# Electron Quiz Chapter 8

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This is a quiz that queries various random questions that are designed to test your knowledge on electrons. It might not be as easy as you think but just try it out to see how you will do. All the best as you take up the challenge.

• 1.

### Protons are so much more massive than electrons that you can neglect the mass of electrons when determining the mass of an atom.

• A.

Tru

• B.

False

A. Tru
Explanation
The statement is true because protons have a much larger mass compared to electrons. The mass of an electron is approximately 1/1836 times the mass of a proton. Therefore, when determining the mass of an atom, the mass of electrons can be neglected as it is significantly smaller compared to the mass of protons.

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• 2.

### Photons of which of the following colors of light possess the greatest amount of energy?

• A.

Blue

• B.

Green

• C.

Red

• D.

Yellow

A. Blue
Explanation
Blue photons possess the greatest amount of energy among the given colors of light. This is because the energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency, and blue light has a higher frequency compared to green, red, and yellow light. Higher frequency means shorter wavelength, and shorter wavelengths correspond to higher energy photons. Therefore, blue light has the highest energy photons.

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• 3.

### An electron moves from one orbital to another only when it absorbs or emits energy.

• A.

True

• B.

False

• C.

Option 3

• D.

Option 4

A. True
Explanation
Electrons can move from one orbital to another only when they gain or lose energy. This is because electrons are confined to specific energy levels or orbitals within an atom. When an electron absorbs energy, it can move to a higher energy level or orbital, and when it emits energy, it moves to a lower energy level or orbital. Therefore, the statement that an electron moves from one orbital to another only when it absorbs or emits energy is true.

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• 4.

### The quantum mechanical model of the atom differs from the Bohr model in that it

• A.

Considers the electron as a wave

• B.

States that electrons can only exist at specific distances from the nucleus

• C.

Considers the electron as a particle

• D.

Predicts the specific location of the electron in an atom

A. Considers the electron as a wave
Explanation
The quantum mechanical model of the atom considers the electron as a wave. This means that the electron does not have a specific location or trajectory, but rather exists in a probability cloud around the nucleus. Unlike the Bohr model, which states that electrons can only exist at specific distances from the nucleus, the quantum mechanical model allows for the possibility of the electron being found in different regions of the atom at any given time. This wave-like behavior is a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics and is supported by experimental evidence.

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• 5.

### Neutral atoms of a given element have the same

• A.

number of protons

• B.

atomic number

• C.

Number of electrons

• D.

all of the above

D. all of the above
Explanation
Neutral atoms of a given element have the same number of protons, atomic number, and number of electrons. This is because in a neutral atom, the number of protons (which determines the atomic number) is equal to the number of electrons. The protons are positively charged, while the electrons are negatively charged, and in a neutral atom, these charges balance each other out. Therefore, all of the given options are correct when it comes to neutral atoms of a given element.

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• 6.

### Alpha particles were fired at a gold foil and found to be widely deflected. What can we conclude from that?

• A.

The positive charge in an atom is concentrated in a tiny, but dense nucleus

• B.

Atoms are solid, with spaces between them

• C.

Gold is an element, not a compound as previously believed

• D.

Atoms are electrically neutral

A. The positive charge in an atom is concentrated in a tiny, but dense nucleus
Explanation
The observation that alpha particles were widely deflected when fired at a gold foil suggests that the positive charge in an atom is concentrated in a tiny, but dense nucleus. This is because the deflection of the alpha particles indicates that they encountered a concentrated positive charge, which can only be explained by the presence of a small, dense nucleus within the atom. This supports the understanding of atomic structure, with the nucleus containing most of the mass and positive charge of an atom, while the electrons occupy the space surrounding the nucleus.

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• 7.

### Protons and neutrons have about the same mass.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
Protons and neutrons have about the same mass because both particles are found in the nucleus of an atom. Protons have a positive charge, while neutrons have no charge. However, their masses are similar, with protons having a slightly smaller mass than neutrons. This similarity in mass allows them to contribute equally to the overall mass of an atom.

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• 8.

• A.

Option 1

• B.

Option 2

• C.

Option 3

• D.

Option 4

A. Option 1
• 9.

### Niel Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom

• A.

Was controversial bc it refuted accepted principles of physics

• B.

Held that electrons existed in allowed orbits and nowhere else

• C.

Accounted for the observed spectrum in hydrogen

• D.

All of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
Niel Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom was controversial because it refuted accepted principles of physics. It proposed that electrons existed only in allowed orbits and nowhere else, which contradicted the prevailing understanding of electron behavior. Additionally, Bohr's model successfully accounted for the observed spectrum in hydrogen, providing further evidence for its validity. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above."

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• 10.

### Thomson was convinced that he had discovered a subatomic particle, the electron, from the evidence that

• A.

A. the charge-to-mass ratio was the same for all materials.

• B.

B. cathode rays could move through a vacuum.

• C.

C. electrons were attracted toward a negatively charged plate.

• D.

D. the charge was always 1.60 Ã— 10â€“19 coulomb.

A. A. the charge-to-mass ratio was the same for all materials.
Explanation
Thomson's conviction that he had discovered the electron was based on the evidence that the charge-to-mass ratio was the same for all materials. This means that regardless of the type of material, the ratio of the charge (electricity) to the mass (weight) of the particles involved remained constant. This suggested that the electron was a fundamental particle that existed independently of the material it was found in. This evidence supported Thomson's belief that he had discovered a subatomic particle, the electron.

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• 11.

### The main problem with a solar system model of the atom is that

• A.

A. electrons move in circular, not elliptical orbits.

• B.

B. the electrons should lose energy since they are accelerating

• C.

C. opposite charges should attract one another.

• D.

D. the mass ratio of the nucleus to the electrons is wrong.

B. B. the electrons should lose energy since they are accelerating
Explanation
The main problem with a solar system model of the atom is that the electrons should lose energy since they are accelerating. In the solar system model, the electrons orbit around the nucleus in circular paths, similar to planets orbiting the sun. However, according to classical electromagnetic theory, accelerating charged particles emit radiation and lose energy. This means that the electrons in the atom would continuously lose energy and spiral into the nucleus, causing the atom to collapse. This contradicts experimental observations and the stability of atoms, which is why the solar system model is not accurate.

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• 12.

### The existence of a tiny, massive, and positively charged nucleus was deduced from the observation that

• A.

A. fast, massive, and positively charged radioactive particles all move straight through metal foil.

• B.

B. radioactive particles were deflected by a magnetic field.

• C.

C. some radioactive particles were deflected by metal foil.

• D.

D. None of the above is correct.

C. C. some radioactive particles were deflected by metal foil.
Explanation
The observation that some radioactive particles were deflected by metal foil suggests the presence of a tiny, massive, and positively charged nucleus. This is because the deflection of the particles indicates that they encountered a concentrated positive charge, which can only be explained by the presence of a nucleus. The other options - a, b, and d - do not provide evidence for the existence of a nucleus.

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• 13.

### Rutherford’s estimate of the radius of an atomic nucleus was based on

• A.

A. the drift of oil droplets in an electric field.

• B.

B. speculation about expected symmetry in gold foil.

• C.

C. measurements of radioactive particle deflections from gold foil.

• D.

D. measurements of the breakup of a nitrogen atom by collisions with radioactive particles.

C. C. measurements of radioactive particle deflections from gold foil.
Explanation
Rutherford's estimate of the radius of an atomic nucleus was based on measurements of radioactive particle deflections from gold foil. This is because Rutherford conducted the famous gold foil experiment where he bombarded a thin sheet of gold foil with alpha particles. He observed that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil, but a small fraction were deflected at large angles. This led him to conclude that the positive charge of an atom is concentrated in a tiny, dense nucleus at the center of the atom. By measuring the deflection angles, Rutherford was able to estimate the size of the nucleus.

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• 14.

### Atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons are called

• A.

A. allotropes.

• B.

B. isomers.

• C.

C. isotopes.

• D.

C. C. isotopes.
Explanation
Atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. Isotopes have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, leading to variations in atomic mass. These variations in atomic mass do not affect the chemical properties of the element but can impact its stability and radioactivity. Isotopes are commonly used in various scientific fields, such as medicine, archaeology, and environmental studies, for their unique properties and applications.

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• 15.

### Atomic weight is

• A.

A. determined by weighing individual atoms.

• B.

B. an average weight of the isotopes of an element.

• C.

C. the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.

• D.

D. a weighted average of the masses of isotopes of an element based on abundance.

D. D. a weighted average of the masses of isotopes of an element based on abundance.
Explanation
The atomic weight of an element is a weighted average of the masses of its isotopes based on their abundance. This means that the atomic weight takes into account the different masses of the isotopes and how common each isotope is in nature. It is not determined by weighing individual atoms, counting the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus, or simply averaging the weights of the isotopes. Instead, it is a more complex calculation that considers both the mass and abundance of each isotope.

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• 16.

### In 1910, Max Planck introduced the idea that matter emits and absorbs energy in

• A.

Light waves.

• B.

B. discrete units called quanta.

• C.

C. pulses with no particular pattern.

• D.

d. pulses that vary in magnitude over time.

B. B. discrete units called quanta.
Explanation
Max Planck's introduction of the idea that matter emits and absorbs energy in discrete units called quanta revolutionized the field of physics. This concept challenged the prevailing belief that energy was emitted and absorbed continuously in a wave-like manner. Planck's proposal laid the foundation for the development of quantum theory and contributed to our understanding of the behavior of light and matter at the atomic and subatomic levels. It also explained phenomena such as blackbody radiation and the photoelectric effect, leading to further advancements in quantum mechanics. Therefore, the correct answer is b. discrete units called quanta.

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• 17.

### The major success of the Bohr theory was in explaining

• A.

A. how electrons move in circular orbits.

• B.

• C.

C. the colors in the hydrogen line spectrum.

• D.

D. why the angular momentum of the electron should be by orbit quantum numbers.

C. C. the colors in the hydrogen line spectrum.
Explanation
The Bohr theory was successful in explaining the colors in the hydrogen line spectrum. This theory proposed that electrons in atoms can only exist in certain energy levels or orbits, and when they transition from a higher energy level to a lower one, they emit or absorb energy in the form of light. The specific colors observed in the hydrogen line spectrum correspond to these energy transitions, and the Bohr theory provided a mathematical explanation for the wavelengths of these colors.

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• 18.

### Light from an incandescent gas is dispersed into narrow lines of colors with no light between the lines. This is called a (an)

• A.

Line spectrum

• B.

Option 2

• C.

Option 3

• D.

Option 4

A. Line spectrum
Explanation
When light from an incandescent gas is dispersed, it forms a line spectrum. This means that the light is separated into narrow lines of colors, with no light between the lines. Each line in the spectrum corresponds to a specific wavelength or frequency of light that is emitted by the gas. The line spectrum is unique to each element or gas, allowing scientists to identify the presence of specific elements by analyzing the pattern of lines in their spectrum.

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• 19.

### The basis of the quantum mechanics theory of the atom is

• A.

A. spin and quantum leaps of electron masses.

• B.

B. elliptical orbits of electrons.

• C.

C. how electron particles move in orbits.

• D.

D. the wave nature of electrons.

D. D. the wave nature of electrons.
Explanation
The correct answer is d. the wave nature of electrons. Quantum mechanics is a theory that describes the behavior of particles at the atomic and subatomic level. It suggests that particles, including electrons, can exhibit both wave-like and particle-like properties. In the case of electrons, they can be described as waves of probability, with their position and momentum being uncertain until measured. This wave nature of electrons is fundamental to understanding their behavior within atoms and is a key concept in quantum mechanics.

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• 20.

### The existence of matter waves was proposed by

• A.

De Broglie.

• B.

Option 2

• C.

Option 3

• D.

Option 4

A. De Broglie.
Explanation
The correct answer is de Broglie. In 1924, Louis de Broglie proposed the concept of matter waves, suggesting that particles, such as electrons, could also exhibit wave-like properties. This theory was based on the idea that if light can behave as both a particle and a wave, then particles should also have wave-like characteristics. De Broglie's proposal was later confirmed through experiments, leading to the development of the field of quantum mechanics.

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• 21.

### Any moving particle has a wavelength that is associated with its mass and velocity. This is a statement that proposed the existence of

• A.

A. photoelectric effect.

• B.

B. matter waves.

• C.

C. quanta.

• D.

D. photons.

B. B. matter waves.
Explanation
The statement suggests that any moving particle, regardless of its mass and velocity, has a wavelength associated with it. This concept is known as matter waves, which was proposed by Louis de Broglie in his wave-particle duality theory. According to this theory, particles such as electrons and protons can exhibit wave-like behavior, similar to how light can behave both as a particle and a wave. Therefore, the correct answer is b. matter waves.

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• 22.

### The arrangement of electrons in orbitals is called

• A.

A. electron configuration.

• B.

Option 2

• C.

Option 3

• D.

Option 4

A. A. electron configuration.
Explanation
The arrangement of electrons in orbitals is referred to as electron configuration. This term describes how electrons are distributed among the various energy levels and sublevels within an atom. It provides information about the organization of electrons in an atom and is represented using a series of numbers, letters, and superscripts. The electron configuration is crucial in understanding an atom's chemical properties and behavior.

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• 23.

### Group IIA elements are called

• A.

A. alkali metals.

• B.

B. alkaline earth metals.

• C.

C. alkaline salts.

• D.

D. beryllium metals.

B. B. alkaline earth metals.
Explanation
Group IIA elements are called alkaline earth metals because they have two valence electrons in their outermost energy level. These elements are typically shiny, silvery-white, and relatively soft metals. They are also highly reactive and easily form compounds with other elements. Examples of alkaline earth metals include beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium.

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• 24.

### The elements in A groups are called

• A.

A. alkali elements.

• B.

b. transition elements.

• C.

C. representative elements.

• D.

D. metals.

C. C. representative elements.
Explanation
The elements in A groups are called representative elements because they represent the most common and typical elements in the periodic table. These elements include the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the p-block elements. They are called representative elements because they exhibit a wide range of chemical and physical properties, making them representative of the diversity of elements in the periodic table.

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• 25.

### 25. The element chlorine belongs to which group?

• A.

A. Alkali metals

• B.

B. Lanthanides

• C.

C. Halogens

• D.

D. Noble gases

C. C. Halogens
Explanation
Chlorine belongs to the group of elements known as halogens. The halogens are a group of highly reactive nonmetals that are located in Group 17 of the periodic table. They include elements such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. Chlorine is a halogen because it has similar chemical properties to the other elements in this group, such as its ability to form salts and its high reactivity.

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• 26.

### The gain or loss of electrons from an atom results in the formation of a (an)

• A.

A. ion.

• B.

B. metal.

• C.

c. semiconductor.d. isotope.

• D.

Option 4

A. A. ion.
Explanation
When an atom gains or loses electrons, it becomes charged and forms an ion. This process is known as ionization. Therefore, the correct answer is a. ion.

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• 27.

### 27. Elements that have properties of both the metals and the nonmetals are

• A.

A. semimetals.

• B.

B. transition elements.

• C.

C. semiconductors.

• D.

D. noble gases.

C. C. semiconductors.
Explanation
Semiconductors are elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals. They have a lower electrical conductivity than metals but a higher conductivity than nonmetals. This makes them useful in electronic devices as they can conduct electricity under certain conditions. Semiconductors are commonly used in computer chips, solar cells, and transistors. Transition elements are a group of metals that have partially filled d orbitals, noble gases are a group of nonreactive gases, and semimetals are elements that have properties between metals and nonmetals.

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• 28.

### Transition elements

• A.

A. are metals.

• B.

B. belong to the B group.

• C.

C. have variable charges.

• D.

D. All of the above are correct.

D. D. All of the above are correct.
Explanation
The correct answer is d. All of the above are correct. Transition elements are metals, they belong to the B group in the periodic table, and they have variable charges.

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• 29.

### 29. The energy of a photon

• A.

A. varies inversely with the frequency.

• B.

b. is directly proportional to the frequency.

• C.

C. varies directly with the velocity.

• D.

D. is inversely proportional to the velocity

B. b. is directly proportional to the frequency.
Explanation
The energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency. This means that as the frequency of a photon increases, its energy also increases. This relationship is described by the equation E = hf, where E is the energy of the photon, h is Planck's constant, and f is the frequency of the photon. Therefore, option b is the correct answer.

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• 30.

### 31. The lines of color in a line spectrum from a given element

• A.

Option 1

• B.

B. are always the same, with a regular spacing pattern.

• C.

Option 3

• D.

Option 4

B. B. are always the same, with a regular spacing pattern.
Explanation
The correct answer is b. The lines of color in a line spectrum from a given element are always the same, with a regular spacing pattern. This means that each element has a unique set of spectral lines that are characteristic of that element. These lines are produced when electrons in the atom transition between different energy levels. The specific energy differences between these levels determine the wavelengths of light that are emitted, resulting in the distinct lines of color in the spectrum. The regular spacing pattern of these lines is a result of the quantized nature of energy levels in atoms.

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• 31.

### According to the Bohr model, an electron gains or loses energy only by

• A.

A. moving faster or slower in an allowed orbit.

• B.

B. jumping from one allowed orbit to another.

• C.

C. being completely removed from an atom.

• D.

D. jumping from one atom to another atom.

B. B. jumping from one allowed orbit to another.
Explanation
According to the Bohr model, an electron gains or loses energy by jumping from one allowed orbit to another. In this model, electrons are arranged in specific energy levels or orbits around the nucleus. When an electron absorbs energy, it moves to a higher energy level or orbit. Conversely, when an electron releases energy, it moves to a lower energy level or orbit. This concept of energy transfer through electron jumps is a fundamental principle of the Bohr model.

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• 32.

### 35. The Bohr model of the atom

• A.

A. explained the color lines in the hydrogen spectrum.

• B.

B. could not explain the line spectrum of atoms larger than hydrogen.

• C.

• D.

D. All of the above are correct

D. D. All of the above are correct
Explanation
The Bohr model of the atom is a model that explains the behavior of electrons in an atom. It was able to explain the color lines in the hydrogen spectrum, which are the specific wavelengths of light emitted when electrons transition between energy levels in a hydrogen atom. However, the Bohr model could not explain the line spectrum of atoms larger than hydrogen, as it was based on simplified assumptions that did not hold true for more complex atoms. Additionally, the model had some rules that were not explained or derived from a deeper understanding of atomic structure. Therefore, all of the statements a, b, and c are correct.

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• 33.

### 42. If you want to know the number of neutrons in an atom of a given element, you

• A.

A. round the atomic weight to the nearest whole number.

• B.

B. add the mass number and the atomic number.

• C.

C. subtract the atomic number from the mass number.

• D.

C. C. subtract the atomic number from the mass number.
Explanation
To determine the number of neutrons in an atom of a given element, you need to subtract the atomic number from the mass number. The atomic number represents the number of protons in the nucleus, while the mass number represents the total number of protons and neutrons. By subtracting the atomic number from the mass number, you can isolate the number of neutrons in the atom.

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• 34.

### 44. The quantum mechanics and Bohr models of the atom both agree on

• A.

A. the significance of the de Broglie wavelength and the circumference of an orbit.

• B.

B. the importance of momentum in determining the size of an orbit.

• C.

C. how electrons are able to emit light.

• D.

D. None of the above is correct.

C. C. how electrons are able to emit light.
Explanation
The quantum mechanics and Bohr models of the atom both explain how electrons are able to emit light. This is because in both models, electrons can transition between energy levels and emit photons of light in the process. The quantum mechanics model describes this emission as a result of changes in electron energy levels, while the Bohr model explains it in terms of electrons moving between different orbits. Both models provide a framework for understanding the phenomenon of light emission by electrons in atoms.

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• 35.

### Which one do you like?

• A.

Option 1

• B.

Option 2

• C.

Option 3

• D.

Option 4

A. Option 1
Explanation
The given question asks for a personal preference among the given options. The correct answer is "Option 1" because it implies that the person likes the first option out of all the options given.

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• Mar 21, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Apr 07, 2014
Quiz Created by
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