How Well Do You Know Your Kidney

18 Questions | Total Attempts: 927

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How Well Do You Know Your Kidney - Quiz

Your kidneys are two of the most important organs in your body and contain about a million nephrons. The Kidneys filter your blood and help get rid of waste products from your body. Test out how much you know about your kidneys by taking up the quiz below. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    When performing a splenctomy, it is important to remember that the lienorenal ligament contains which of the following structures?
    • A. 

      Left gastro-omental artery

    • B. 

      Tail of the pancreas

    • C. 

      Left renal artery

    • D. 

      Left ureter

    • E. 

      Short gastric arteries

  • 2. 
    A 13-year-old boy is brought into the emergency department with blunt trauma to the left side of the chest during an attack by members of a rival street gang. X-ray shows fracture of rib 9th and 10th. Which of the following organs would most likely get damage?
    • A. 

      Ascending colon

    • B. 

      Spleen

    • C. 

      Duodenum

    • D. 

      Left kidney

    • E. 

      Left lobe of the liver

  • 3. 
    A surgeon performing an appendectomy makes an incision through the ventrolateral wall. Which of the following corresponds to the order of penetration of the layers of the abdominal wall? 1. Internal oblique 2. External oblique 3. Peritoneum 4. Transversus abdominis
    • A. 

      1-3-4-2

    • B. 

      2-1-3-4

    • C. 

      2-1-4-3

    • D. 

      4-1-2-3

    • E. 

      4-2-1-3

  • 4. 
    Dr Adebiyi Which of the following immune cells or structures of the gastrointestinal tract form the first line of defense against inhaled or ingested microorganisms?
    • A. 

      G cells

    • B. 

      M cells

    • C. 

      Neutrophils

    • D. 

      Intraepithelial lymphocytes

    • E. 

      Tonsils

  • 5. 
    Dr Dhiman One named muscle of the anterior abdominal wall arises along the inguinal ligament and iliac crest, whose fibers travel upward and medially to insert in the midline at the linea alba to the lower ribs. What is the name of the muscle described?
    • A. 

      External oblique

    • B. 

      Pyramidalis

    • C. 

      Rectus abdominis

    • D. 

      Transversus abdominis

    • E. 

      Internal oblique

  • 6. 
    The presence of nutrients in the distal stomach triggers the release of a hormone that directly stimulates acid secretion from parietal cells. The resulting acidification in turn triggers the release of a paracrine factor that inhibits the release of the hormone. What are the likely identities of the hormone and paracrine factor?
    • A. 

      Acetylcholine and gastrin

    • B. 

      Gastrin and somatostatin

    • C. 

      GRP and acetylcholine

    • D. 

      Histamine and somatostatin

    • E. 

      Gastrin and histamine

  • 7. 
    A biopsy specimen of the GI tract shows the transition from simple columnar epithelium with simple tubular glands (predominant cell type is goblet) to non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Which part of GI tract is being examined?
    • A. 

      Junction of upper half and lower half of anal canal

    • B. 

      Junction of esophagus and stomach

    • C. 

      Junction of pylorus and duodenum

    • D. 

      Junction of excretory duct of salivary glands and oral cavity

    • E. 

      Junction of sigmoid colon and rectum

  • 8. 
    Periodontal ligaments are derived from which of the following embryonic structures?
    • A. 

      Ectoderm

    • B. 

      Endoderm

    • C. 

      Odontoblasts

    • D. 

      Neural crest

    • E. 

      Mesoderm

  • 9. 
    Dr White As part of a research study, a volunteer undergoes esophageal manometery. At one recording site, the pressure before a swallow was a few mmHg above atmospheric pressure.  Following the initiation of a swallow, the pressure at this site increased transiently, before returning to an above atmospheric pressure. Where was the manometer sensor most likely to be situated?
    • A. 

      The abdominal esophagus

    • B. 

      The cardia of the stomach

    • C. 

      The upper esophageal sphincter

    • D. 

      The thoracic esophagus

    • E. 

      The lower esophageal sphincter

  • 10. 
    A mouse is genetically engineered so that it lacks a small intestinal hormone that is released in response to the presence of luminal fatty acids. In these mice, what are the likely effects of the absence of this hormone on gall bladder motility?  
    • A. 

      Increased rhythmic contractions in the cephalic phase of the response to a meal

    • B. 

      Decreased rhythmic contractions in the cephalic phase of the response to a meal

    • C. 

      Decreased contractions on entry of chyme into the duodenum

    • D. 

      Increased contraction on entry of chyme into the duodenum

    • E. 

      Increases in both rhythmic contractions in the cephalic phase and in contraction on entry of chyme to the duodenum

  • 11. 
    A patient who has been prescribed the antibiotic amoxicillin for an inner-ear infection complains of increased frequency of defecation and loose, watery stools that began about five days after the start of his treatment. In this patient, which of the following mechanisms is the most likely cause of his symptoms?
    • A. 

      Increased production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and decreased Na+ - dependent absorption

    • B. 

      Decreased production of SCFAs and decreased Na+ - dependent absorption

    • C. 

      Decreased production of SCFAs and decreased Na+ - dependent secretion

    • D. 

      Increased production of SCFAs and decreased Na+ - dependent secretion

    • E. 

      Increased production of SCFAs and increased Na+ - dependent absorption

  • 12. 
    A scientist genetically engineers a mouse so that it lacks a gastrointestinal hormone that is released upon acidification of the duodenal lumen. Compared with a normal animal, which of the following effects would be expected to be seen in the mutant mouse?
    • A. 

      PH of pancreatic ductular secretion will be high

    • B. 

      Pancreatic enzyme activity will be decreased

    • C. 

      Volume of pancreatic secretion will be increased

    • D. 

      Gastric acid secretion will be decreased

  • 13. 
    As part of a diagnostic test, a gastroenterologist uses an endoscopic tube to deliver a bolus of a dilute acid solution into the distal esophagus. The bolus is sufficient to cause distension of the esophageal wall. In a normal individual, the bolus will be cleared from the esophagus predominantly by which of the following?
    • A. 

      Primary peristalsis

    • B. 

      Swallowing

    • C. 

      Relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter

    • D. 

      Secondary peristalsis

    • E. 

      Receptive relaxation

  • 14. 
    The parietal cell is responsible for gastric acid secretion. Which of the following features characterizes acid secretion by these cells?
    • A. 

      Hydrogen ions are secreted passively down an electrochemical gradient into the lumen

    • B. 

      The absorption of a bicarbonate ion into the blood is dependent on cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase

    • C. 

      Acid secretion is stimulated by activation of CCKB and by muscarinic receptors which give rise to increased production of cAMP within the parietal cell

    • D. 

      Acid secretion is stimulated by increases in intracellular Ca2+ in response to H2 receptor activation

    • E. 

      The stimulatory effect of histamine on acid secretion will be potentiated by somatostatin

  • 15. 
    Bile is a complex solution that results from hepatic and biliary tree secretions. Which of the following properties or processes is critical to bile production?
    • A. 

      Hepatic bile production is dependent on cholecystokinin

    • B. 

      Bile acids are absorbed primarily in the terminal duodenum for return to the liver

    • C. 

      Conjugation of bile acids to bile salts decreases their pK making them more hydrophilic at the ambient pH of the duodenum

    • D. 

      Hepatic bile is concentrated by gall bladder secretion of bile salts

    • E. 

      Uptake of conjugated bile salts across the mucosal membrane in the intestine is via passive diffusion

  • 16. 
    Mrs. Lambert   Jane is frustrated that in spite of her efforts at weight reduction, she is still gaining weight.  Analysis of her dietary intake reveals a daily intake of 3,200 calories.  She weighs 67 kgs and has a moderately active lifestyle.  Which of these figures truly represent her present total daily energy requirement?
    • A. 

      3,540 cals

    • B. 

      2,346 cals

    • C. 

      1,800 cals

    • D. 

      2,600 cals

    • E. 

      1,500 cals

  • 17. 
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E

  • 18. 
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E

    • F. 

      F

    • G. 

      G

    • H. 

      H

    • I. 

      I

    • J. 

      J

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