Boards Review: Pathology (Musculoskeletal)

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| By Wonderlandwitch
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Wonderlandwitch
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Quizzes Created: 5 | Total Attempts: 2,905
Questions: 11 | Attempts: 1,153

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Boards Review: Pathology (Musculoskeletal) - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is disease is an X-linked disorder that is marked by wasting in the proximal muscles and extremities and  compensatory hypertrophy of distal sites?

    Explanation
    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder that affects the muscles, causing wasting in the proximal muscles and extremities. This means that the muscles in these areas become weaker and smaller over time. However, there is compensatory hypertrophy, or enlargement, of muscles in distal sites. This is a characteristic feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which is caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene.

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  • 2. 

    Which autoimmune disorder develops from autoantibodies to acetylcholine receptors in the neuromuscular junctions?

    Explanation
    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder that occurs due to the production of autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors in the neuromuscular junctions. These autoantibodies interfere with the normal communication between nerves and muscles, leading to muscle weakness and fatigue. This condition primarily affects the voluntary muscles, causing symptoms such as drooping eyelids, difficulty in swallowing and speaking, and muscle weakness in the limbs. Treatment options for myasthenia gravis include medications to suppress the immune system and improve neuromuscular transmission.

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  • 3. 

    Why is osteoporosis type I most commonly associated with post-menopausal women?

    Explanation
    Osteoporosis type I is most commonly associated with post-menopausal women because estrogen deficiency occurs after menopause. Estrogen plays a crucial role in maintaining bone density and strength. As women age and their estrogen levels decrease, their bones become more susceptible to loss of density and strength, leading to osteoporosis. This is why post-menopausal women are at a higher risk of developing osteoporosis type I compared to men or pre-menopausal women.

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  • 4. 

    What causes an increase in hip fractures in people over 70 years of age?

    Explanation
    Osteoporosis Type II is the correct answer because it is a condition characterized by a decrease in bone density, making the bones more fragile and prone to fractures. As people age, their bone mass naturally decreases, and this is particularly pronounced in individuals over 70 years of age. Therefore, the combination of age-related bone loss and the presence of osteoporosis Type II increases the risk of hip fractures in this population.

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  • 5. 

    Vitamin D deficiency is aassociated with what degenerative bone disease?

    Explanation
    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with osteomalacia, a degenerative bone disease. Osteomalacia is characterized by the softening and weakening of the bones due to inadequate mineralization, which is primarily caused by a lack of vitamin D. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, which are essential for maintaining strong and healthy bones. Without sufficient levels of vitamin D, the body is unable to properly mineralize the bones, leading to the development of osteomalacia.

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  • 6. 

    Which type of skeletal tumor is an anaplastic small-cell malignant tumor of long bones, rubs, pelvis, scapula and in boys under 15?

    Explanation
    Ewing's sarcoma is a type of skeletal tumor that primarily affects long bones, ribs, pelvis, and scapula. It is characterized by the presence of anaplastic small-cell malignant cells. This tumor is more common in boys under the age of 15.

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  • 7. 

    What type of deformities are associated with RA?

    • A.

      Haygarth's nodes on the PIPs

    • B.

      Boutonniere or swan neck deformities on the fingers

    • C.

      Ulnar deviation of the wrist

    • D.

      Toe clawing

    • E.

      Muscular dystrophy

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Haygarth's nodes on the PIPs
    B. Boutonniere or swan neck deformities on the fingers
    C. Ulnar deviation of the wrist
    D. Toe clawing
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes Haygarth's nodes on the PIPs, Boutonniere or swan neck deformities on the fingers, Ulnar deviation of the wrist, and toe clawing. These deformities are commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Haygarth's nodes are bony swellings that develop on the middle joints of the fingers. Boutonniere deformity refers to the flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint and hyperextension of the distal interphalangeal joint. Swan neck deformity is characterized by hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal joint and flexion of the distal interphalangeal joint. Ulnar deviation of the wrist is a common finding in RA, and toe clawing can also occur due to the involvement of small joints in the feet.

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  • 8. 

    Fixation of the lumbar spine and sacroiliac join in ankylosing spondylitis is called what?

    Correct Answer(s)
    bamboo spine
    Explanation
    In ankylosing spondylitis, the inflammation and fusion of the vertebrae in the spine can lead to a rigid and inflexible spine. This condition is commonly referred to as "bamboo spine" due to the appearance of the fused vertebrae resembling a bamboo stalk. The fixation of the lumbar spine and sacroiliac joint in ankylosing spondylitis results in the characteristic bamboo spine presentation.

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  • 9. 

    What type of nodules form in osteoarthritis?

    Correct Answer(s)
    Heberden's nodes, Bouchard's nodes
    Bouchard's nodes, Heberden's nodes
    Explanation
    Heberden's nodes and Bouchard's nodes are both types of nodules that can form in osteoarthritis. Heberden's nodes are bony enlargements that develop at the distal interphalangeal joints of the fingers, while Bouchard's nodes are similar enlargements that occur at the proximal interphalangeal joints. Therefore, the correct answer is that both Heberden's nodes and Bouchard's nodes can form in osteoarthritis, with Heberden's nodes typically occurring at the distal joints and Bouchard's nodes occurring at the proximal joints.

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  • 10. 

    Where do Heberden's nodes occur and where do Bouchard's nodes occur?

    Correct Answer(s)
    DIP, PIP
    Explanation
    Heberden's nodes occur at the distal interphalangeal joints (DIP), which are the joints closest to the fingertips. Bouchard's nodes, on the other hand, occur at the proximal interphalangeal joints (PIP), which are the joints in the middle of the fingers.

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  • 11. 

    Osteochondrosis is a disease primarily affecting what age group?

    Correct Answer(s)
    children
    Explanation
    Osteochondrosis is a disease primarily affecting children. This condition involves the abnormal development of bone and cartilage in growing children, particularly in the joints. It commonly occurs during periods of rapid growth and development, such as adolescence. The disease can cause pain, stiffness, and limited mobility in affected joints. By specifying that osteochondrosis primarily affects children, it suggests that the condition is less common or less severe in adults.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 31, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Wonderlandwitch
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