, optimum dosages for acid, alkalinity, and coagulant are determined by performing a series of jar test.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because in the enhanced coagulation process, the optimal dosages for acid, alkalinity, and coagulant are determined through a series of jar tests. These tests involve adding different amounts of these chemicals to water samples and observing the resulting coagulation and settling. By analyzing the effectiveness of different dosages, the optimal amounts can be determined to achieve efficient coagulation and removal of contaminants in the water treatment process.

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  • 17. 

    Do not allow any untreated water to flow through your plant.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    It is important to not allow any untreated water to flow through the plant because untreated water may contain harmful substances such as chemicals, toxins, or pathogens that can negatively affect the plant's health and growth. Untreated water can lead to nutrient imbalances, disease transmission, or even death of the plant. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the water used for irrigation or any other purpose in the plant is treated properly to maintain the plant's well-being.

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  • 18. 

    Good records of actions taken during start-up/shutdown operations will assist the operator in conducting future start-ups/shutdowns.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Keeping good records of actions taken during start-up and shutdown operations can be beneficial for operators in conducting future start-ups and shutdowns. These records can serve as a reference for the operator, providing them with valuable information about the previous procedures, any issues encountered, and the steps taken to resolve them. By having access to these records, operators can ensure that they follow the correct procedures, avoid repeating past mistakes, and improve the efficiency and safety of future start-ups and shutdowns.

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  • 19. 

    Samples should be analyzed as soon as possible after the sample is collected.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Samples should be analyzed as soon as possible after the sample is collected because delaying the analysis can lead to potential degradation or alteration of the sample. Time-dependent changes in the sample can occur due to factors such as enzymatic activity, microbial growth, or chemical reactions. Analyzing the sample promptly ensures that the results obtained are accurate and representative of the original sample. Therefore, it is important to prioritize timely analysis to maintain the integrity and reliability of the sample analysis process.

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  • 20. 

    Good record keeping is the key to a successful preventive maintenance program.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Good record keeping is essential for a successful preventive maintenance program because it allows maintenance managers to track and schedule maintenance tasks, keep a record of completed maintenance activities, monitor equipment performance and history, and identify trends or patterns that can help optimize maintenance strategies. By maintaining accurate and up-to-date records, organizations can ensure that maintenance activities are carried out in a timely and efficient manner, reducing downtime, extending equipment lifespan, and ultimately improving overall operational efficiency.

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  • 21. 

    What are polymers?

    • A.

      Long chain molecules formed by the union of many monomers

    • B.

      Very small, finely divided solids that remain dispersed in a liquid for a long time due to their small size and electrical charge

    • C.

      Very small solids suspended in water which can vary widely in size, shape, density, and electrical charge

    • D.

      Very small solids that settle out of the water being treated

    Correct Answer
    A. Long chain molecules formed by the union of many monomers
    Explanation
    Polymers are long chain molecules that are formed by the union of many monomers. Monomers are small, individual units that join together through chemical reactions to create a larger, more complex structure. This process is called polymerization. The resulting polymer chains can vary in length and structure, and they often have different physical and chemical properties compared to their individual monomer units. Polymers have a wide range of applications and can be found in various everyday products, such as plastics, rubber, and fibers.

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  • 22. 

    What is the purpose of coagulation and flocculation?

    • A.

      To control corrosion

    • B.

      To filter out suspended particles

    • C.

      To remove particulate impurities, especially nonsettleable solids, and color from the water being treated

    • D.

      To settle our larger suspended particles

    Correct Answer
    C. To remove particulate impurities, especially nonsettleable solids, and color from the water being treated
    Explanation
    Coagulation and flocculation are used to remove particulate impurities, especially nonsettleable solids, and color from the water being treated. Coagulation involves the addition of chemicals that neutralize the electrical charges of suspended particles, causing them to come together and form larger particles called flocs. Flocculation then involves gentle stirring or mixing to promote the formation of larger and heavier flocs that can settle out more easily. This process helps to improve the clarity and quality of the treated water by effectively removing impurities and color.

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  • 23. 

    What is alkalinity?

    • A.

      A laboratory procedure used to estimate the minimum or ideal coagulant dose required to achieve certain water quality goals

    • B.

      A process used to kill disease-causing organisms

    • C.

      A solution or liquid whose chemical makeup neutralizes acids or bases without a great change in pH

    • D.

      The capacity of water to neutralize acids

    Correct Answer
    D. The capacity of water to neutralize acids
    Explanation
    Alkalinity refers to the capacity of water to neutralize acids. It is a measure of the water's ability to resist changes in pH when an acid or base is added. Water with high alkalinity can effectively neutralize acids, helping to maintain a stable pH level. This is important in natural water bodies and in water treatment processes, as it helps to prevent sudden fluctuations in pH that can be harmful to aquatic life or affect the efficiency of chemical treatments.

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  • 24. 

    What is the purpose of the flocculation process?

    • A.

      To clarify the water being treated prior to treatment by the sedimentation and filtration processes

    • B.

      To create a floc of a good size, density, and toughness for later removal in the sedimentation and filtration processes

    • C.

      To flocculate the water being treated in a timely manner

    • D.

      To prevent solids settling out in the flocculation basin

    Correct Answer
    B. To create a floc of a good size, density, and toughness for later removal in the sedimentation and filtration processes
    Explanation
    The purpose of the flocculation process is to create a floc of a good size, density, and toughness for later removal in the sedimentation and filtration processes. Flocculation involves the addition of chemicals that cause small particles in the water to clump together and form larger particles called flocs. These flocs are easier to remove during sedimentation and filtration, resulting in clearer and cleaner water. By creating flocs with the desired characteristics, the flocculation process ensures effective removal of impurities and improves the overall efficiency of the water treatment process.

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  • 25. 

    What is the most important consideration in coagulation-flocculation process control?

    • A.

      Adjusting the alkalinity

    • B.

      Keeping the floc in suspension

    • C.

      Maintaining a constant pH

    • D.

      Selection of the proper type and amount of coagulant chemical(s) to be added to the water being treated

    Correct Answer
    D. Selection of the proper type and amount of coagulant chemical(s) to be added to the water being treated
    Explanation
    The most important consideration in coagulation-flocculation process control is the selection of the proper type and amount of coagulant chemical(s) to be added to the water being treated. This is crucial because the coagulant chemical(s) are responsible for destabilizing the particles in the water and promoting the formation of flocs. The type and amount of coagulant used will depend on the characteristics of the water being treated, such as its turbidity and pH. Therefore, proper selection and dosage of the coagulant chemical(s) is essential for effective coagulation and flocculation.

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  • 26. 

    Why is it a good practice to prepare jar test reagents using samples of the chemicals actually used in the plant, rather than reagent grade chemicals?

    • A.

      Because chemicals actually used in the plant are easier to apply in the lab

    • B.

      Because chemicals actually used in the plant are most readily available

    • C.

      Because raw water prefers chemicals actually used in the plant

    • D.

      Because sometimes, trace impurities in industrial chemicals can have significant effects

    Correct Answer
    D. Because sometimes, trace impurities in industrial chemicals can have significant effects
    Explanation
    It is a good practice to prepare jar test reagents using samples of the chemicals actually used in the plant rather than reagent grade chemicals because sometimes, trace impurities in industrial chemicals can have significant effects. Reagent grade chemicals are purified to a higher degree and may not contain the same impurities as the chemicals used in the plant. These impurities can affect the results of the jar test and lead to inaccurate conclusions. Therefore, using chemicals that replicate the actual conditions in the plant will provide more reliable and representative results.

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  • 27. 

    What are streaming current meters?

    • A.

      Devices used to optimize coagulant doses

    • B.

      Digital jar tests

    • C.

      Meters that measure stream flow

    • D.

      Methods of continuously monitoring electrical charges

    Correct Answer
    A. Devices used to optimize coagulant doses
    Explanation
    Streaming current meters are devices used to optimize coagulant doses in water treatment processes. These meters measure the electrical charges present in the water as it flows through the system. By monitoring the streaming current, operators can adjust the coagulant dosage to achieve the optimal level for effective water treatment. This helps in improving the efficiency of the coagulation process and ensuring the removal of impurities from the water.

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  • 28. 

    What is the usual culprit when there are sudden increases in filtered water turbidity?

    • A.

      Cleaning or clearing well maintenance activities

    • B.

      Improved filter performance

    • C.

      Installation of new turbidimeter equipment

    • D.

      Poor coagulation-flocculation process performance

    Correct Answer
    D. Poor coagulation-flocculation process performance
    Explanation
    Poor coagulation-flocculation process performance is the usual culprit when there are sudden increases in filtered water turbidity. This means that the process of clumping together particles in the water to form larger particles (coagulation) and then allowing them to settle (flocculation) is not working effectively. As a result, smaller particles are not being removed properly during the filtration process, leading to an increase in turbidity.

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  • 29. 

    What is the enhanced coagulation process designed to accomplish?

    • A.

      To increase the efficiency of coagulant dosage

    • B.

      To remove natural organic matter (NOM) from water

    • C.

      To remove turbidity without changing chemical dosages

    • D.

      To speed up the removal of impurities in water

    Correct Answer
    B. To remove natural organic matter (NOM) from water
    Explanation
    The enhanced coagulation process is designed to remove natural organic matter (NOM) from water. Natural organic matter can contribute to taste and odor issues in water, as well as react with disinfectants to form harmful byproducts. By implementing enhanced coagulation, the efficiency of removing NOM is increased, resulting in improved water quality. This process helps to ensure that the water is safe and free from organic contaminants.

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  • 30. 

    What is a representative sample?

    • A.

      A collection of individual samples obtained at regular intervals

    • B.

      A sample collected from flowing water at a particular place in the plant

    • C.

      A sample portion of material or water that is as nearly identical in content and consistency as possible to that in the larger body of material or water being sampled

    • D.

      A single sample of water collected at a particular time and place which represents the composition of the water only at that time and place

    Correct Answer
    C. A sample portion of material or water that is as nearly identical in content and consistency as possible to that in the larger body of material or water being sampled
    Explanation
    A representative sample refers to a sample portion of material or water that closely resembles the larger body of material or water being sampled in terms of content and consistency. In other words, it is a subset of the population being studied that accurately represents the characteristics and properties of the entire population. By ensuring that the sample is as similar as possible to the larger body, researchers can make valid inferences and draw accurate conclusions about the population based on the findings from the representative sample.

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  • 31. 

    How can an operator be sure all underground structures are free of hazardous atmospheres?

    • A.

      By smelling for gases before entry

    • B.

      By using appropriate ventilation systems

    • C.

      By using gas detectors

    • D.

      By using the buddy system

    Correct Answer
    C. By using gas detectors
    Explanation
    Gas detectors are devices used to detect the presence of hazardous gases in the atmosphere. They are specifically designed to measure and monitor the concentration of gases, ensuring the safety of the operator. By using gas detectors, operators can accurately determine if there are any hazardous atmospheres present in underground structures, allowing them to take necessary precautions and prevent potential accidents or harm.

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  • 32. 

    In the selection and use of polymers for water treatment, which of the following are important considerations?

    • A.

      Not all water supplies can be treated with equal success

    • B.

      Overdosing can result in accelerated head loss buildup

    • C.

      Overdosing will adversely affect coagulation efficiency

    • D.

      Some polymers are dosage limited

    • E.

      Some polymers lose their effectiveness when used in the presence of a chlorine residual

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Not all water supplies can be treated with equal success
    B. Overdosing can result in accelerated head loss buildup
    C. Overdosing will adversely affect coagulation efficiency
    D. Some polymers are dosage limited
    E. Some polymers lose their effectiveness when used in the presence of a chlorine residual
    Explanation
    In the selection and use of polymers for water treatment, several important considerations need to be taken into account. Firstly, not all water supplies can be treated with equal success, meaning that the effectiveness of a polymer may vary depending on the specific water source. Overdosing with polymers can lead to accelerated head loss buildup, which can cause problems in the treatment process. Additionally, overdosing can also adversely affect coagulation efficiency, reducing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. Some polymers have dosage limitations, meaning that exceeding the recommended dosage can result in inefficiency or even negative effects. Finally, some polymers may lose their effectiveness when used in the presence of a chlorine residual, making them unsuitable for certain water treatment applications.

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  • 33. 

    What does an efficient flocculation process invovle?

    • A.

      A properly shaped basin for uniform mixing

    • B.

      Evaluation of influent and effluent floc dimensions

    • C.

      Mechanical equipment or other means of creating the stirring action

    • D.

      The proper stirring intensity

    • E.

      The selection of the right stirring time (detention time)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. A properly shaped basin for uniform mixing
    C. Mechanical equipment or other means of creating the stirring action
    D. The proper stirring intensity
    E. The selection of the right stirring time (detention time)
    Explanation
    An efficient flocculation process involves a properly shaped basin for uniform mixing, mechanical equipment or other means of creating the stirring action, the proper stirring intensity, and the selection of the right stirring time (detention time). These factors are crucial for achieving effective flocculation, as they ensure that the floc particles are evenly distributed and properly agitated. A properly shaped basin allows for optimal mixing, while mechanical equipment or other means of stirring create the necessary turbulence for floc formation. The proper stirring intensity and detention time help control the flocculation process and ensure that the desired floc dimensions are achieved.

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  • 34. 

    What are the most common laboratory test for coagulation-flocculation process performance?

    • A.

      Alkalinity

    • B.

      Color

    • C.

      PH

    • D.

      Temperature

    • E.

      Turbidity

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Alkalinity
    B. Color
    C. PH
    D. Temperature
    E. Turbidity
    Explanation
    The most common laboratory tests for coagulation-flocculation process performance are alkalinity, color, pH, temperature, and turbidity. These tests are used to assess the effectiveness of the process in removing impurities from water. Alkalinity measures the water's ability to resist changes in pH, color indicates the presence of organic compounds, pH determines the acidity or alkalinity of the water, temperature affects the reaction rate of the process, and turbidity measures the clarity of the water by quantifying suspended particles. These tests help in monitoring and optimizing the coagulation-flocculation process to ensure efficient water treatment.

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  • 35. 

    Which information is provided or described by the turbidity test?

    • A.

      Ability of a particular filter to handle the applied waters

    • B.

      Indirect measurement of suspended solids concentration

    • C.

      Particle density

    • D.

      Particle size

    • E.

      Particle volume

    Correct Answer
    B. Indirect measurement of suspended solids concentration
    Explanation
    The turbidity test provides an indirect measurement of the suspended solids concentration in a liquid. It measures the cloudiness or haziness of the liquid caused by the presence of these suspended particles. By measuring the turbidity, one can determine the level of suspended solids in the liquid, which is useful in various applications such as water treatment, environmental monitoring, and industrial processes.

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  • 36. 

    The jar test attempts to duplicate in the laboratory what is occurring in the plant in the relation between which items?

    • A.

      Chemical feed rates

    • B.

      Continuous flow conditions

    • C.

      Detention times

    • D.

      Mixing conditions

    • E.

      Settling conditions

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Detention times
    D. Mixing conditions
    E. Settling conditions
    Explanation
    The jar test is used to replicate the processes that occur in a treatment plant, specifically the relation between detention times, mixing conditions, and settling conditions. By conducting the jar test, operators can determine the optimal conditions for these factors, which are crucial for efficient treatment processes. This test helps in understanding how different chemicals, flow rates, and mixing intensities affect the settling of particles and the overall treatment efficiency.

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  • 37. 

    Which items are an essential part of good communications?

    • A.

      Advising other operators and support personnel of current process conditions

    • B.

      Advising other operators and support personnel of unique or unusual events

    • C.

      Clear and concise written or oral communications

    • D.

      Good record keeping

    • E.

      Lengthy and wordy reports

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Advising other operators and support personnel of current process conditions
    B. Advising other operators and support personnel of unique or unusual events
    C. Clear and concise written or oral communications
    D. Good record keeping
    Explanation
    Good communication in any setting requires several key elements. One essential part is advising other operators and support personnel of current process conditions, as this ensures everyone is on the same page and can make informed decisions. Additionally, advising others of unique or unusual events is important to keep everyone aware of any potential issues or changes. Clear and concise written or oral communications are crucial for effective understanding and avoiding misunderstandings. Finally, good record keeping is necessary for documentation and reference purposes. Lengthy and wordy reports, on the other hand, can hinder communication by overwhelming the reader with unnecessary information.

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  • 38. 

    When troubleshooting the coagulation-flocculation process, changes in which items could indicate certain operator actions and possible process changes?

    • A.

      Amount of leaves and debris on intake screens

    • B.

      Coagulation process effluent quality

    • C.

      Coliform levels in the chlorine contact basin effluent

    • D.

      Flocculation basin floc quality

    • E.

      Source water quality

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Coagulation process effluent quality
    D. Flocculation basin floc quality
    E. Source water quality
    Explanation
    Changes in the coagulation process effluent quality, flocculation basin floc quality, and source water quality could indicate certain operator actions and possible process changes. The coagulation process effluent quality refers to the quality of the water after the coagulation process, and any changes in this could suggest adjustments to the coagulant dosage or mixing intensity. Similarly, changes in the flocculation basin floc quality could indicate the need for adjustments in the flocculant dosage or mixing intensity. Lastly, changes in the source water quality could require modifications in the treatment process to ensure proper coagulation and flocculation.

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  • 39. 

    The enhanced coagulation process is designed to produce the greatest possible reduction of which water quality indicators?

    • A.

      Disinfection by-products (DBPs)

    • B.

      Dissolved or suspended organic carbon (color)

    • C.

      Iron and manganese

    • D.

      Total organic carbon (TOC)

    • E.

      Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Disinfection by-products (DBPs)
    B. Dissolved or suspended organic carbon (color)
    D. Total organic carbon (TOC)
    E. Trihalomethanes (THMs)
    Explanation
    The enhanced coagulation process is designed to produce the greatest possible reduction of disinfection by-products (DBPs), dissolved or suspended organic carbon (color), total organic carbon (TOC), and trihalomethanes (THMs). This process aims to remove or reduce these water quality indicators to improve the overall water quality and ensure the safety of the drinking water.

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  • 40. 

    In the enhanced  coagulation process, which effects take place at the lower (optimum) pH that enhance coagulation?

    • A.

      Flocculation deteriorates

    • B.

      Flocculation is improved

    • C.

      Sulfuric acid addition prior to coagulant feed preconditions the organic compounds

    • D.

      The coagulant demand decreases correspondingly to the degree of molecular dissociation

    • E.

      The humic and fulvic molecules dissociate (separate) to a lesser degree

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Flocculation is improved
    C. Sulfuric acid addition prior to coagulant feed preconditions the organic compounds
    D. The coagulant demand decreases correspondingly to the degree of molecular dissociation
    E. The humic and fulvic molecules dissociate (separate) to a lesser degree
    Explanation
    In the enhanced coagulation process, several effects occur at the lower (optimum) pH that enhance coagulation. Firstly, flocculation is improved, meaning that the formation of larger flocs is facilitated, leading to more effective removal of impurities. Secondly, the addition of sulfuric acid prior to coagulant feed conditions the organic compounds, making them more susceptible to coagulation. This helps in the removal of organic matter from the water. Thirdly, the coagulant demand decreases as the degree of molecular dissociation increases. This means that less coagulant is needed to achieve the desired level of coagulation. Lastly, the humic and fulvic molecules dissociate to a lesser degree, which also aids in their removal during the coagulation process.

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  • 41. 

    Which items are potential hazards an operator may be exposed to when working around the coagulation-flocculation process?

    • A.

      Electrical hazards

    • B.

      Open-surface, water-filled basins (drowning)

    • C.

      Rotating and mechanical equipment

    • D.

      Slippery empty basins (falls)

    • E.

      Toxic and explosive gasses or insufficient oxygen

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Electrical hazards
    B. Open-surface, water-filled basins (drowning)
    C. Rotating and mechanical equipment
    D. Slippery empty basins (falls)
    E. Toxic and explosive gasses or insufficient oxygen
    Explanation
    The coagulation-flocculation process involves the use of various equipment and substances that can pose potential hazards to operators. Electrical hazards can arise from the use of electrical equipment in the process. Open-surface, water-filled basins can be a drowning hazard if operators accidentally fall into them. Rotating and mechanical equipment can cause injuries if operators come into contact with them. Slippery empty basins can lead to falls and injuries. Finally, toxic and explosive gases or insufficient oxygen can be present in the process, posing a risk to operators' health and safety.

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  • 42. 

    Which items are potential hazards an operator may be exposed to when working in a laboratory?

    • A.

      Acid or caustic solutions

    • B.

      Dangerous chemicals

    • C.

      Glassware

    • D.

      Loud noises

    • E.

      Reagents

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Acid or caustic solutions
    B. Dangerous chemicals
    C. Glassware
    E. Reagents
    Explanation
    An operator working in a laboratory may be exposed to potential hazards such as acid or caustic solutions, dangerous chemicals, glassware, and reagents. Acid or caustic solutions can cause burns or irritation if mishandled. Dangerous chemicals can be toxic, flammable, or reactive, posing a risk to the operator's health and safety. Glassware, if broken, can cause cuts or injuries. Reagents, which are substances used in chemical reactions, may also have hazardous properties. Therefore, it is important for operators to be aware of these potential hazards and take necessary precautions to ensure their safety.

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  • 43. 

    After start-up of a piece of equipment, always check for which items?

    • A.

      Excessive noise

    • B.

      Excessive vibration

    • C.

      Leakage

    • D.

      Location of the manufacturer's technical manual

    • E.

      Overheating

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Excessive noise
    B. Excessive vibration
    C. Leakage
    E. Overheating
    Explanation
    After start-up of a piece of equipment, it is important to check for excessive noise, excessive vibration, leakage, and overheating. These checks are necessary to ensure that the equipment is functioning properly and to identify any potential issues or malfunctions. Excessive noise and vibration can indicate problems with the equipment's internal components or moving parts. Leakage can suggest a failure in the equipment's seals or connections, which can lead to further damage or safety hazards. Overheating can be a sign of inadequate cooling or a malfunctioning system, which can cause damage to the equipment or pose a fire risk. Therefore, it is crucial to inspect these items after start-up to ensure the equipment's safe and efficient operation.

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  • 44. 

    What kinds of hazardous atmospheres may be encountered in underground structures?

    • A.

      Explosive gases

    • B.

      Inadequate space

    • C.

      Insufficient oxygen

    • D.

      Nitrogen gases

    • E.

      Toxic gases

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Explosive gases
    C. Insufficient oxygen
    E. Toxic gases
    Explanation
    In underground structures, there are several types of hazardous atmospheres that may be encountered. One of these is explosive gases, which can pose a significant risk of fire or explosion. Another hazard is insufficient oxygen, which can lead to asphyxiation and difficulty breathing. Additionally, toxic gases may be present, which can cause harm or even death if inhaled. These hazardous atmospheres highlight the importance of proper ventilation and monitoring in underground structures to ensure the safety of those working or residing in these environments.

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  • 45. 

    What is the detention time (minutes) in a rectangular flocculation basin when the flow is 0.7 MGD? The basin is 24 feet long, 12 feet wide, and 8 feet deep.

    • A.

      23 min

    • B.

      25 min

    • C.

      28 min

    • D.

      31 min

    • E.

      35 min

    Correct Answer
    E. 35 min
    Explanation
    The detention time in a rectangular flocculation basin can be calculated by dividing the volume of the basin by the flow rate. The volume of the basin can be calculated by multiplying the length, width, and depth of the basin. In this case, the volume of the basin is 24 ft * 12 ft * 8 ft = 2304 ft³.

    The flow rate is given as 0.7 MGD (million gallons per day). To convert this to cubic feet per minute, we can multiply by the conversion factor of 7.48 (since there are 7.48 gallons in a cubic foot). Therefore, the flow rate is 0.7 MGD * 7.48 ft³/gal * (1/1440) min/day = 0.0036 ft³/min.

    Finally, we can calculate the detention time by dividing the volume of the basin by the flow rate: 2304 ft³ / 0.0036 ft³/min ≈ 640 minutes, which is approximately equal to 35 minutes.

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  • 46. 

    What should be the setting on a dry alum feeder in pounds per day when the flow is 0.9MGD? Jar tests indicate that the best alum dose is 9mg/L.

    • A.

      53 lbs/day

    • B.

      68 lbs/day

    • C.

      75 lbs/day

    • D.

      83 lbs/day

    • E.

      90 lbs/day

    Correct Answer
    B. 68 lbs/day
    Explanation
    Based on the given information, the jar tests indicate that the best alum dose is 9mg/L. To determine the setting on a dry alum feeder in pounds per day, we need to calculate the alum dose in pounds per day. Since the flow is given as 0.9MGD (million gallons per day), we can convert it to gallons per day by multiplying it by 1,000,000. Then, we multiply the flow in gallons per day by the alum dose in mg/L and convert it to pounds per day by dividing by 453.6 (since there are 453.6 grams in a pound). The calculation would be: (0.9MGD * 1,000,000 gallons/day) * (9mg/L / 453.6 g/lb) = 68 lbs/day. Therefore, the correct answer is 68 lbs/day.

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  • 47. 

    The average daily flow for a water treatment plant is 1.10 MGD. Jar test results indicate that the best polymer dosage is 2.2 mg/L. How many pounds of polymer will be used in 30 days?

    • A.

      385 lbs

    • B.

      440 lbs

    • C.

      495 lbs

    • D.

      550 lbs

    • E.

      605 lbs

    Correct Answer
    E. 605 lbs
    Explanation
    The average daily flow for a water treatment plant is 1.10 MGD (Million Gallons per Day). The best polymer dosage is 2.2 mg/L (milligrams per liter). To calculate the total amount of polymer used in 30 days, we need to find the total volume of water treated in that period.

    1.10 MGD means that 1.10 million gallons of water are treated each day. In 30 days, the total volume of water treated would be 1.10 MGD multiplied by 30, which equals 33 million gallons.

    Since the polymer dosage is given in mg/L, we need to convert the volume of water from gallons to liters. 1 gallon is approximately equal to 3.78541 liters. Therefore, 33 million gallons is approximately equal to 33 million multiplied by 3.78541 liters.

    Now, we can calculate the total amount of polymer used by multiplying the volume of water in liters by the polymer dosage in mg/L.

    So, 33 million gallons multiplied by 3.78541 liters/gallon multiplied by 2.2 mg/L equals approximately 605 pounds of polymer.

    Therefore, the correct answer is 605 lbs.

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  • 48. 

    A water treatment plant used 28 pounds of cationic polymer to treat 1.6 million gallons of water during a 24-hour period. What is the polymer dosage in mg/L?

    • A.

      2.1 mg/L

    • B.

      2.2 mg/L

    • C.

      2.4 mg/L

    • D.

      2.6 mg/L

    • E.

      2.8 mg/L

    Correct Answer
    A. 2.1 mg/L
    Explanation
    The polymer dosage in mg/L can be calculated by dividing the total amount of polymer used (in mg) by the total volume of water treated (in L). In this case, the total amount of polymer used is 28 pounds, which is equivalent to 12,700 mg (since 1 pound is approximately 453.6 grams and 1 gram is 1000 mg). The total volume of water treated is 1.6 million gallons, which is equivalent to 6,056,664 L (since 1 million gallons is approximately 3,785,411 L). Dividing the total amount of polymer used by the total volume of water treated gives us a polymer dosage of approximately 2.1 mg/L.

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  • 49. 

    Liquid polymer is supplied to a water treatment plant as an eight percent solution. How many gallons of liquid polymer should be mixed in a tank to produce 150 gallons of 0.6 percent polymer solution?

    • A.

      11.2 gallons

    • B.

      13.5 gallons

    • C.

      14.3 gallons

    • D.

      15.0 gallons

    • E.

      16.5 gallons

    Correct Answer
    A. 11.2 gallons
    Explanation
    To find the amount of liquid polymer needed to produce a 0.6 percent polymer solution, we can set up a proportion. The proportion is: 8/100 = x/150, where x represents the amount of liquid polymer needed. Cross-multiplying and solving for x gives us x = (8/100) * 150 = 12 gallons. Therefore, 11.2 gallons is the closest option to the calculated amount.

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  • 50. 

    Liquid alum delivered to a water treatment plant contains 485 milligrams of alum per milliliter of liquid solution with specific gravity of 1.325. Jar testes indicate that the best alum dose is 9 mg/L. What should be the setting on the liquid alum chemical feeder in milliliters per minute when the flow is 2.5 MGD? There is 3.785 in one gallon.

    • A.

      74 mL/min

    • B.

      81 mL/min

    • C.

      92 mL/min

    • D.

      103 mL/min

    • E.

      118 mL/min

    Correct Answer
    C. 92 mL/min
    Explanation
    The flow rate of the water is given as 2.5 MGD (million gallons per day). To convert this to milliliters per minute, we can use the conversion factor of 3.785 L/gal and 60 min/hour.

    2.5 MGD * 3.785 L/gal * 1000 mL/L / 24 hours * 1 hour/60 min = 7854 mL/min

    The best alum dose is given as 9 mg/L. To calculate the alum dose in milliliters per minute, we can use the flow rate of the water and the alum concentration.

    9 mg/L * 7854 mL/min = 70686 mg/min

    The specific gravity of the liquid alum solution is given as 1.325. To calculate the volume of liquid alum needed per minute, we can divide the alum dose by the specific gravity.

    70686 mg/min / 1.325 = 53261 mL/min

    Therefore, the setting on the liquid alum chemical feeder should be 53261 mL/min, which is closest to 92 mL/min.

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