AQA GCSE Biology Module 1

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AQA GCSE Biology Module 1 - Quiz

A general revision test for the first 4 topics of the B1 course


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is not a good adaptation for a plant in arid conditions?

    • A.

      Waxy leaves

    • B.

      Large surface area

    • C.

      Small surface area

    • D.

      Long roots

    Correct Answer
    B. Large surface area
    Explanation
    A large surface area is not a good adaptation for a plant in arid conditions because it would result in more water loss through evaporation. In arid conditions, water is scarce and plants need to conserve as much water as possible. Having a large surface area would increase the plant's exposure to the dry air, leading to higher rates of water loss. Therefore, a plant with a smaller surface area would be better adapted to arid conditions as it would minimize water loss and conserve moisture.

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  • 2. 

    Metabolic rate is the speed at which chemical reactions take place in the

    • A.

      Skin

    • B.

      Organs

    • C.

      Stomach

    • D.

      Cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Cells
    Explanation
    Metabolic rate refers to the rate at which chemical reactions occur in an organism. These reactions are essential for various cellular processes such as energy production, growth, and maintenance. Therefore, it is logical to conclude that metabolic rate is determined by the speed of chemical reactions taking place in cells. The skin, organs, and stomach are all made up of cells, but they are not directly responsible for the chemical reactions themselves. Therefore, cells are the correct answer for this question.

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  • 3. 

    Where do viruses live?

    • A.

      In cells

    • B.

      On cells

    • C.

      In organs

    • D.

      On their own

    Correct Answer
    A. In cells
    Explanation
    Viruses are microscopic infectious agents that can only replicate inside the living cells of an organism. They cannot survive or reproduce independently and require a host cell to carry out their life cycle. Once inside a host cell, viruses hijack the cellular machinery to produce more virus particles. This process often damages or destroys the host cell in the process. Therefore, the correct answer is "in cells."

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  • 4. 

    Who pioneered in the field of vaccinations?

    • A.

      Semmelweis

    • B.

      Einstein

    • C.

      Jenner

    • D.

      Pasteur

    Correct Answer
    C. Jenner
    Explanation
    Jenner is credited with pioneering the field of vaccinations. He is known for developing the smallpox vaccine, which was the first successful vaccine to be created. Jenner's work laid the foundation for modern immunization practices and revolutionized the field of medicine. His discovery and subsequent vaccination efforts have saved countless lives and continue to be a crucial aspect of public health initiatives worldwide.

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  • 5. 

    What is meant by the term pathogen?

    • A.

      A disease

    • B.

      A disease causing organism

    • C.

      A type of disease

    • D.

      A virus

    Correct Answer
    B. A disease causing organism
    Explanation
    The term pathogen refers to a disease causing organism. Pathogens can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other microorganisms that can invade the body and cause diseases. These organisms have the ability to infect and multiply within the host, leading to various illnesses and health conditions. Understanding pathogens is crucial in the field of medicine and public health as it helps in identifying and combating diseases effectively.

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  • 6. 

    What is the main reason for not over using antibiotics?

    • A.

      They are expensive

    • B.

      It kills the friendly bacteria in our gut so we must eat more yoghurt

    • C.

      Dangerous strains of resistance bacteria may develop

    • D.

      It causes damage to the oesophagus

    Correct Answer
    C. Dangerous strains of resistance bacteria may develop
    Explanation
    Overusing antibiotics can lead to the development of dangerous strains of resistant bacteria. When antibiotics are used excessively, bacteria can adapt and become resistant to the drugs, making them ineffective in treating infections. This can lead to the spread of infections that are difficult to treat and control, posing a serious threat to public health. Therefore, it is important to use antibiotics judiciously and only when necessary to minimize the risk of resistance development.

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  • 7. 

    What is the most likely outcome for an individual that is not well suited to its environment?

    • A.

      It will not survive

    • B.

      It will survive well

    • C.

      It will become extinct

    • D.

      It will put on weight

    Correct Answer
    A. It will not survive
    Explanation
    An individual that is not well suited to its environment is likely to face difficulties in finding food, shelter, or adapting to the conditions of the environment. These challenges can make it difficult for the individual to survive and thrive. Without the necessary adaptations or skills to survive in its environment, the individual is likely to perish.

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  • 8. 

    What is an effect of carbon monoxide in cigarrette smoke?

    • A.

      It adds to the green house effect

    • B.

      It reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood

    • C.

      It causes lung cancer

    • D.

      It destroys the ozone layer

    Correct Answer
    B. It reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood
    Explanation
    Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, forming carboxyhemoglobin. This reduces the amount of oxygen that can be carried by the blood, leading to a decrease in oxygen supply to the body's tissues and organs. This can result in various health issues, including shortness of breath, fatigue, and an increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

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  • 9. 

    Which disease was incorrectly linked to the MMR vaccine?

    • A.

      Lung cancer

    • B.

      HIV

    • C.

      Autism

    • D.

      Gout

    Correct Answer
    C. Autism
    Explanation
    The MMR vaccine was incorrectly linked to autism. This misconception stemmed from a now discredited study published in 1998, which claimed a connection between the vaccine and the development of autism. Numerous subsequent studies have since been conducted, which found no evidence to support this claim. The scientific consensus is that there is no link between the MMR vaccine and autism.

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  • 10. 

    In an investigation what name is given to the variable that is measured?

    • A.

      Control

    • B.

      Independent

    • C.

      Dependent

    • D.

      Fair

    Correct Answer
    C. Dependent
    Explanation
    In an investigation, the variable that is measured is referred to as the dependent variable. This variable is the outcome or result that is being observed or measured in response to changes in the independent variable. The independent variable, on the other hand, is the variable that is manipulated or controlled by the researcher in order to observe its effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable is dependent on the independent variable and is thus named as such.

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  • 11. 

    What is the role of antibiotics?

    • A.

      They kill bacteria

    • B.

      They kill viruses

    • C.

      They kill white blood cells

    • D.

      They kill plant cells

    Correct Answer
    A. They kill bacteria
    Explanation
    Antibiotics are medications that are specifically designed to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. They work by targeting the unique structures or processes within bacterial cells, such as their cell walls or protein synthesis machinery. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses, white blood cells, or plant cells, as they are specifically designed to target bacterial cells. Therefore, the correct answer is "They kill bacteria."

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  • 12. 

    What evolutionary concept explains the phenomenon where two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution through natural selection?

    • A.

      Genetic Drift

    • B.

      Coevolution

    • C.

      Gene Flow

    • D.

      Punctuated Equilibrium

    Correct Answer
    B. Coevolution
    Explanation
    Coevolution refers to the process by which two or more species reciprocally influence each other's evolutionary trajectory through natural selection. This phenomenon often occurs in species that are ecologically interdependent, such as predators and their prey, or pollinators and the plants they pollinate. Each species adapts in response to the selective pressures exerted by the other, leading to a cycle of evolutionary changes that can lead to increased specialization and sometimes to new species forming. Examples of coevolution include the relationship between flowering plants and their pollinators, where both parties have evolved traits that optimize their interaction.

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  • 13. 

    The addictive substance in tobacco smoke is

    • A.

      Salt

    • B.

      Sugar

    • C.

      Nicotine

    • D.

      Tar

    Correct Answer
    C. Nicotine
    Explanation
    Nicotine is the addictive substance in tobacco smoke. It stimulates the release of dopamine in the brain, creating feelings of pleasure and reward. This leads to addiction and makes it difficult for smokers to quit. Nicotine is a highly addictive substance and is responsible for the physical and psychological dependence on tobacco products.

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  • 14. 

    A vaccine stimulates white blood cells to produce

    • A.

      Antigens

    • B.

      Antibodies

    • C.

      Antivaccines

    • D.

      Heat

    Correct Answer
    B. Antibodies
    Explanation
    A vaccine stimulates white blood cells to produce antibodies. When a vaccine is introduced into the body, it contains weakened or inactive forms of the pathogen that it is designed to protect against. This prompts the immune system to recognize the pathogen as a foreign invader and triggers the production of antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that specifically target and neutralize the pathogen, helping to prevent infection and provide immunity against future exposures to the same pathogen.

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  • 15. 

    The effect of excess saturated fat in the diet is

    • A.

      To increase cholesterol

    • B.

      It has no effect because it is excreted

    • C.

      It decreses blood pressure

    • D.

      Promote muscle growth

    Correct Answer
    A. To increase cholesterol
    Explanation
    Excess saturated fat in the diet is known to increase cholesterol levels. When consumed in large amounts, saturated fat can raise the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, commonly referred to as "bad" cholesterol. High levels of LDL cholesterol can contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as heart disease and stroke. Therefore, it is important to limit the intake of saturated fat and opt for healthier fats, such as unsaturated fats, to maintain a healthy cholesterol level.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is not a characteristic of viruses

    • A.

      They contain protein

    • B.

      They contain DNA

    • C.

      They respire

    • D.

      They infect living cells

    Correct Answer
    C. They respire
    Explanation
    Viruses do not respire because they lack the necessary cellular machinery to carry out respiration. Unlike living organisms, viruses do not have their own metabolism and cannot generate energy through respiration. Instead, viruses rely on host cells to reproduce and carry out metabolic processes. They contain protein and DNA or RNA, which are essential components for their replication and infection of living cells.

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  • 17. 

    The main problem we face from MRSA is

    • A.

      It is common

    • B.

      It is a bacterium

    • C.

      It affects people who are in Hospital

    • D.

      It is resistant to many types of antibiotic

    Correct Answer
    D. It is resistant to many types of antibiotic
    Explanation
    The main problem we face from MRSA is its resistance to many types of antibiotics. This means that the bacterium is difficult to treat and control, leading to prolonged infections and increased risk of complications. This poses a significant challenge in healthcare settings, especially hospitals, where MRSA can spread easily and cause severe infections in vulnerable individuals. The resistance of MRSA to multiple antibiotics also limits the treatment options available, making it harder to effectively manage and eradicate the infection.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following molecules is responsible for carrying the genetic code from DNA in the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm?

    • A.

      Transfer RNA (tRNA)

    • B.

      Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

    • C.

      Messenger RNA (mRNA)

    • D.

      Micro RNA (miRNA)

    Correct Answer
    C. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    Explanation
    Messenger RNA (mRNA) is responsible for carrying the genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm, where protein synthesis occurs. This process begins with transcription, where a segment of DNA is copied into mRNA, which then exits the nucleus. At the ribosomes, the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA is translated into a specific sequence of amino acids, forming a protein. This central role of mRNA is crucial in the flow of genetic information in cells, following the central dogma of molecular biology.

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  • 19. 

    When graph plotting the variable used for the Y axis is the

    • A.

      Dependent

    • B.

      Independent

    • C.

      Control

    • D.

      Time

    Correct Answer
    A. Dependent
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "dependent." When graph plotting, the dependent variable is the one that is being measured or observed, and its value depends on the independent variable. In other words, the dependent variable is the one that is affected or influenced by the independent variable. In this case, the variable used for the Y axis in the graph plotting is the dependent variable.

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  • 20. 

    What role do drugs called statins play?

    • A.

      Lower cholesterol

    • B.

      Raise cholesterol

    • C.

      A slimming drug

    • D.

      They destroy pathogens

    Correct Answer
    A. Lower cholesterol
    Explanation
    Statins are a type of medication commonly used to lower cholesterol levels in the body. They work by inhibiting an enzyme involved in the production of cholesterol, thus reducing its levels in the bloodstream. By lowering cholesterol, statins help to decrease the risk of heart disease and stroke. Therefore, the correct answer is "lower cholesterol."

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following structures is not part of the body's defences to pathogens

    • A.

      Skin

    • B.

      Tears

    • C.

      Hair

    • D.

      Mucus

    Correct Answer
    C. Hair
    Explanation
    Hair is not considered a part of the body's defenses to pathogens. While it does provide some protection by trapping dust and particles, it is not directly involved in the immune response against pathogens. On the other hand, the skin acts as a physical barrier, tears contain enzymes that can kill bacteria, and mucus helps to trap and remove pathogens from the respiratory system.

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  • 22. 

    Which one of the following is a type of cell that produces antibodies

    • A.

      A cells

    • B.

      B cells

    • C.

      C cells

    • D.

      D cells

    Correct Answer
    B. B cells
    Explanation
    B cells are a type of cell that produces antibodies. B cells are a crucial component of the immune system and are responsible for producing and releasing antibodies in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses. These antibodies help to neutralize and eliminate the foreign invaders, thereby protecting the body from infection and disease. B cells are a key player in the adaptive immune response and play a vital role in maintaining overall immune system function.

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  • 23. 

    Which one of the following is the best description of withdrawal symptoms?

    • A.

      A headache after leaving a disco

    • B.

      Shakes sometime after taking alcohol

    • C.

      Muscle cramp from a lack of salt in the diet

    • D.

      The consequences of an Officer's order in battle

    Correct Answer
    B. Shakes sometime after taking alcohol
    Explanation
    Withdrawal symptoms are physical and psychological symptoms that occur when a person stops or reduces their intake of a substance, such as alcohol. These symptoms can include shaking, sweating, anxiety, and nausea. Therefore, "Shakes sometime after taking alcohol" is the best description of withdrawal symptoms as it accurately reflects the physical reaction that can occur after alcohol consumption is stopped.

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  • 24. 

    Which one of the following is the best explanation about why the number of resistant bacteria is on the increase

    • A.

      It's their mating season

    • B.

      There is an increase in female types of bacteria

    • C.

      Antibiotics are used too frequently

    • D.

      There is an increase in male types of bacteria

    Correct Answer
    C. Antibiotics are used too frequently
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Antibiotics are used too frequently." This is the best explanation because the overuse and misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. When antibiotics are used too often, bacteria have more opportunities to adapt and develop resistance mechanisms, making them less susceptible to the effects of antibiotics. This can result in the increase in the number of resistant bacteria.

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  • 25. 

    What is meant by the term arid?

    • A.

      Wet

    • B.

      Dry

    • C.

      Cold

    • D.

      A type of computer programme

    Correct Answer
    B. Dry
    Explanation
    The term "arid" refers to an environment or climate characterized by a lack of moisture, indicating a dry condition. Arid regions typically receive little rainfall and have low humidity, which results in limited vegetation and sparse water sources. These areas are often associated with deserts and other dry landscapes where the scarcity of water impacts the ecosystem and the types of plants and animals that can survive there.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following best describes the features of addiction?

    • A.

      You crave something

    • B.

      You want something

    • C.

      You desire something

    • D.

      You'd pay for something

    Correct Answer
    A. You crave something
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "You crave something." This describes one of the key features of addiction, which is a strong and intense desire or craving for a particular substance or behavior. Craving is often a driving force behind addictive behaviors and can lead to compulsive and uncontrollable urges to seek out and use the addictive substance or engage in the addictive behavior.

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  • 27. 

    Each type of antibody destroys at least two different types of bacteria. Is this statement

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    • C.

      Meaningless

    • D.

      Sensible

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false. Each type of antibody is specific to a particular antigen, which is a molecule found on the surface of bacteria or other pathogens. Antibodies bind to antigens and help to neutralize or destroy the pathogen. However, each antibody typically targets only one specific type of antigen, not multiple types of bacteria. Therefore, the statement that each type of antibody destroys at least two different types of bacteria is incorrect.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following represents a healthy BMI value?

    • A.

      16

    • B.

      25

    • C.

      34

    • D.

      56

    Correct Answer
    B. 25
    Explanation
    Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person's weight is within a healthy range relative to their height. It is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared (kg/m²). The BMI scale provides a general indication of whether someone is underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese.A healthy BMI value typically ranges from 18.5 to 24.9. Within this range, individuals are generally considered to have a normal or healthy weight relative to their height.A BMI of 16 falls within the underweight category.A BMI of 25 is at the upper end of the healthy range, potentially transitioning into the overweight category (25.0 - 29.9).A BMI of 34 is in the obese category.A BMI of 56 indicates severe obesity.Given these ranges, the value representing a healthy BMI is 25, as it is within the acceptable range for a normal weight and on the borderline between normal and overweight.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following shows the order of decreasing surface area: volume?

    • A.

      Cat, mouse, donkey

    • B.

      Giraffe, chicken, mouse

    • C.

      Hamster, owl, mouse

    • D.

      Dog, horse, elephant

    Correct Answer
    D. Dog, horse, elephant
    Explanation
    The concept of surface area to volume ratio is critical in understanding many biological phenomena, including heat loss and metabolic rate. Smaller animals tend to have a higher surface area relative to their volume, which means they lose heat more rapidly than larger animals, who have a lower surface area to volume ratio. Among the options listed, dogs, horses, and elephants represent a sequence of increasing body size and mass, with dogs being the smallest and elephants the largest. As size increases, the surface area to volume ratio decreases. Thus, the order of decreasing surface area to volume ratio among these groups is:
    Dogs (smallest with highest surface area to volume ratio)
    Horses (medium size)
    Elephants (largest with lowest surface area to volume ratio)
    This pattern holds true in comparing relative sizes and their implications on surface area to volume ratios, crucial for understanding aspects like thermoregulation and cellular exchange rates in different sized animals.

     

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  • 30. 

    Which one of the following is the most obvious way a pathogen is able to enter the body?

    • A.

      Shaking hands

    • B.

      Breathing in aerosols

    • C.

      From clothing

    • D.

      Sharing a drink

    Correct Answer
    B. Breathing in aerosols
    Explanation
    Breathing in aerosols is the most obvious way a pathogen is able to enter the body because aerosols are tiny particles that can contain pathogens and are easily inhaled into the respiratory system. Pathogens can be present in droplets released when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and these droplets can remain suspended in the air as aerosols. Therefore, inhaling these aerosols is a direct route for pathogens to enter the body and potentially cause infection.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following chemicals is produced by white blood cells to defend against toxins?

    • A.

      Antibodies

    • B.

      Antigens

    • C.

      Antibiotics

    • D.

      Anti-toxins

    Correct Answer
    D. Anti-toxins
    Explanation
    White blood cells produce anti-toxins to defend against toxins. Anti-toxins are antibodies that specifically target and neutralize toxins produced by bacteria or other harmful substances. They bind to the toxins and prevent them from causing damage to the body. Antibodies, antigens, and antibiotics are not specifically produced by white blood cells to defend against toxins, making them incorrect options.

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  • 32. 

    Which one of the following is the best description of a virus?

    • A.

      Alive, self-replicating chemicals

    • B.

      Self-replicating compounds

    • C.

      Dead, self-replicating chemicals

    • D.

      Not self-replicating compounds

    Correct Answer
    D. Not self-replicating compounds
    Explanation
    A virus is not a self-replicating compound because it requires a host cell to reproduce. It is a non-living entity that consists of genetic material (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. When a virus infects a host cell, it hijacks the cell's machinery to replicate itself. Therefore, it cannot be classified as alive or as a self-replicating chemical or compound.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following destroys pathogens as they enter the stomach?

    • A.

      Acid

    • B.

      White blood cells

    • C.

      Antibodies

    • D.

      Mucus

    Correct Answer
    A. Acid
    Explanation
    The correct answer is acid. When pathogens enter the stomach, the highly acidic environment helps to destroy them. The stomach produces hydrochloric acid, which has a low pH level, making it extremely acidic. This acid not only aids in the digestion of food but also acts as a defense mechanism against harmful pathogens. The acidic conditions in the stomach can kill many types of bacteria and viruses, preventing them from causing infections or illnesses.

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  • 34. 

    Which one of the following structures is located outside a bacterium cell?

    • A.

      Slime capsule

    • B.

      Plasmid

    • C.

      Cytoplasm

    • D.

      Single strand of DNA

    Correct Answer
    A. Slime capsule
    Explanation
    The slime capsule is located outside a bacterium cell. It is a protective layer that surrounds the cell and helps the bacterium adhere to surfaces. It can provide protection against desiccation, immune system attacks, and other environmental stresses. The plasmid is a small, circular piece of DNA that is found inside the bacterium cell. The cytoplasm is the gel-like substance that fills the cell. A single strand of DNA is also found inside the bacterium cell, typically in the form of a circular chromosome.

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  • 35. 

    Large animals lose heat

    • A.

      Slowly

    • B.

      Quickly

    • C.

      Not at all

    • D.

      Only at night

    Correct Answer
    A. Slowly
    Explanation
    Large animals have a lower surface area to volume ratio compared to smaller animals, which means they have less surface area through which heat can be lost. Additionally, large animals have a higher mass, which allows them to retain heat for longer periods of time. These factors contribute to large animals losing heat slowly.

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  • Jun 28, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 05, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Ianrobertson
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