# Earth Science: Astronomy Unit Post-assessment! Quiz

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If you are a big fan of the stars, comets and other celestial objects, then astronomy should be your go-to subject in school. Are you preparing for the Earth science regents? If so take up this astronomy unit post-assessment quiz to be sure if you are ready for the exams or needs to set aside some more study time.

• 1.

### The apparent rising and setting of the sun, as viewed from Earth, is caused by (Standard 1.1d):

• A.

The Sun’s rotation

• B.

The Sun’s revolution

• C.

Earth’s rotation

• D.

Earth’s revolution

• E.

The moon’s revolution and rotation

C. Earth’s rotation
Explanation
The correct answer is Earth's rotation. The apparent rising and setting of the sun is caused by the rotation of the Earth on its axis. As the Earth rotates, different parts of the planet are exposed to the sun's light, creating the illusion of the sun rising in the east and setting in the west. This rotation also causes the cycle of day and night. The other options, such as the Sun's rotation and revolution, and the moon's revolution and rotation, do not directly affect the apparent rising and setting of the sun as viewed from Earth.

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• 2.

### Base your answer to this question on the diagram below, which shows the tilt of the Earth on its axis in relation to the sun on one particular day.  Points A through E are locations on Earth’s surface.  Point D is located in New York State.  The dashed line represents Earth’s axis. Why is New York experiencing winter on this day (Standard 1.1f)?

• A.

The Earth is at the farthest point from the sun in its orbit.

• B.

The Earth is at the closest point to the sun in its orbit.

• C.

The Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun.

• D.

The Southern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun.

• E.

New York is not experiencing winter.

D. The Southern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun.
Explanation
Based on the diagram, it can be observed that the Southern Hemisphere is tilted towards the sun. This means that the sun's rays are more direct and concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere, resulting in warmer temperatures. On the other hand, the Northern Hemisphere, including New York, is tilted away from the sun, causing the sun's rays to be spread out and less direct, leading to colder temperatures and the experience of winter.

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• 3.

### In our solar system, the orbits of the planets are best described as (Standard 1.1a):

• A.

A slightly eccentric ellipse with the planet at one of the foci

• B.

A very eccentric ellipse with the planet at one end of the foci

• C.

A slightly eccentric ellipse with the sun at one end of the foci

• D.

A very eccentric ellipse with the sun at one end of the foci circular with the sun at the center

C. A slightly eccentric ellipse with the sun at one end of the foci
Explanation
The correct answer is a slightly eccentric ellipse with the sun at one end of the foci. This is because the planets in our solar system do not follow perfectly circular orbits, but instead have a slight eccentricity to their elliptical paths. The sun is located at one of the foci of the ellipse, meaning that it is not directly in the center but slightly off to one side. This arrangement allows for the planets to have varying distances from the sun at different points in their orbits.

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• 4.

### A cycle of Moon phases can be seen from Earth because the(Standard 1.1b)?

• A.

Moon’s distance from the Earth changes at a predictable rate

• B.

Moon’s axis is tilted

• C.

Moon spins on its axis

• D.

Moon revolves around the Earth

• E.

Moon rotates in a clockwise direction

D. Moon revolves around the Earth
Explanation
The correct answer is that the Moon revolves around the Earth. This is why we can see different phases of the Moon from Earth. As the Moon orbits around the Earth, the angle between the Earth, Moon, and Sun changes, causing different amounts of the Moon's illuminated surface to be visible to us on Earth. This results in the different phases of the Moon that we observe. The other options, such as the Moon's distance from the Earth changing or the Moon spinning on its axis, do not directly explain the cycle of Moon phases that we see.

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• 5.

### When is the force of gravity between two objects in the solar system the greatest (Standard 1.1a)?

• A.

Masses are large and objects are close together.

• B.

Masses are large and objects are far apart.

• C.

Masses are small and objects are close together.

• D.

Masses are small and objects are far apart.

• E.

Size and distance do not affect gravity.

A. Masses are large and objects are close together.
Explanation
When the masses of two objects in the solar system are large and they are close together, the force of gravity between them is the greatest. This is because gravity is directly proportional to the masses of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. So, when the masses are large, the force of gravity is stronger, and when the objects are close together, the force of gravity is also stronger.

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• 6.

### Which statement provides evidence that the Earth revolves around the Sun(Standard 1.1g)?

• A.

The Earth’s axis is tilted 23.5°.

• B.

Winds at different latitudes are curved different amounts by the Coriolis effect.

• C.

The Sun follows an apparent arc across the sky during the day.

• D.

The stars appear to circle the Earth during the night.

• E.

Different star constellations are visible from Earth at different seasons of the year.

E. Different star constellations are visible from Earth at different seasons of the year.
Explanation
The statement "Different star constellations are visible from Earth at different seasons of the year" provides evidence that the Earth revolves around the Sun. This is because as the Earth orbits the Sun, our perspective changes, causing different star constellations to be visible at different times of the year. This phenomenon is known as stellar parallax and is a result of the Earth's motion around the Sun.

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• 7.

### The diagram below illustrates three stages of a current theory of the formation of the universe.  A major piece of scientific evidence supporting this theory is the fact that wavelengths of light from galaxies moving away from Earth are observed to be (Standard 1.2a):

• A.

Normal by exhibiting no shift at all

• B.

Longer than normal by exhibiting a red-shift

• C.

Longer than normal by exhibiting a blue-shift

• D.

Shorter than normal by exhibiting a red-shift

• E.

Shorter than normal by exhibiting a blue-shift

B. Longer than normal by exhibiting a red-shift
Explanation
The fact that wavelengths of light from galaxies moving away from Earth are observed to be longer than normal by exhibiting a red-shift supports the theory of the formation of the universe because it is consistent with the concept of the expanding universe. According to this theory, galaxies are moving away from each other as the universe expands, causing the wavelengths of light from these galaxies to stretch and appear longer, resulting in a red-shift. This observation provides evidence that the universe is indeed expanding, supporting the current theory of its formation.

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• 8.

### What characteristic(s) are used to classify stars (Standard 1.1a)?

• A.

Temperature

• B.

Luminosity

• C.

Size

• D.

Temperature and size

• E.

Temperature, size and luminosity

E. Temperature, size and luminosity
Explanation
Stars are classified based on their temperature, size, and luminosity. Temperature determines the color of a star, with hotter stars appearing bluer and cooler stars appearing redder. Size refers to the physical dimensions of a star, such as its radius or diameter. Luminosity is a measure of the total amount of energy a star emits per unit time and is related to its brightness. By considering these three characteristics, scientists can categorize stars into different types and understand their properties and evolutionary stages.

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• 9.

### Which statement best describes the structure and location of the Sun (Standard 1.1b)?

• A.

The Sun converts mass into energy by nuclear fusion and is located in the Milky Way galaxy.

• B.

The Sun converts mass into energy by heat transfer and is located in the Milky Way galaxy.

• C.

The Sun converts mass into energy by radioactive decay and is located in the Milky Way galaxy.

• D.

The Sun converts mass into energy by nuclear fusion and is located in the Andromeda galaxy.

• E.

The Sun converts mass into energy by radioactive decay and is located in the Andromeda galaxy.

A. The Sun converts mass into energy by nuclear fusion and is located in the Milky Way galaxy.
Explanation
The correct answer states that the Sun converts mass into energy by nuclear fusion and is located in the Milky Way galaxy. This is an accurate description of the structure and location of the Sun. Nuclear fusion is the process by which the Sun produces energy, and it is indeed located in the Milky Way galaxy, which is the galaxy that contains our solar system.

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• 10.

### Which statement best explains when and how the solar system formed (Standard 1.2c)?

• A.

The solar system formed about 13 billion years ago from a giant cloud of gas and debris.

• B.

The solar system formed about five billion years ago from a giant cloud of gas and debris.

• C.

The solar system formed about 13 billion years ago from cosmic radiation.

• D.

The solar system formed about five billion years ago from cosmic radiation.

• E.

The solar system formed about 13 billion years ago from gravity.

B. The solar system formed about five billion years ago from a giant cloud of gas and debris.
Explanation
The correct answer is the statement that the solar system formed about five billion years ago from a giant cloud of gas and debris. This explanation is based on scientific evidence and theories, such as the nebular hypothesis, which suggests that the solar system formed from a rotating disk of gas and dust. Over time, gravity caused the material in the disk to come together and form the Sun at the center, while the remaining gas and dust formed the planets and other celestial bodies. The estimated age of the solar system is based on radiometric dating of rocks from Earth and meteorites.

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• 11.

1
2
3
4
• 12.

### Rate, on a scale of 1 – 4, 1 being the lowest and 4 being the highest, how interested are you now in astronomy.

1
2
3
4
Explanation
The question asks the respondent to rate their interest in astronomy on a scale of 1 to 4, with 1 being the lowest and 4 being the highest. The answer options provided are 1, 2, 3, and 4, which cover the entire range of the scale. Therefore, the respondent can choose any of the options based on their level of interest in astronomy.

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