Plant Biology Trivia Questions

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Plant Biology Trivia Questions - Quiz

It is a plant plant parts and their various functions development quiz. Let's start to play and learn something more also!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In plants, water is conducted mainly in ___________ tissue, whereas carbohydrates and nutrients are transported mainly in _________ tissue.

    • A.

      Xylem,pholem

    • B.

      Pholem,xylem

    • C.

      Parenchyma,pholem

    • D.

      Parenchyma,xylem

    • E.

      Veins,arteries

    Correct Answer
    A. Xylem,pholem
    Explanation
    Water is conducted mainly in xylem tissue in plants. Xylem tissue consists of specialized cells called tracheids and vessel elements that form long tubes for the transport of water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant. On the other hand, carbohydrates and nutrients are transported mainly in phloem tissue. Phloem tissue consists of sieve tube elements and companion cells that form a network of tubes for the transport of sugars, amino acids, and other organic molecules from the leaves to the other parts of the plant.

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  • 2. 

    Archaeopteryx lithographica was an important fossil discovery in 1 86 1 because:

    • A.

      Before its discovery, scientists hadn’t noticed the similarities between birds and reptiles

    • B.

      Among other features, it had tail feathers instead of a bony tail, linking reptiles and birds

    • C.

      Among other features, its skull resembled modem birds, but it had teeth rather than a beak, linking reptiles and birds

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Among other features, its skull resembled modem birds, but it had teeth rather than a beak, linking reptiles and birds
    Explanation
    Archaeopteryx lithographica was an important fossil discovery in 1861 because among other features, its skull resembled modern birds, but it had teeth rather than a beak, linking reptiles and birds. This discovery provided evidence of a transitional form between reptiles and birds, suggesting a common evolutionary ancestor. It challenged the prevailing belief that birds evolved from reptiles with no intermediate forms. The presence of both reptilian and avian characteristics in Archaeopteryx supported the theory of evolution and provided crucial insights into the evolutionary history of birds.

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  • 3. 

    Horseshoe crabs belong in which phylum

    • A.

      Annelida

    • B.

      Mollusca

    • C.

      Arthropoda

    • D.

      Crustacea

    Correct Answer
    C. Arthropoda
    Explanation
    Horseshoe crabs belong to the phylum Arthropoda because they possess key characteristics of this phylum. Arthropods are characterized by having jointed appendages, a segmented body, and an exoskeleton made of chitin. Horseshoe crabs have a hard exoskeleton, multiple pairs of jointed legs, and a segmented body, which aligns with the characteristics of arthropods. Annelida is the phylum to which segmented worms like earthworms belong, Mollusca is the phylum to which animals like snails and clams belong, and Crustacea is the phylum to which animals like crabs and lobsters belong.

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  • 4. 

    Round worms are in which phylum?

    • A.

      Annelida

    • B.

      Playthelminthes

    • C.

      Nematoda

    • D.

      Mollusca

    Correct Answer
    C. Nematoda
    Explanation
    Nematoda is the correct answer because roundworms belong to the phylum Nematoda. Nematodes are unsegmented worms that have a cylindrical body shape and are found in various habitats such as soil, freshwater, and marine environments. They are characterized by their long, slender bodies and have a complete digestive system. Nematodes can be parasitic or free-living, and they play important roles in ecosystems as decomposers and predators.

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  • 5. 

    The class of radiate animals that is always in the polyp stage is

    • A.

      Hydrozoa

    • B.

      Scyphozoa

    • C.

      Anthozoa

    • D.

      Oligochaeta

    Correct Answer
    C. Anthozoa
    Explanation
    Anthozoa is the correct answer because it is the only class of radiate animals that remains in the polyp stage throughout its life cycle. Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa have both polyp and medusa stages, while Oligochaeta is a class of segmented worms and not a class of radiate animals. Therefore, Anthozoa is the only class that fits the given criteria.

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  • 6. 

    What role do cohesion & adhesion play in xylem transports?

    • A.

      Like transpiration, they create a tension

    • B.

      Like root pressure, they create a positive pressure

    • C.

      Like sugars, they cause water to enter the xylem

    • D.

      They create a continuous water column in the xylem

    • E.

      All of these are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. They create a continuous water column in the xylem
    Explanation
    Cohesion and adhesion play a crucial role in xylem transport as they create a continuous water column in the xylem. Cohesion refers to the attraction between water molecules, allowing them to stick together, while adhesion refers to the attraction between water molecules and the walls of the xylem vessels. Together, these forces help pull water up the xylem from the roots to the leaves, ensuring a continuous flow of water and nutrients throughout the plant.

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  • 7. 

    Octopuses are members of which class?  

    • A.

      Cephalopoda

    • B.

      Gastropoda

    • C.

      Bilvalvia

    • D.

      Crustacea

    Correct Answer
    A. Cephalopoda
    Explanation
    Octopuses are members of the class Cephalopoda. This class includes various marine animals such as octopuses, squids, and cuttlefish. Cephalopods are characterized by their bilateral symmetry, large heads, and well-developed nervous systems. They are known for their ability to change color and camouflage themselves, as well as their complex behaviors and intelligence. Octopuses, in particular, are highly adaptable and have unique features such as their eight arms and ability to regenerate lost limbs.

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  • 8. 

    The nutrition of some plants depends on a root-fungus association known as a ___________________

    • A.

      Root nodule

    • B.

      Mycorrihiza

    • C.

      Root hair

    • D.

      Root hypae

    • E.

      Root nodules

    Correct Answer
    B. Mycorrihiza
    Explanation
    A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a plant. The fungus helps the plant in absorbing nutrients from the soil, especially phosphorus, while the plant provides the fungus with carbohydrates. This association is essential for the nutrition of some plants as it increases the surface area of the roots, allowing for better nutrient absorption. Therefore, mycorrhiza is the correct answer to the question.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following phyla are deuterostomes?  

    • A.

      Mollusca

    • B.

      Arthropoda

    • C.

      Nematoda

    • D.

      Echinodermata

    • E.

      Annelida

    Correct Answer
    D. Echinodermata
    Explanation
    The phylum Echinodermata are deuterostomes because they exhibit a characteristic embryonic development pattern called deuterostomy. In deuterostomes, the first opening that forms during embryonic development becomes the anus, while the second opening becomes the mouth. This is in contrast to protostomes, where the first opening becomes the mouth and the second opening becomes the anus. Echinoderms, such as starfish and sea urchins, also share other anatomical and developmental characteristics with other deuterostomes, further supporting their classification in this phylum.

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  • 10. 

    Roots & shoots lengthen through activity at ____________ 

    • A.

      Apical meristems

    • B.

      Lateral meristems

    • C.

      Vascular cambrium

    • D.

      Cork cambrium

    • E.

      Mesophyll

    Correct Answer
    A. Apical meristems
    Explanation
    The correct answer is apical meristems. Apical meristems are found at the tips of roots and shoots and are responsible for the growth in length of these structures. They contain undifferentiated cells that continuously divide and differentiate into different types of cells, allowing the roots and shoots to elongate. This growth is essential for plants to reach out for light and nutrients in the soil. Lateral meristems, vascular cambium, cork cambium, and mesophyll are not involved in the lengthening of roots and shoots.

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  • 11. 

    The subphylum that includes sharks, hagfish, and mammals is:

    • A.

      Cephalochordata

    • B.

      Urochordata

    • C.

      Vertabrata

    • D.

      Craniata

    Correct Answer
    C. Vertabrata
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Vertabrata" because this subphylum includes animals with a backbone or vertebral column, such as sharks, hagfish, and mammals. Cephalochordata and Urochordata are not correct choices because they do not include sharks and mammals, while Craniata is not a subphylum but a superclass within the subphylum Vertebrata.

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  • 12. 

    The periderm of a tree functions primarily to

    • A.

      Transports sugars

    • B.

      Form branches

    • C.

      Absorb water

    • D.

      Protect the inner tissues

    • E.

      Support the leaves

    Correct Answer
    D. Protect the inner tissues
    Explanation
    The periderm of a tree is the outer protective layer that develops as the tree grows. It consists of cork cells that provide a barrier against physical damage, pathogens, and extreme temperatures. The primary function of the periderm is to protect the inner tissues of the tree, including the phloem and xylem, which are responsible for transporting water, nutrients, and sugars throughout the tree. Therefore, the periderm plays a crucial role in maintaining the health and integrity of the tree's inner tissues.

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  • 13. 

    In a typical eudicot leaf, most of the chloroplasts are found in the

    • A.

      Upper epidermis

    • B.

      Palisade mesophyll cells.

    • C.

      Bundle sheath cells

    • D.

      Pholem cells

    • E.

      Guard cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Palisade mesophyll cells.
    Explanation
    In a typical eudicot leaf, the palisade mesophyll cells contain the majority of the chloroplasts. These cells are located in the upper part of the leaf, just below the upper epidermis. The palisade mesophyll cells are responsible for photosynthesis, as they contain a high density of chloroplasts which capture light energy and convert it into chemical energy. This arrangement allows for efficient absorption of sunlight and maximizes the leaf's ability to produce glucose through photosynthesis.

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  • 14. 

    Slugs and snails belong is which class?

    • A.

      Cephalopoda

    • B.

      Gastropoda

    • C.

      Bivalvia

    • D.

      Polychaeta

    Correct Answer
    B. Gastropoda
    Explanation
    Slugs and snails belong to the class Gastropoda. This is because Gastropoda is the class that includes all snails and slugs. Gastropods are characterized by their soft bodies, muscular foot, and coiled shell (which may be reduced or absent in some species). They are part of the phylum Mollusca and are the largest and most diverse class within this phylum.

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  • 15. 

    Which clade in the phylum Cnidaria includes “jellies” with rounded (as opposed to boxlike) medusae?

    • A.

      Hydrozoa

    • B.

      Scyphozoa

    • C.

      Anthozoa

    • D.

      Cubozoa

    Correct Answer
    B. Scyphozoa
    Explanation
    Scyphozoa is the correct answer because it is the clade in the phylum Cnidaria that includes "jellies" with rounded medusae. The other options, Hydrozoa, Anthozoa, and Cubozoa, do not have rounded medusae.

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  • 16. 

    Roots & shoots lengthen through activity at ____________ __

    • A.

      Apical meristems

    • B.

      Lateral meristems

    • C.

      Vascular cambrium

    • D.

      Cork cambrium

    • E.

      Mespohyll

    Correct Answer
    A. Apical meristems
    Explanation
    The correct answer is apical meristems. Apical meristems are located at the tips of roots and shoots and are responsible for the growth in length of these plant structures. They contain undifferentiated cells that continuously divide and differentiate, leading to the elongation of roots and shoots. These meristems are essential for primary growth in plants and play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of plant tissues.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following cells transport sugars over long distances?

    • A.

      Parenchyma cells

    • B.

      Collenchyma cells

    • C.

      Sclerenchyma cells

    • D.

      Tracheids and vessel elements

    • E.

      Sieve-tube elements

    Correct Answer
    E. Sieve-tube elements
    Explanation
    Sieve-tube elements are specialized cells found in the phloem tissue of vascular plants. They are responsible for transporting sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, over long distances within the plant. These cells are connected end-to-end to form sieve tubes, which allow for efficient movement of sugars through the plant. The other cell types mentioned, such as parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells, sclerenchyma cells, tracheids, and vessel elements, are not involved in long-distance sugar transport.

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  • 18. 

    Egg laying mammals are called

    • A.

      Marsupials

    • B.

      Monotremes

    • C.

      Placental mammals

    • D.

      Ovamammals

    • E.

      Aves mammals

    Correct Answer
    B. Monotremes
    Explanation
    Monotremes are egg-laying mammals, which means they lay eggs instead of giving live birth like placental mammals. Marsupials, on the other hand, give birth to relatively undeveloped young and carry them in a pouch. Ovamammals and aves mammals are not recognized terms in biology. Therefore, the correct answer is monotremes.

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  • 19. 

    Nautilus are members of which class

    • A.

      Cephalopoda

    • B.

      Gastropoda

    • C.

      Bivalvia

    • D.

      Crustacea

    • E.

      Polychaetes

    Correct Answer
    A. Cephalopoda
    Explanation
    Nautilus are members of the class Cephalopoda. Cephalopoda is a class of marine animals that includes squids, octopuses, and cuttlefish, along with Nautilus. These animals are characterized by having a distinct head with well-developed eyes and a set of arms or tentacles. They are also known for their ability to swim and their complex behaviors. Nautilus, specifically, are a type of cephalopod that have a coiled shell and are often found in the deep sea. They are considered living fossils, as they have remained relatively unchanged for millions of years.

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  • 20. 

    Polychaetes, which are mostly marine, use several mechanisms to enhance delivery of muscles. Which is correct?

    • A.

      Internal gills

    • B.

      Parapodia

    • C.

      Open circulatory system

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Polychaetes, which are mostly marine, have several mechanisms to enhance muscle delivery. They have internal gills, which help in efficient oxygen exchange and enhance muscle function. They also have parapodia, which are fleshy appendages that aid in locomotion and muscle movement. Additionally, polychaetes have an open circulatory system, which allows for the efficient transport of oxygen and nutrients to the muscles. Therefore, all of the mentioned mechanisms (internal gills, parapodia, and open circulatory system) are correct in enhancing muscle delivery in polychaetes.

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  • 21. 

    The evolutionary trend toward arger size and capacity ofthe brain in vertebrates is called

    • A.

      Cranial Expansion

    • B.

      Cortex evolution

    • C.

      Cephalization

    • D.

      Centralization

    • E.

      Encephalization

    Correct Answer
    C. Cephalization
    Explanation
    Cephalization refers to the evolutionary trend towards larger size and capacity of the brain in vertebrates. This process involves the concentration of sensory organs and nervous tissue in the head region, leading to the development of a distinct brain. Cephalization is important for the coordination of complex behaviors and the processing of sensory information, allowing vertebrates to adapt and survive in their environments.

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  • 22. 

    What distinguishes complete metamorphosis from incomplete metamorphosis in insects?

    • A.

      The presence of wings in the adult, but not in earlier life stages

    • B.

      The presence of wings in the adult, but not in earlier life stages the presence of sex organs in the adult, but not in earlier life stages

    • C.

      The radically different appearance between adults and earlier life stages

    • D.

      Three of these responses are correct

    • E.

      Two of these responses are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. The radically different appearance between adults and earlier life stages
    Explanation
    Complete metamorphosis in insects is characterized by a radical change in appearance between the adult stage and earlier life stages. In this type of metamorphosis, the insect goes through four distinct stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. The larva, also known as a caterpillar or grub, looks completely different from the adult insect. In contrast, incomplete metamorphosis involves three stages: egg, nymph, and adult. The nymph stage resembles a smaller version of the adult, with gradual changes in body shape and size. Therefore, the presence of a radically different appearance between adults and earlier life stages distinguishes complete metamorphosis from incomplete metamorphosis.

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  • 23. 

    Fish that are considered to be lobed-finned fish belong to the class

    • A.

      Actinopterygii

    • B.

      Sarcopterygii

    • C.

      Osteopterygii

    • D.

      Actinichthyes

    Correct Answer
    B. Sarcopterygii
    Explanation
    Fish that are considered to be lobed-finned fish belong to the class Sarcopterygii. This class includes fish that have fleshy, lobed fins, such as lungfish and coelacanths. These fish are distinct from ray-finned fish (class Actinopterygii) which have fins supported by bony rays. Sarcopterygii is one of the two main classes of bony fish, the other being Actinopterygii. Osteopterygii and Actinichthyes are not correct answers as they do not refer to the class of fish with lobed fins.

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  • 24. 

    Guard Cells

    • A.

      Protect the plant from herbivores

    • B.

      Secrete a waxy cuticle to prevent evaporation

    • C.

      Contain chemicals that poison insects

    • D.

      Control gas exchange

    • E.

      Inhibit germination of fungal spores

    Correct Answer
    D. Control gas exchange
    Explanation
    Guard cells are specialized cells found in the epidermis of plant leaves. They are responsible for controlling the opening and closing of stomata, which are small openings on the leaf surface that allow for gas exchange. When the guard cells are turgid, they swell and cause the stomata to open, allowing for the exchange of gases such as carbon dioxide and oxygen. Conversely, when the guard cells lose water and become flaccid, they close the stomata to prevent excessive water loss through transpiration. Therefore, the correct answer is that guard cells control gas exchange in plants.

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  • 25. 

    Monocot stems have

    • A.

      Vascular bundles arrayed in a ring

    • B.

      Vascular cambrium

    • C.

      Scattered vascular bundles

    • D.

      Cork cambrium

    • E.

      A distinct oith and cortex

    Correct Answer
    C. Scattered vascular bundles
    Explanation
    Monocot stems have scattered vascular bundles. Unlike dicot stems that have vascular bundles arranged in a ring, monocot stems have vascular bundles scattered throughout the ground tissue. This arrangement allows for more flexibility and uniform distribution of nutrients and water throughout the stem.

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  • 26. 

    Root hairs are adaptations that

    • A.

      Increase the surface area

    • B.

      Defend the plant

    • C.

      Reduce water loss

    • D.

      Provide active growth

    • E.

      Support the plant

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase the surface area
    Explanation
    Root hairs are adaptations that increase the surface area of the roots. This increased surface area allows for greater absorption of water and nutrients from the soil. By having more surface area, the plant can maximize its ability to take in essential resources for growth and development. Therefore, root hairs play a crucial role in enhancing the efficiency of nutrient and water uptake by the plant.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is a diploblastic phylum of aquatic predators?

    • A.

      Cnidaria

    • B.

      Annelida

    • C.

      Mollusca

    • D.

      Arthropoda

    • E.

      Echindermata

    Correct Answer
    A. Cnidaria
    Explanation
    Cnidaria is a diploblastic phylum of aquatic predators. This phylum includes animals such as jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals. Diploblastic organisms have two germ layers, the ectoderm and endoderm, while triploblastic organisms have three germ layers. Cnidarians have specialized cells called cnidocytes that contain stinging structures called nematocysts, which they use to capture prey. They are exclusively aquatic organisms and play important roles in marine ecosystems as predators and prey.

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  • 28. 

    The phylum that includes tunicates, hagfish, and mammals is:

    • A.

      Chordata

    • B.

      Euchordata

    • C.

      Vertebrata

    • D.

      Craniata

    Correct Answer
    A. Chordata
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Chordata because this phylum includes tunicates, hagfish, and mammals. Chordata is a phylum of animals that possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail at some point in their life cycle. Tunicates, hagfish, and mammals all possess these characteristics, making them members of the Chordata phylum. Euchordata, Vertebrata, and Craniata are all subphyla or superclasses within the Chordata phylum.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following is (are) unique to animals?

    • A.

      Cells that have mitochondria

    • B.

      The structural carbohydrate,chitin

    • C.

      Nervous conduction and muscular movement

    • D.

      Heterotrophy

    • E.

      Two of these responses are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. Nervous conduction and muscular movement
    Explanation
    Nervous conduction and muscular movement are unique to animals. While cells that have mitochondria, the structural carbohydrate chitin, and heterotrophy are also found in other organisms, nervous conduction and muscular movement are specific to animals. These characteristics allow animals to have complex and coordinated movement, as well as the ability to respond to stimuli in their environment.

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  • 30. 

    Land plants are composed of all of the following tissue types except

    • A.

      Mesodermal

    • B.

      Epidermal

    • C.

      Meristematic

    • D.

      Vascular

    • E.

      Ground tissue

    Correct Answer
    A. Mesodermal
  • 31. 

    Which of these characteristics added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments?

    • A.

      The shelled, amniotic egg

    • B.

      The ability to maintain a constant body temperature

    • C.

      Two pairs of appendages

    • D.

      Bony scales

    • E.

      A four-chambered heart

    Correct Answer
    A. The shelled, amniotic egg
    Explanation
    The shelled, amniotic egg added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments. This type of egg provides protection and a stable internal environment for the developing embryo, allowing vertebrates to reproduce on land without the need for water. It also allows for longer development times, giving the embryo more time to develop and adapt to the environment before hatching. This adaptation is particularly advantageous in dry environments where water availability may be limited. The ability to lay amniotic eggs contributed to the colonization of diverse terrestrial habitats by vertebrates.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?

    • A.

      Lizards

    • B.

      Crocodiles

    • C.

      Snakes

    • D.

      Birds

    • E.

      Tuataras

    Correct Answer
    D. Birds
    Explanation
    Birds are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs. This is supported by extensive scientific evidence, including fossil records and genetic studies. Birds share many anatomical and physiological characteristics with their dinosaur ancestors, such as hollow bones, feathers, and a unique respiratory system. The discovery of feathered dinosaur fossils further solidifies the evolutionary link between dinosaurs and birds. Therefore, birds are considered the only living descendants of the dinosaur lineage.

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  • 33. 

    One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that

    • A.

      Only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem.

    • B.

      Root cells have cell walls and leaf cells do not.

    • C.

      A waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots.

    • D.

      Vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves.

    • E.

      Leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not.

    Correct Answer
    C. A waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots.
  • 34. 

    The last common ancestor of all animals was probably a

    • A.

      Unicellular chytrid

    • B.

      Unicellular yeast

    • C.

      Multicellular algae

    • D.

      Multicellular fungus

    • E.

      Flagellated protist

    Correct Answer
    E. Flagellated protist
    Explanation
    The last common ancestor of all animals was most likely a flagellated protist. This is because flagellated protists are a diverse group of unicellular organisms that possess a flagellum, a whip-like structure that enables them to move and swim. They are considered to be the closest relatives of animals due to their similar cellular structure and genetic makeup. The presence of a flagellum in these protists suggests a common evolutionary origin with animals, making them the most probable ancestor of all animals.

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  • 35. 

    Which of these statements accurately describes a similarity between sharks and ray-finned fishes?

    • A.

      The skin is typically covered by flattened bony scales.

    • B.

      They are equally able to exchange gases with the environment while stationary

    • C.

      They are highly maneuverable due to their flexibility

    • D.

      They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure.

    • E.

      A swim bladder helps control buoyancy

    Correct Answer
    D. They have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure.
    Explanation
    Sharks and ray-finned fishes both have a lateral line that is sensitive to changes in water pressure. The lateral line system is a sensory organ that allows them to detect vibrations and movements in the water, helping them navigate and locate prey. This similarity in their sensory capabilities is an adaptation that aids in their survival and hunting strategies.

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  • 36. 

    A cell that is most likely to retain the ability to divide, perform metabolic functions, and store photosynthate would be a

    • A.

      Parenchyma cell in a leaf

    • B.

      Vessel element in the vascular system

    • C.

      Endodermal cell in a root

    • D.

      Bark cell

    • E.

      Fiber cell

    Correct Answer
    A. Parenchyma cell in a leaf
    Explanation
    Parenchyma cells in leaves are responsible for various functions such as photosynthesis, storage of nutrients, and gas exchange. They have thin cell walls, large vacuoles, and abundant chloroplasts, which enable them to carry out metabolic functions efficiently. Additionally, parenchyma cells have the ability to divide and differentiate into other cell types when needed. Therefore, a parenchyma cell in a leaf is most likely to retain the ability to divide, perform metabolic functions, and store photosynthate.

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  • 37. 

    The presence of a swim bladder allows the typical ray-finned fish to stop swimming and still

    • A.

      Effectively circulate its blood.

    • B.

      Be highly maneuverable

    • C.

      Use its lateral line system

    • D.

      Use its swim bladder as a respiratory organ.

    • E.

      Not sink

    Correct Answer
    E. Not sink
    Explanation
    The presence of a swim bladder in a typical ray-finned fish allows it to not sink. The swim bladder is an internal gas-filled organ that helps the fish control its buoyancy in water. By adjusting the amount of gas in the swim bladder, the fish can either float or sink in the water column. This allows the fish to stay at a desired depth without constantly swimming. Therefore, the presence of a swim bladder prevents the fish from sinking.

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  • 38. 

    Compared to a cell with few aquaporins in its membrane, a cell containing many aquaporins will

    • A.

      Have a faster rate of osmosis

    • B.

      Have a lower water potential

    • C.

      Have a higher water potential

    • D.

      Have a faster rate of active transport

    • E.

      Be flaccid

    Correct Answer
    A. Have a faster rate of osmosis
    Explanation
    A cell with many aquaporins in its membrane will have a faster rate of osmosis because aquaporins are specialized channels that allow water molecules to move across the cell membrane more quickly. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of higher water potential to an area of lower water potential, so when there are more aquaporins present, water can move in and out of the cell more rapidly, resulting in a faster rate of osmosis.

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  • 39. 

    A trend first observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was

    • A.

      The appearance of jaws

    • B.

      The appearance of bony vertebrae

    • C.

      Feet with digits

    • D.

      The mineralization of the endoskeleton

    • E.

      The amniotic egg

    Correct Answer
    C. Feet with digits
    Explanation
    The trend observed in the evolution of the earliest tetrapods was the appearance of feet with digits. This means that these early tetrapods developed limbs with distinct digits, allowing them to have more advanced locomotion and movement on land. This adaptation was crucial for their survival and success in terrestrial environments.

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  • 40. 

    What drives the flow of water through the xylem?

    • A.

      Passive transport by the endodermis

    • B.

      The number of companion cells in the phloem

    • C.

      The evaporation of water from the leaves

    • D.

      Active transport by sieve-tube elements

    • E.

      Active transport by tracheid and vessel elements

    Correct Answer
    C. The evaporation of water from the leaves
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the evaporation of water from the leaves. This process, known as transpiration, creates a negative pressure gradient that pulls water up through the xylem. As water evaporates from the leaves, it creates a tension that causes water molecules to adhere to each other and to the walls of the xylem vessels. This cohesive and adhesive property of water allows it to be pulled upwards against gravity, resulting in the flow of water through the xylem.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following are considered apes?

    • A.

      Lorises

    • B.

      New World monkeys

    • C.

      Old world monkeys

    • D.

      Orangutans

    • E.

      Tarsiers

    Correct Answer
    D. Orangutans
    Explanation
    Orangutans are considered apes because they belong to the family Hominidae, which includes all great apes. Unlike monkeys, apes do not have tails and have larger brains. Orangutans are native to the rainforests of Borneo and Sumatra and are known for their distinctive red hair and long arms. They are highly intelligent and are the largest arboreal (tree-dwelling) mammals in the world.

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  • 42. 

    Transpiration in plants requires all of the following except

    • A.

      Adhesion of water molecules to cellulose

    • B.

      Cohesion between water molecules.

    • C.

      Evaporation of water molecules.

    • D.

      Active transport through xylem cells.

    • E.

      Transport through tracheids

    Correct Answer
    D. Active transport through xylem cells.
    Explanation
    Transpiration in plants is the process by which water is lost from the plant's surface through evaporation. It is driven by the cohesion between water molecules, as they stick together and create a continuous column of water in the plant's xylem cells. Adhesion of water molecules to cellulose also helps in the movement of water through the plant. Transport through tracheids, which are specialized cells in the xylem, is necessary for water movement. However, active transport through xylem cells is not required for transpiration as it is mainly responsible for the transport of ions and nutrients, not water.

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  • 43. 

    All of the following normally enter the plant through the roots except

    • A.

      Carbon dioxide

    • B.

      Nitrogen

    • C.

      Potassium

    • D.

      Water

    • E.

      Calcium

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbon dioxide
    Explanation
    Plants obtain carbon dioxide primarily through their leaves, not their roots. Carbon dioxide is a gas that is absorbed by the leaves through tiny openings called stomata. Once inside the leaves, carbon dioxide is used during photosynthesis to produce glucose and oxygen. Therefore, carbon dioxide does not normally enter the plant through the roots. On the other hand, water, nitrogen, potassium, and calcium are all essential nutrients that are absorbed by the roots and transported throughout the plant for various physiological processes.

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  • 44. 

    The swim bladder of ray-finned fishes

    • A.

      Was probably modified from simple lungs of chondrichthyans

    • B.

      Developed into lungs in saltwater fishes.

    • C.

      First appeared in sharks

    • D.

      Provides for regulation of buoyancy

    • E.

      Two of the options listed are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. Provides for regulation of buoyancy
    Explanation
    The swim bladder of ray-finned fishes provides for the regulation of buoyancy. This organ allows the fish to control its position in the water column by adjusting the amount of gas in the bladder. By increasing or decreasing the gas volume, the fish can either become more buoyant and rise in the water or become less buoyant and sink. This adaptation is crucial for fishes to maintain their desired depth and conserve energy while swimming.

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  • 45. 

    C02 enters the inner spaces of the leaf through the

    • A.

      Cuticle

    • B.

      Epidermsl trichomes

    • C.

      Stomata

    • D.

      Pholoem

    • E.

      Walll of guard cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Stomata
    Explanation
    Stomata are small openings on the surface of leaves that allow for the exchange of gases, including the entry of carbon dioxide (C02) into the inner spaces of the leaf. The other options listed, such as cuticle, epidermal trichomes, phloem, and the wall of guard cells, do not directly facilitate the entry of C02 into the leaf.

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  • 46. 

    Phloem transport of sucrose is often described as going from source to sink. Which of the following would not normally function as a sink?

    • A.

      Growing leaf

    • B.

      Growing root

    • C.

      Storage organ in summer

    • D.

      Mature leaf

    • E.

      Shoot tip

    Correct Answer
    D. Mature leaf
    Explanation
    A mature leaf would not normally function as a sink because it is not actively growing or requiring a significant amount of nutrients. Sink tissues are usually those that have a high demand for resources, such as growing leaves and roots, or storage organs during periods of growth. A mature leaf, on the other hand, has already completed its growth and is primarily involved in photosynthesis and nutrient production rather than nutrient uptake. Therefore, it is not a typical sink tissue for phloem transport of sucrose.

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  • 47. 

    Heartwood and sapwood consist of

    • A.

      Bark

    • B.

      Periderm

    • C.

      Secondary xylem

    • D.

      Secondary pholem

    • E.

      Cork

    Correct Answer
    C. Secondary xylem
    Explanation
    Heartwood and sapwood consist of secondary xylem. Secondary xylem is the wood that is formed by the vascular cambium in a tree trunk. It is responsible for the transport of water and minerals from the roots to the leaves. Heartwood is the inner, darker part of the tree trunk that no longer conducts water, while sapwood is the outer, lighter part that is still active in water transport. Both heartwood and sapwood are composed of secondary xylem, which gives the tree its strength and support.

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  • 48. 

    Vascular plant tissue includes all of the following cell types except

    • A.

      Vessel elements

    • B.

      Sieve cells

    • C.

      Trachiads

    • D.

      Companion cells

    • E.

      Cambrium cells

    Correct Answer
    E. Cambrium cells
    Explanation
    Vascular plant tissue is responsible for conducting water, nutrients, and sugars throughout the plant. Vessel elements, sieve cells, and tracheids are all types of cells found in vascular tissue that aid in this transportation. Companion cells are specialized cells that provide support and metabolic functions to sieve tube elements. However, cambium cells are not a type of vascular plant tissue. Cambium is a meristematic tissue responsible for the growth in thickness of stems and roots, producing new xylem and phloem cells.

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  • 49. 

    Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?

    • A.

      It has a shell that increases gas exchange.

    • B.

      It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment.

    • C.

      It prolongs embryonic development.

    • D.

      It provides insulation to conserve heat.

    • E.

      It permits internal fertilization to be replaced by external fertilization.

    Correct Answer
    B. It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment.
    Explanation
    The amniotic egg is considered an important evolutionary breakthrough because it allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment. This means that animals that possess amniotic eggs are not restricted to laying their eggs in water, which gives them the ability to colonize and thrive in diverse terrestrial habitats. This adaptation greatly increases their chances of survival and successful reproduction in a wider range of environments.

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  • 50. 

    What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree?

    • A.

      Primary xylem

    • B.

      Secondary xylem

    • C.

      Secondary pholem

    • D.

      Mesophyll cells

    • E.

      Vascular cambrium

    Correct Answer
    B. Secondary xylem
    Explanation
    Secondary xylem is the correct answer because it is the tissue that makes up most of the wood of a tree. Secondary xylem is formed by the vascular cambium, which is a layer of meristematic cells in the tree trunk. As the tree grows, the vascular cambium produces new layers of secondary xylem, which are responsible for the increase in girth and provide support and water transport within the tree. Therefore, secondary xylem is the main component of the wood in a tree.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 02, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Itsaliciayall8
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