# Atoms And Nuclei Quiz B

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This quiz is multiple choice which tests the participants’ conceptual knowledge about the topic 'Atoms and Nuclei'. The questions involve knowledge from four main sections including; The Structure of the Atom, The Structure of the Nucleus, Radioactivity and Nucleur Fission and Fusion.

• 1.

### Planck's constant has a value of

• A.

6.626 × 10^-34

• B.

1.055 × 10^34

• C.

8.988 × 10^-16

• D.

8.85 × 10^26

A. 6.626 × 10^-34
Explanation
Planck's constant is a fundamental constant in quantum mechanics that relates the energy of a photon to its frequency. It is denoted by the symbol h and has a value of 6.626 × 10^-34 joule-seconds. This constant is crucial in understanding the behavior of particles at the atomic and subatomic levels and is used in various equations and formulas in quantum mechanics.

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• 2.

### A photon is a particle that

• A.

Cannot travel in a vacuum.

• B.

Has zero electric charge.

• C.

Has zero electric field associated with it.

• D.

Has a velocity in a vacuum that varies with the photon frequency.

B. Has zero electric charge.
Explanation
A photon is a particle that has zero electric charge. This means that it is not affected by electric fields and does not generate its own electric field. Instead, photons are particles of light and are characterized by their energy and frequency. They are able to travel in a vacuum because they do not need a medium to propagate through.

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• 3.

### What is the ionization energy of the neutral hydrogen atom?

• A.

6.8 eV

• B.

13.6 eV

• C.

27.2 eV

• D.

B. 13.6 eV
Explanation
The ionization energy of an atom is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from the atom. In the case of a neutral hydrogen atom, the ionization energy is 13.6 eV. This means that it takes 13.6 electron volts of energy to remove an electron from a neutral hydrogen atom and turn it into a positively charged hydrogen ion.

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• 4.

### The wavelength of a ruby laser is 694.3 nm.  What is the energy difference between the two energy states involved in laseraction?

• A.

1.812 eV

• B.

1.646 eV

• C.

1.537 eV

• D.

1.786 eV

D. 1.786 eV
Explanation
The energy difference between the two energy states involved in laser action can be calculated using the equation E = hc/λ, where E is the energy, h is Planck's constant, c is the speed of light, and λ is the wavelength. By substituting the given wavelength of 694.3 nm into the equation, we can calculate the energy difference to be approximately 1.786 eV.

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• 5.

### An atom's atomic number is determined by the number of

• A.

Neutrons in its nucleus.

• B.

Alpha particles in its nucleus.

• C.

Protons in its nucleus.

• D.

Nucleons in its nucleus.

C. Protons in its nucleus.
Explanation
An atom's atomic number is determined by the number of protons in its nucleus. The atomic number represents the number of protons in an atom, which determines its identity as a specific element. Neutrons and alpha particles do not contribute to the atomic number, although they do affect the atom's mass. Nucleons is a term that refers to both protons and neutrons collectively, so it is not the correct answer in this context.

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• 6.

### If an atom's atomic number is given by Z, its atomic mass by A, and its neutron number by N, which of the following is correct?

• A.

N = Z - A

• B.

N = A - Z

• C.

N = A + Z

• D.

B. N = A - Z
Explanation
The neutron number (N) of an atom is equal to the atomic mass (A) minus the atomic number (Z). This is because the atomic mass represents the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, while the atomic number represents the number of protons. Subtracting the atomic number from the atomic mass gives the number of neutrons.

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• 7.

### There is a limit to the size of a stable nucleus because of

• A.

The limited range of the strong nuclear force.

• B.

The weakness of the gravitational force.

• C.

The weakness of the electrostatic force.

• D.

A. The limited range of the strong nuclear force.
Explanation
The correct answer is the limited range of the strong nuclear force. The strong nuclear force is responsible for holding the nucleus of an atom together. However, this force has a limited range, meaning it becomes weaker as particles move farther apart. As the size of a nucleus increases, the distance between particles also increases, causing the strong nuclear force to weaken. Eventually, the force becomes too weak to counteract the electrostatic repulsion between positively charged protons, resulting in an unstable nucleus. Therefore, there is a limit to the size of a stable nucleus due to the limited range of the strong nuclear force.

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• 8.

### When nucleons join to form a stable nucleus, energy is

• A.

Absorbed.

• B.

Not transferred.

• C.

Destroyed.

• D.

Released.

D. Released.
Explanation
When nucleons join to form a stable nucleus, energy is released. This is because the process of nuclear fusion, where nucleons combine to form a nucleus, involves the conversion of mass into energy according to Einstein's famous equation E=mc^2. This released energy is what powers the sun and stars, as well as nuclear power plants on Earth.

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• 9.

### The binding energy per nucleon

• A.

Decreases steadily as we go to heavier elements.

• B.

Has a maximum near iron in the periodic table.

• C.

Is approximately constant throughout the periodic table, except for very light nuclei.

• D.

Increases steadily as we go to heavier elements.

B. Has a maximum near iron in the periodic table.
Explanation
The binding energy per nucleon refers to the amount of energy required to remove a nucleon from an atomic nucleus. As we move to heavier elements, the binding energy per nucleon decreases steadily. However, near iron in the periodic table, the binding energy per nucleon reaches a maximum. This is because iron has a particularly stable nucleus, with a balance between the attractive nuclear force and the repulsive electromagnetic force. As we move away from iron, the repulsive electromagnetic force becomes stronger, leading to a decrease in the binding energy per nucleon.

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• 10.

### An alpha particle will be attracted to a

• A.

Proton.

• B.

Gamma ray.

• C.

Positive charge.

• D.

Negative charge.

D. Negative charge.
Explanation
An alpha particle, which consists of two protons and two neutrons, has a positive charge. According to the principle of electrostatics, opposite charges attract each other. Therefore, an alpha particle, being positively charged, will be attracted to a negative charge.

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• 11.

### When a gamma ray is emitted from an unstable nucleus,

• A.

The number of neutrons drops by one and the number of protons increases by one.

• B.

There is no change in either the number of neutrons or the number of protons.

• C.

The number of neutrons and the number of protons drop by two.

• D.

B. There is no change in either the number of neutrons or the number of protons.
Explanation
When a gamma ray is emitted from an unstable nucleus, it does not change the number of neutrons or protons in the nucleus. Gamma rays are high-energy photons and do not carry any charge or mass, so they do not affect the composition of the nucleus. Therefore, the number of neutrons and protons remains the same before and after the emission of a gamma ray.

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• 12.

### The atomic number and mass number for calcium 39 are 20 and 39, respectively.  How many protons are in one atom?

• A.

20

• B.

39

• C.

1

• D.

19

A. 20
Explanation
The atomic number of an element represents the number of protons in the nucleus of one atom of that element. In this case, the atomic number of calcium 39 is given as 20. Therefore, there are 20 protons in one atom of calcium 39.

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• 13.

### If 4.0 × 1018 atoms decay with a half-life of 2.3 years, how many are remaining after 3.7 years?

• A.

1.1 ×1018

• B.

1.3 × 1018

• C.

2.5 × 1018

• D.

1.7 × 1018

B. 1.3 × 1018
Explanation
The half-life of a substance is the time it takes for half of the substance to decay. In this case, if 4.0 × 10^18 atoms decay with a half-life of 2.3 years, after 2.3 years, half of the atoms will remain, which is 2.0 × 10^18 atoms. After another 2.3 years (a total of 4.6 years), half of the remaining atoms will decay again, leaving 1.0 × 10^18 atoms. Since 3.7 years is closer to 4.6 years than 2.3 years, it can be inferred that more than half of the remaining atoms will decay, but less than half of the original atoms will remain. Therefore, the answer is 1.3 × 10^18 atoms.

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• 14.

### In a nuclear reaction, what value is conserved in addition to electric charge, energy, and momentum?

• A.

Atomic number

• B.

Nucleon number

• C.

Neutron number

• D.

B. Nucleon number
Explanation
In addition to electric charge, energy, and momentum, the nucleon number is conserved in a nuclear reaction. The nucleon number refers to the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. During a nuclear reaction, the total number of nucleons remains constant, meaning that the total number of protons and neutrons before and after the reaction is the same. This conservation law helps to explain the stability and balance of nuclear reactions.

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• 15.

### A nuclear reaction is said to be exothermic if the total kinetic energy is

• A.

Zero after the reaction.

• B.

Equal both before and after the reaction

• C.

Less after the reaction than before.

• D.

. greater after the reaction than before.

D. . greater after the reaction than before.
Explanation
An exothermic nuclear reaction is one in which the total kinetic energy is greater after the reaction than before. This means that the reaction releases energy in the form of kinetic energy. This is typically seen in nuclear reactions where the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller fragments, releasing energy in the process. The increase in kinetic energy after the reaction is a result of the released energy.

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• 16.

### The fuel for nuclear fission is

• A.

He.

• B.

U.

• C.

H.

• D.

B. U.
Explanation
The correct answer is U, which stands for Uranium. Uranium is commonly used as fuel for nuclear fission reactions in nuclear power plants. It is a radioactive material that undergoes a chain reaction when bombarded with neutrons, releasing a large amount of energy. Other radioactive materials can also be used as fuel for nuclear fission, but Uranium is the most commonly used due to its abundance and favorable nuclear properties.

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• 17.

### What is the meaning of the term "critical mass"?

• A.

This refers to the minimum amount of fissionable material required to sustain a chain reaction.

• B.

This refers to the mass of the "critical" elements in a reactor, i.e., the uranium or plutonium.

• C.

This is the material which is just on the verge of becoming radioactive.

• D.

This is the amount of mass needed to make a power reactor economically feasible.

A. This refers to the minimum amount of fissionable material required to sustain a chain reaction.
Explanation
The term "critical mass" refers to the minimum amount of fissionable material required to sustain a chain reaction. In nuclear physics, a chain reaction occurs when the fission of one atomic nucleus releases neutrons that can then cause the fission of other atomic nuclei. In order for this chain reaction to be self-sustaining, there must be enough fissionable material present to produce a sufficient number of neutrons to continue the reaction. The critical mass is the threshold at which this self-sustaining chain reaction can occur.

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• 18.

### What is necessary to stop beta particles?

• A.

Metal foil

• B.

Air alone

• C.

Paper

• D.

Thick metal

A. Metal foil
Explanation
Metal foil is necessary to stop beta particles. Beta particles are high-energy electrons or positrons, and they can penetrate through materials to varying degrees depending on their energy. However, metal foil, such as aluminum or lead, is dense and has a high atomic number, which makes it effective at absorbing and stopping beta particles. The metal foil acts as a barrier, slowing down and absorbing the beta particles, preventing them from passing through.

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• 19.

### The fission reaction 235U + 1n → 141Ba + 92Kr + neutrons, the number of neutrons produced is

• A.

1

• B.

Zero

• C.

3

• D.

2

C. 3
Explanation
In a fission reaction, the nucleus of a uranium-235 atom is bombarded with a neutron, causing it to split into two smaller nuclei (barium-141 and krypton-92) and releasing a few neutrons. These released neutrons can then go on to collide with other uranium-235 atoms, causing a chain reaction. Since the question states that the fission reaction produces neutrons, the correct answer is 3.

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• 20.

### What is the energy released (positive) or absorbed (negative) in the following reaction?  3H (3.016049)  +   3H  (3.016049)    =   4He (4.002603)   +    2(1n) (1.008665)

• A.

0.0122 MeV

• B.

-11.3 MeV

• C.

-0.0122 MeV

• D.

11.3 MeV

D. 11.3 MeV
Explanation
The reaction given is a nuclear fusion reaction where two hydrogen atoms combine to form helium and release energy. The energy released or absorbed in a nuclear reaction can be determined by calculating the difference in mass before and after the reaction using Einstein's mass-energy equivalence equation (E=mc^2). In this case, the mass of the reactants (3H) is greater than the mass of the products (4He and 2(1n)), indicating that mass has been converted into energy. The energy released is 11.3 MeV.

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• Current Version
• Mar 15, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Oct 14, 2010
Quiz Created by
Jsires11

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