Bentley Ch. 31 Societies At Crossroads: Modernization

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Bentley Ch. 31 Societies At Crossroads: Modernization - Quiz

The Ottoman state began as one of many small Turkish states that emerged in Asia. During our coverage of Bentley Ch. 31 Societies at Crossroads: Modernization we got to understand how the Ottoman Empire, China, Russia and Japan moved from their traditional to modern societies. Take the quiz and refresh your memory!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following statements is NOT true about capitulations?

    • A.

      They were imposed on the Europeans by the Ottomans

    • B.

      They allowed for the establishment of tax-exempt banks and commercial enterprises

    • C.

      They were imposed on the Ottomans by the Europeans

    • D.

      They permitted foreign governments to levy duties on goods

    Correct Answer
    A. They were imposed on the Europeans by the Ottomans
    Explanation
    Capitulations were not imposed on the Europeans by the Ottomans. Capitulations were actually imposed on the Ottomans by the Europeans. Capitulations were a series of agreements that granted Europeans certain privileges and exemptions from Ottoman laws and taxes. These agreements allowed for the establishment of tax-exempt banks and commercial enterprises, permitted foreign governments to levy duties on goods, and gave Europeans significant economic and legal advantages in the Ottoman Empire.

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  • 2. 

    After the assassination of Alexander II, his successor Nicholas II

    • A.

      Actively carried on Alexander's reforms

    • B.

      Was an even greater proponent of change and pushed for true democratic reform

    • C.

      Issued an edict that categorically declared the peasants to be serfs

    • D.

      Championed oppression and police control

    Correct Answer
    D. Championed oppression and police control
    Explanation
    After the assassination of Alexander II, his successor Nicholas II championed oppression and police control. This can be inferred from the phrase "After the assassination of Alexander II" which implies a change in leadership and policies. The term "championed" suggests that Nicholas II actively supported and promoted oppression and police control. This aligns with the historical context of Nicholas II's reign, where he was known for his autocratic rule and the use of secret police to suppress dissent.

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  • 3. 

    The 1905 Bloody Sunday massacre eventually

    • A.

      Led to the collapse of the Qing dynasty in China

    • B.

      Resulted in the abdication of Ottoman Sultan Abd al-Hamid and the rise of the Young Turks

    • C.

      Led to the establishment of the Duma in Russia

    • D.

      Led to communist regimes in both Russia and China

    Correct Answer
    C. Led to the establishment of the Duma in Russia
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the 1905 Bloody Sunday massacre led to the establishment of the Duma in Russia. The massacre, which occurred when peaceful protesters were shot by Russian soldiers, sparked widespread unrest and dissatisfaction with the autocratic rule of Tsar Nicholas II. In response to the public outcry, the Tsar was forced to make concessions and establish the Duma, which was the first elected legislative body in Russia. While the massacre had significant impacts in other countries as well, such as the rise of the Young Turks in the Ottoman Empire, it is most closely associated with the establishment of the Duma in Russia.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following reasons account for the large number of languages that have become extinct during the period from 1500 to 2000?   

    • A.

      Some languages are not easily translatable into the world's most-spoken languages

    • B.

      Increased contact among formerly isolated groups

    • C.

      Increased human migrations into already populated areas of the earth

    • D.

      Both increased contact among formerly isolated groups and increased human migrations into already populated areas of the earth are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. Both increased contact among formerly isolated groups and increased human migrations into already populated areas of the earth are correct
    Explanation
    During the period from 1500 to 2000, the large number of languages that became extinct can be attributed to both increased contact among formerly isolated groups and increased human migrations into already populated areas of the earth. The interaction between different groups and the movement of people into new areas led to the spread and dominance of certain languages, causing the decline and eventual extinction of others that were not easily translatable or adaptable to these changes.

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  • 5. 

    The decisive point in the Opium War was

    • A.

      The British threat to the Grand Canal

    • B.

      The arrival of an American fleet to aid the British

    • C.

      A surprise British attack on the Chinese fleet at Port Arthur

    • D.

      A sudden reversal by China's erstwhile ally, the Japanese

    Correct Answer
    A. The British threat to the Grand Canal
    Explanation
    During the Opium War, the British threat to the Grand Canal was the decisive point. The Grand Canal was a vital transportation route for goods in China, and by threatening to block it, the British put significant pressure on the Chinese government. This threat disrupted trade and caused economic instability, which ultimately weakened China's position in the war. By targeting such a crucial aspect of China's infrastructure, the British were able to gain a strategic advantage and force China to negotiate a peace treaty.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following was NOT one of the principles of the Taiping Rebellion? 

    • A.

      Abolishing the old feudal order

    • B.

      Turning Jpaan into a constitutional republic

    • C.

      Improving the Japanese educational system

    • D.

      Reorganizing the Japanese army and navy

    Correct Answer
    B. Turning Jpaan into a constitutional republic
    Explanation
    The Taiping Rebellion was a massive civil war in China during the mid-19th century. The rebellion aimed to overthrow the ruling Qing dynasty and establish a new order based on their principles. The principles of the Taiping Rebellion included abolishing the old feudal order, improving the educational system, and reorganizing the army and navy. However, turning Japan into a constitutional republic was not one of the principles of the Taiping Rebellion. This answer is incorrect because the Taiping Rebellion was focused on China, not Japan.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following was NOT one of the foundations of the Meiji Restoration?

    • A.

      Abolishing the old feudal order

    • B.

      Turning Japan into a constitutional republic

    • C.

      Reorganizing the Japanese army and navy

    • D.

      Revamping the tax system

    Correct Answer
    B. Turning Japan into a constitutional republic
    Explanation
    The Meiji Restoration was a period of major political and social reforms in Japan in the late 19th century. It aimed to modernize and strengthen Japan to catch up with Western powers. One of the foundations of the Meiji Restoration was abolishing the old feudal order, which aimed to dismantle the traditional samurai class and redistribute land. Another foundation was reorganizing the Japanese army and navy to create a modern military force. Additionally, revamping the tax system was another key aspect of the Meiji Restoration, aiming to create a more efficient and equitable taxation system. However, turning Japan into a constitutional republic was not one of the foundations of the Meiji Restoration. Instead, the Meiji government implemented a constitutional monarchy, with the emperor as the symbolic head of state while the government was run by a group of oligarchs.

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  • 8. 

    The Meiji reformers actively copied the western Europeans and Americans because 

    • A.

      The Chinese refused to share their technology with the Japanese

    • B.

      They understood the danger of those two groups and wanted to find a way to avoid commercial and/or imperial domination by either one

    • C.

      Those lands had always treated the Japanese with equality and respect

    • D.

      Japan had already been divided up into spheres of influence and they wanted to find a way to push the Europeans and Americans out

    Correct Answer
    B. They understood the danger of those two groups and wanted to find a way to avoid commercial and/or imperial domination by either one
    Explanation
    The Meiji reformers actively copied the western Europeans and Americans because they understood the danger of those two groups and wanted to find a way to avoid commercial and/or imperial domination by either one. This suggests that the Meiji reformers recognized the advancements and power of the western Europeans and Americans and saw the need to adopt their methods in order to protect Japan's sovereignty and independence. By learning from these groups, the Meiji reformers aimed to strengthen Japan and prevent it from being dominated or controlled by foreign powers.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following accounts for the beginning of the social reform movement in Russia in the nineteenth century?

    • A.

      Massive peasant rebellions

    • B.

      Military defeats

    • C.

      A resurgence of the principles of the eighteenth century Enlightenment

    • D.

      Diplomatic pressure on the part of the United States

    Correct Answer
    B. Military defeats
    Explanation
    In the nineteenth century, Russia experienced a series of military defeats that contributed to the beginning of the social reform movement. These defeats, such as the Crimean War and the Russo-Japanese War, exposed the weaknesses and backwardness of the Russian Empire. They led to a sense of national humiliation and a recognition that reforms were necessary in order to modernize and strengthen the country. The military defeats acted as a catalyst for social reform, prompting the government to implement changes in various aspects of Russian society, including the legal system, education, and serfdom.

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  • 10. 

    The working conditions of the growing Russian industrial class in St. Petersburg and Moscow

    • A.

      Were the best in Europe at the time

    • B.

      Improved dramatically after the passage in 1897 of a law establishing an eight hour work day

    • C.

      Were terrible and left the workers receptive to revolutionary propaganda

    • D.

      Were much better than their earlier English and French counterparts had been

    Correct Answer
    C. Were terrible and left the workers receptive to revolutionary propaganda
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the working conditions of the growing Russian industrial class in St. Petersburg and Moscow were terrible and left the workers receptive to revolutionary propaganda. This implies that the workers faced harsh and unfavorable conditions, which made them more susceptible to radical ideas and movements that aimed to bring about change in the socio-economic system.

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  • 11. 

    The key to social reform in Russia was

    • A.

      The establishment of universal suffrage

    • B.

      The emancipation of the serfs

    • C.

      The final attainment of equality for women

    • D.

      The abolition of slavery

    Correct Answer
    B. The emancipation of the serfs
    Explanation
    The key to social reform in Russia was the emancipation of the serfs. This is because the serfs were a large portion of the population and their liberation from serfdom was a crucial step towards creating a more equal and just society. The emancipation of the serfs allowed them to own land, engage in economic activities, and have more control over their own lives. It also paved the way for other social reforms and changes in Russia, such as the modernization of agriculture and industry.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the of the following was NOT one of the leading principles of the Young Turks?

    • A.

      Universal suffrage

    • B.

      Emancipation of women

    • C.

      Free public education

    • D.

      Islam as the guiding principle in public life

    Correct Answer
    D. Islam as the guiding principle in public life
    Explanation
    The Young Turks were a political reform movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the Ottoman Empire. They advocated for universal suffrage, the emancipation of women, and free public education as leading principles. However, they did not prioritize Islam as the guiding principle in public life, as they sought to modernize and secularize the empire.

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  • 13. 

    The social Darwinists believed that 

    • A.

      A sharp distinction had to be made between the biological and social worlds

    • B.

      Only a socialist political and social structure would keep humans from destroying themselves

    • C.

      More powerful nations had to protect weaker nations

    • D.

      Powerful nations were meant to dominate weaker societies

    Correct Answer
    D. Powerful nations were meant to dominate weaker societies
    Explanation
    The social Darwinists believed that powerful nations were meant to dominate weaker societies. This belief was based on the idea that in the natural world, stronger individuals or species would dominate over weaker ones in order to ensure survival and progress. They applied this concept to human societies, arguing that powerful nations had a natural right to dominate and control weaker nations in order to maintain their own strength and advancement. This perspective justified imperialism and colonization as a means for powerful nations to exert their dominance and secure resources and territories.

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  • 14. 

    In regard to imperialism, the Japanese and Americans

    • A.

      Were much more tolerant and respectful of their colonies than the Europeans were

    • B.

      Expanded for very different reasons than the Europeans did

    • C.

      Never saw the need to expand

    • D.

      Proved to be just as racist as the Europeans

    Correct Answer
    D. Proved to be just as racist as the Europeans
    Explanation
    The answer suggests that both the Japanese and Americans were just as racist as the Europeans when it came to imperialism. This means that they also held prejudiced attitudes and discriminatory practices towards the people in their colonies. This challenges the notion that they were more tolerant and respectful towards their colonies compared to the Europeans.

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  • 15. 

    By the end of the nineteenth century, the only thing keeping China from being completely divided up into spheres of influence by foreigners was   

    • A.

      Distrust among the foreign powers

    • B.

      The European respect for Chinese intellectual and cultural superiority

    • C.

      A Franco-British manifesto to support China as a block to further Russian expansion

    • D.

      Japanese support based on centuries of admiration for Chinese culture

    Correct Answer
    A. Distrust among the foreign powers
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "distrust among the foreign powers". This means that the foreign powers did not trust each other enough to completely divide up China into spheres of influence. This lack of trust prevented them from fully exerting their control over China.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 28, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Mrscindytong

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