Test Your Anesthesia Knowledge! Quiz

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Test Your Anesthesia Knowledge! Quiz - Quiz

Test your anaesthesia knowledge quiz. Anaesthetics can be of different types, and the most common is the local anaesthetics in which one is made numb but is still awake to see what is happening to their body. Do you know some of the things to look out for when it comes to local anaesthesia and how to manage some of the effects the patients may have? This quiz is a perfect way to test your memory out.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Local anesthetics all have the suffix:

    • A.

      One

    • B.

      Caine

    • C.

      Ine

    • D.

      Ane

    Correct Answer
    B. Caine
    Explanation
    Local anesthetics are a class of drugs that are used to numb a specific area of the body. One common characteristic of local anesthetics is that they all have the suffix "caine" in their names. This suffix helps to identify and classify these drugs as local anesthetics. Therefore, the correct answer is "caine".

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  • 2. 

    Esters are metabolized by ____ while amides are metabolized by _____

    • A.

      Liver; blood

    • B.

      Liver; liver

    • C.

      Blood; blood

    • D.

      Blood; liver

    Correct Answer
    D. Blood; liver
    Explanation
    Esters are metabolized by the blood, while amides are metabolized by the liver. This means that when esters are present in the body, they are broken down and metabolized by the blood. On the other hand, amides are broken down and metabolized by the liver. The liver plays a crucial role in metabolizing various substances in the body, including amides, while the blood helps in metabolizing esters.

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  • 3. 

    The tertiary amine of local anesthetics is

    • A.

      Hydrophobic

    • B.

      Hydrophylic

    Correct Answer
    B. Hydrophylic
    Explanation
    Tertiary amines of local anesthetics are hydrophilic because they possess a positively charged nitrogen atom that can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. This hydrophilic nature allows the local anesthetics to dissolve in the aqueous environment of the body, facilitating their distribution and effectiveness in numbing the targeted area.

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  • 4. 

    Benzocaine is different because it lacks a _____ and ___ water-soluble.

    • A.

      Aromatic; isn't

    • B.

      Tertiary amine; isn't

    • C.

      Aromatic; is

    • D.

      Aromatic; isn't

    Correct Answer
    B. Tertiary amine; isn't
    Explanation
    Benzocaine is different because it lacks a tertiary amine and isn't water-soluble. Aromatic compounds typically contain a benzene ring, but benzocaine lacks this structure. Additionally, benzocaine is not water-soluble, meaning it does not readily dissolve in water.

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  • 5. 

    TTX and saxitoxin work on sodium channels by

    • A.

      Binding outside the membrane

    • B.

      Making the membrane swell

    • C.

      Binding inside the membrane

    Correct Answer
    A. Binding outside the membrane
    Explanation
    TTX and saxitoxin are both neurotoxins that specifically target sodium channels. These toxins bind to the sodium channels from the outside of the cell membrane. By binding to the channels, they prevent the normal flow of sodium ions into the cell, which disrupts the normal electrical signaling in neurons. This ultimately leads to paralysis and can be fatal in high doses.

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  • 6. 

    Benzocaine, alcohol, and general anesthetics work on sodium channels by

    • A.

      Binding outside the membrane

    • B.

      Binding inside the membrane

    • C.

      Making the membrane swell

    Correct Answer
    C. Making the membrane swell
    Explanation
    Benzocaine, alcohol, and general anesthetics work on sodium channels by making the membrane swell. This swelling of the membrane affects the function of sodium channels, which are responsible for the conduction of electrical signals in nerve cells. By causing the membrane to swell, these substances disrupt the normal flow of sodium ions through the channels, ultimately leading to a decrease in nerve cell activity and the sensation of pain.

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  • 7. 

    Local anesthetics work on sodium channels by

    • A.

      Binding outside the membrane

    • B.

      Making the membrane swell

    • C.

      Binding inside the membrane

    Correct Answer
    C. Binding inside the membrane
    Explanation
    Local anesthetics work by binding inside the membrane. This allows them to block the sodium channels, which are responsible for the conduction of nerve impulses. By binding inside the membrane, the local anesthetics prevent the influx of sodium ions into the nerve cells, effectively blocking the transmission of pain signals. This binding inside the membrane is crucial for the local anesthetics to exert their numbing effect and provide pain relief.

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  • 8. 

    Local anesthetics are

    • A.

      Weak acids

    • B.

      Weak bases

    • C.

      Strong acids

    • D.

      Strong bases

    Correct Answer
    B. Weak bases
    Explanation
    Local anesthetics are weak bases because they are typically composed of a lipophilic (fat-soluble) aromatic ring and a hydrophilic (water-soluble) amine group. In their uncharged form, they can easily penetrate the lipid membranes of nerve cells. Once inside the cell, they become charged and bind to sodium channels, preventing the influx of sodium ions and blocking the generation of action potentials, thus producing a local numbing effect. This mechanism of action is characteristic of weak bases, as they are more effective in their charged form.

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  • 9. 

    At rest, m gates are ____ and h gates are _____

    • A.

      Open; open

    • B.

      Open; closed

    • C.

      Closed; closed

    • D.

      Closed; open

    Correct Answer
    D. Closed; open
    Explanation
    At rest, m gates are closed and h gates are open. This means that the m gates are not allowing any flow or passage, while the h gates are allowing flow or passage.

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  • 10. 

    When inactive, m gates are ___ and h gates are ___

    • A.

      Open; open

    • B.

      Open; closed

    • C.

      Closed; closed

    • D.

      Closed; open

    Correct Answer
    B. Open; closed
    Explanation
    When inactive, m gates are open and h gates are closed. This means that the m gates allow the flow of sodium ions into the cell, while the h gates prevent the flow of potassium ions out of the cell. This combination of open m gates and closed h gates allows for the depolarization of the cell membrane and the generation of an action potential.

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  • 11. 

    PH-pKa = Log ( ____/ _____)

    • A.

      Acid; base

    • B.

      Base; acid

    • C.

      Unprotonated; protonated

    • D.

      Protonated; unprotonated

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Base; acid
    C. Unprotonated; protonated
    Explanation
    The equation pH-pKa = Log (base/acid) is used to calculate the pH of a solution based on the pKa of the acid and the concentration of the acid and its conjugate base. In this equation, the base refers to the concentration of the conjugate base of the acid, while the acid refers to the concentration of the acid itself. Additionally, unprotonated refers to the conjugate base of the acid, which has not gained a proton, while protonated refers to the acid, which has gained a proton. Therefore, the correct answer is base; acid, unprotonated; protonated.

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  • 12. 

    The active form of a local anesthetic is the

    • A.

      Base

    • B.

      Salt

    Correct Answer
    B. Salt
    Explanation
    The active form of a local anesthetic is the salt. In the context of local anesthetics, the salt refers to the combination of the base (the active ingredient) and an acidic compound. The salt form is typically used because it enhances the stability and solubility of the base, allowing for better administration and effectiveness as a local anesthetic. This is why the salt form is considered the active form of a local anesthetic.

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  • 13. 

    The form of local anesthetic that can cross the membrane is the

    • A.

      Base

    • B.

      Salt

    Correct Answer
    A. Base
    Explanation
    Local anesthetics exist in two forms: the base form and the salt form. The base form is lipid-soluble, meaning it can cross the lipid membrane that surrounds cells. This allows the base form of the local anesthetic to enter the nerve fibers and block the transmission of pain signals. On the other hand, the salt form of the local anesthetic is water-soluble and cannot easily cross the lipid membrane. Therefore, the base form is the correct answer as it can effectively cross the membrane.

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  • 14. 

    Low doses of local anesthetic block ____ information and high doses block ____ information.

    • A.

      Motor; sensory

    • B.

      Sensory; sensory and motor

    • C.

      Sensory and motor; sensory and motor

    • D.

      Sensory and motor; motor only

    Correct Answer
    B. Sensory; sensory and motor
    Explanation
    Low doses of local anesthetic block sensory information, while high doses block both sensory and motor information.

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  • 15. 

    Anesthetics (except cocaine) are vaso-

    • A.

      Dilators

    • B.

      Constrictors

    Correct Answer
    A. Dilators
    Explanation
    Anesthetics, with the exception of cocaine, are vasodilators. This means that they cause the blood vessels to widen, resulting in increased blood flow. This can help to reduce pain and inflammation at the site of administration. Cocaine, on the other hand, is a vasoconstrictor, meaning it causes the blood vessels to narrow, which can have different effects on the body.

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  • 16. 

    Epi is given as a vaso-

    • A.

      Dilator

    • B.

      Constrictor

    Correct Answer
    B. Constrictor
    Explanation
    Epi is given as a constrictor because it acts to narrow blood vessels and increase blood pressure. This is useful in situations where blood pressure needs to be raised, such as during shock or severe allergic reactions. Epi constricts blood vessels by binding to alpha-adrenergic receptors on smooth muscle cells in the blood vessel walls, causing them to contract. This narrowing of the blood vessels helps to redirect blood flow to vital organs and tissues.

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  • 17. 

    Because cocaine is a vasoconstrictor, it's good for surgery on the _________

    • A.

      Eye

    • B.

      Nose

    • C.

      Throat

    • D.

      Arm

    • E.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Eye
    B. Nose
    C. Throat
    Explanation
    Cocaine is a vasoconstrictor, meaning it narrows blood vessels and reduces blood flow. This can be beneficial during surgery on the eye, nose, and throat as it can help minimize bleeding and provide a clearer surgical field. However, it is important to note that the use of cocaine in surgery is highly regulated and controlled due to its potential for abuse and addiction.

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  • 18. 

    Accidentally injecting an anesthetic into a blood vessel will result in

    • A.

      Arrhythmia

    • B.

      Convulsion

    • C.

      Headache

    • D.

      High body temperature

    • E.

      No side effect

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Arrhythmia
    B. Convulsion
    Explanation
    Accidentally injecting an anesthetic into a blood vessel can lead to arrhythmia and convulsion. When an anesthetic enters the bloodstream, it can affect the electrical signals in the heart, causing irregular heartbeats or arrhythmia. Additionally, the anesthetic can affect the central nervous system, leading to convulsions or involuntary muscle contractions. These side effects can be potentially dangerous and require immediate medical attention.

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  • 19. 

    A good pre-op anti-anxiety medication is

    • A.

      Isofluorane

    • B.

      Cocaine

    • C.

      Midazolam

    • D.

      Suxinylcholam

    Correct Answer
    C. Midazolam
    Explanation
    Midazolam is a good pre-op anti-anxiety medication because it belongs to the benzodiazepine class of drugs, which have sedative, anxiolytic, and amnesic properties. It is commonly used in pre-operative settings to reduce anxiety and induce relaxation in patients before surgery. Midazolam acts on the central nervous system by enhancing the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a neurotransmitter that inhibits brain activity. This leads to a calming effect and helps alleviate anxiety before surgery.

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  • 20. 

    During surgery, the following are monitored:

    • A.

      Temp

    • B.

      Bp

    • C.

      Hr

    • D.

      O2

    • E.

      CO2

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Temp
    B. Bp
    C. Hr
    D. O2
    E. CO2
    Explanation
    During surgery, it is important to monitor the patient's temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen levels, and carbon dioxide levels. Temperature monitoring helps ensure that the patient's body is at a stable and safe level. Blood pressure monitoring allows the medical team to assess the patient's cardiovascular health and detect any abnormalities. Heart rate monitoring helps monitor the patient's cardiac function and identify any irregularities. Oxygen levels are crucial to ensure that the patient is receiving enough oxygen for proper tissue oxygenation. Carbon dioxide levels indicate the efficiency of the patient's respiratory system and help monitor their ventilation.

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  • 21. 

    Endotracheal tubes are needed for surgery on the

    • A.

      Leg

    • B.

      Face

    • C.

      Arm

    • D.

      Stomach

    • E.

      Brain

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Face
    D. Stomach
    E. Brain
    Explanation
    Endotracheal tubes are needed for surgery on the face, stomach, and brain because these procedures often require general anesthesia. General anesthesia induces a state of unconsciousness, and the endotracheal tube is inserted into the patient's trachea to maintain an open airway and ensure proper oxygenation during the surgery. Since the face, stomach, and brain surgeries can be complex and delicate, it is essential to have a secure airway and controlled ventilation throughout the procedure.

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  • 22. 

    Nicotinic blockers that mimic curare are given as muscle relaxants.  Vecuronium and rocuronium are preferred because pancuronium ____ by blocking NE reuptake.

    • A.

      Raises bp

    • B.

      Lowers bp

    • C.

      Raises hr

    • D.

      Lowers hr

    Correct Answer
    C. Raises hr
    Explanation
    Pancuronium is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent that blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine (NE), leading to an increase in NE levels. This increase in NE can cause an increase in heart rate (raises hr). Vecuronium and rocuronium, on the other hand, do not block NE reuptake and therefore do not have this effect on heart rate.

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  • 23. 

    For intubation, ____ is administered.

    • A.

      Cocaine

    • B.

      Fentanyl

    • C.

      Suxinylcholine

    • D.

      Midazolam

    Correct Answer
    C. Suxinylcholine
    Explanation
    Suxinylcholine is administered for intubation. Suxinylcholine is a neuromuscular blocking agent that causes temporary paralysis of the skeletal muscles, allowing for easier intubation. It works by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles, resulting in muscle relaxation. This facilitates the insertion of an endotracheal tube into the trachea, which is necessary for mechanical ventilation during surgical procedures or in emergency situations.

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  • 24. 

    A depolarizing blockade caused by succinylcholine works by

    • A.

      Keeping sodium channels active

    • B.

      Keeping sodium channels resting

    • C.

      Keeping sodium channels inactive

    Correct Answer
    C. Keeping sodium channels inactive
    Explanation
    Succinylcholine causes a depolarizing blockade by keeping sodium channels inactive. This means that the drug prevents the sodium channels from opening, which is necessary for the depolarization of the cell membrane. By keeping the sodium channels inactive, succinylcholine prevents the propagation of action potentials and effectively blocks the transmission of nerve impulses. This leads to muscle relaxation and paralysis, making succinylcholine commonly used as a muscle relaxant during surgical procedures.

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  • 25. 

    To reverse muscle paralysis, you may give

    • A.

      Edrophonium

    • B.

      Neostigmine

    • C.

      Atropine

    • D.

      Physostigmine

    • E.

      Curare

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Edrophonium
    B. Neostigmine
    C. Atropine
    Explanation
    Edrophonium and neostigmine are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors that increase the levels of acetylcholine in the synapse, leading to enhanced muscle contraction and reversing muscle paralysis. Atropine is a muscarinic antagonist that blocks the effects of acetylcholine on muscarinic receptors, thereby counteracting the excessive muscle contraction caused by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Physostigmine is also an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, similar to edrophonium and neostigmine. Curare, on the other hand, is a muscle relaxant that causes muscle paralysis and would not be effective in reversing it.

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  • 26. 

    To reverse a gas anesthetic, give the patient

    • A.

      0% O2

    • B.

      10% O2

    • C.

      50% O2

    • D.

      70% O2

    • E.

      100% O2

    Correct Answer
    E. 100% O2
    Explanation
    To reverse a gas anesthetic, it is necessary to provide the patient with 100% O2. This is because oxygen helps to eliminate the anesthetic agent from the body more quickly. By increasing the concentration of oxygen in the patient's breathing mixture, the anesthetic is displaced and the patient can recover from the effects of the anesthesia more rapidly.

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  • 27. 

    The best general anesthetic is

    • A.

      Midazolam

    • B.

      Thiopental

    • C.

      Propofol

    • D.

      Ketamine

    Correct Answer
    C. Propofol
    Explanation
    Propofol is considered the best general anesthetic due to its fast onset and short duration of action, making it ideal for both induction and maintenance of anesthesia. It provides smooth and rapid induction, with minimal side effects such as nausea and vomiting. Propofol also has a wide margin of safety and can be easily titrated to achieve the desired level of sedation. Additionally, it has a low incidence of allergic reactions and does not accumulate in the body, allowing for quick recovery. Overall, these characteristics make propofol a preferred choice for general anesthesia.

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  • 28. 

    A seizing patient would best be given:

    • A.

      Thiopental

    • B.

      Etomidate

    • C.

      Ketamine

    • D.

      Midazolam

    Correct Answer
    C. Ketamine
    Explanation
    Ketamine would be the best choice for a seizing patient because it has both sedative and anticonvulsant properties. It works by blocking certain receptors in the brain, reducing the spread of seizure activity. Additionally, ketamine has a rapid onset of action and a short duration, making it a suitable option for controlling seizures in an emergency situation. Thiopental and etomidate are general anesthetics and may not be as effective in stopping seizures. Midazolam is a benzodiazepine that can be used for seizure control, but ketamine is generally preferred due to its dual action and faster onset.

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  • 29. 

    A heart surgery patient would best be given:

    • A.

      Midazolam

    • B.

      Propofol

    • C.

      Thiopental

    • D.

      Etomidate

    Correct Answer
    D. Etomidate
    Explanation
    Etomidate would be the best choice for a heart surgery patient because it is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic that provides rapid and smooth induction of anesthesia. It has minimal cardiovascular effects, making it a safer option for patients with heart conditions. Midazolam, propofol, and thiopental are also commonly used anesthetics, but they may have more significant cardiovascular effects and are not as ideal for patients with heart issues.

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  • 30. 

    Ether is no longer used because

    • A.

      Induction is slow

    • B.

      Induction is fast

    • C.

      It's explosive

    • D.

      Offset is fast

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Induction is slow
    C. It's explosive
    Explanation
    Ether is no longer used because it has a slow induction process and is also explosive. The slow induction process of ether makes it less efficient for use compared to other substances. Additionally, the explosive nature of ether poses a significant safety risk, making it undesirable for use in various applications.

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  • 31. 

    You want solubility in the blood to be ____ so that the gas may reach the brain fast.

    • A.

      High

    • B.

      Low

    • C.

      Medium

    Correct Answer
    B. Low
    Explanation
    Solubility in the blood refers to the ability of a gas to dissolve in the blood. When solubility is low, it means that the gas does not readily dissolve in the blood. This is beneficial for the gas to reach the brain quickly because it can easily pass through the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain tissue. Therefore, a low solubility in the blood allows the gas to reach the brain fast.

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  • 32. 

    If you have inflammation, the skin is ____ and doesn't accept anesthetic well.  You should instead inject ____ the nerve.

    • A.

      Acidic; below

    • B.

      Acidic; above

    • C.

      Basic; below

    • D.

      Basic; above

    Correct Answer
    B. Acidic; above
    Explanation
    Inflammation causes the skin to become acidic, which affects its ability to accept anesthetic. Therefore, when there is inflammation, it is recommended to inject the anesthetic above the nerve to ensure its effectiveness.

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  • 33. 

    Local anesthetics are often mixed with HCl because this makes it more

    • A.

      Hydrophobic

    • B.

      Hydrophylic

    • C.

      Lipophobic

    • D.

      Lipophylic

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Hydrophylic
    C. Lipophobic
    Explanation
    Local anesthetics are often mixed with HCl because HCl increases the hydrophilic nature and decreases the lipophobic nature of the anesthetic. This is beneficial as it allows the anesthetic to dissolve more easily in the aqueous environment of the body, enhancing its effectiveness. By making the anesthetic more hydrophilic, it can better penetrate and block nerve impulses, leading to effective pain relief during medical procedures. Additionally, reducing the lipophobic nature helps prevent the anesthetic from diffusing out of the target area too quickly, prolonging its duration of action.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 05, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Icanhasfarm
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