Vertebral Column Quiz Questions And Answers

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Vertebral Column Quiz Questions And Answers - Quiz

Take this vertebral column quiz today if you wish to increase your knowledge about this topic!. The vertebral column, also known as the spine, is curved and can be found in the central axis of the skeleton. Do you know how many vertebrae are in the vertebral column and where are the joints of Luschka found? This quiz will help you understand some more about this region and its many parts. Give it a shot and see how well you do!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    How many vertebrae are in the vertebral column?

    • A.

      31

    • B.

      33

    • C.

      35

    • D.

      37

    Correct Answer
    B. 33
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 33. The vertebral column, also known as the spine, is made up of a series of vertebrae. In humans, there are typically 33 vertebrae in total. These vertebrae are divided into different regions, including the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal regions. Each region has a specific number of vertebrae, with the cervical region having 7, the thoracic region having 12, the lumbar region having 5, the sacral region having 5 fused vertebrae, and the coccygeal region having 4 fused vertebrae. Therefore, the total number of vertebrae in the vertebral column is 33.

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  • 2. 

    How many regions are in the vertebral column?

    • A.

      3

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      5

    • D.

      6

    Correct Answer
    C. 5
    Explanation
    The vertebral column is composed of 33 individual vertebrae, which are divided into several regions. These regions include the cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5 vertebrae), sacral (5 fused vertebrae), and coccygeal (4 fused vertebrae) regions. Therefore, there are a total of 5 regions in the vertebral column.

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  • 3. 

    Which region of the vertebral column contains 5 vertebrae?

    • A.

      Cervical

    • B.

      Thoracic

    • C.

      Lumbar

    • D.

      Sacal

    • E.

      Coccyx

    • F.

      A&C

    • G.

      C&D

    • H.

      C&E

    • I.

      A,C&D

    Correct Answer
    G. C&D
    Explanation
    The region of the vertebral column that contains 5 vertebrae is the lumbar region (C). The lumbar region is located in the lower back and consists of 5 vertebrae. The cervical region (A) is in the neck and typically has 7 vertebrae, while the thoracic region (B) is in the upper back and usually has 12 vertebrae. The sacral region (D) is at the base of the spine and consists of fused vertebrae, and the coccyx (E) is the tailbone, which is also made up of fused vertebrae.

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  • 4. 

    What causes the primary curvature of the vertebral column?

    • A.

      Height differences between anterior and posterior parts of vertebrae

    • B.

      Thickness differences between anterior and posterior parts of vertebrae

    • C.

      Height differences between anterior and posterior IVDs

    • D.

      Thickness differences between anterior and posterior IVDs

    Correct Answer
    A. Height differences between anterior and posterior parts of vertebrae
    Explanation
    The primary curvature of the vertebral column is caused by the height differences between the anterior and posterior parts of the vertebrae. This means that the anterior part of the vertebrae is taller than the posterior part, creating a curve in the spine. This curvature is present in the thoracic and sacral regions of the spine and is considered a normal anatomical feature.

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  • 5. 

    The vertebral column is part of the appendicular skeleton.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The vertebral column is actually part of the axial skeleton, not the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton includes the skull, vertebral column, and ribcage, while the appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the limbs and the girdles that attach them to the axial skeleton.

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  • 6. 

    What causes the secondary curvature of the vertebral column?

    • A.

      Height differences between anterior and posterior parts of vertebrae

    • B.

      Thickness differences between anterior and posterior parts of vertebrae

    • C.

      Height differences between anterior and posterior IVDs

    • D.

      Thickness differences between anterior and posterior IVDs

    Correct Answer
    D. Thickness differences between anterior and posterior IVDs
    Explanation
    The secondary curvature of the vertebral column is caused by thickness differences between the anterior and posterior intervertebral discs (IVDs). These discs act as cushions between the vertebrae and play a role in maintaining the shape and flexibility of the spine. When there are differences in thickness between the anterior and posterior parts of the IVDs, it leads to a curvature in the vertebral column to compensate for the imbalance. This helps distribute the weight and forces evenly throughout the spine, allowing for better support and stability.

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  • 7. 

    When does the primary curvature occur?

    • A.

      When baby beings to hold head up

    • B.

      When baby can sit without support

    • C.

      When baby beings to crawl

    • D.

      When baby starts to walk

    Correct Answer
    A. When baby beings to hold head up
    Explanation
    The primary curvature occurs when the baby begins to hold their head up. This is because the primary curvature refers to the natural curve in the spine that is present from birth. As the baby gains strength and control in their neck muscles, they are able to lift and support their head, which leads to the development of the primary curvature.

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  • 8. 

    When does the secondary curvature occur?

    • A.

      When baby beings to hold head up

    • B.

      When baby can sit without support

    • C.

      When baby beings to crawl

    • D.

      When baby starts to walk

    Correct Answer
    D. When baby starts to walk
    Explanation
    The secondary curvature occurs when the baby starts to walk. This is because walking requires the baby to develop a more upright posture, which leads to the development of the secondary curvature in the spine. As the baby walks, the spine gradually adjusts and develops the natural curves that are characteristic of an adult spine. This is an important milestone in the baby's physical development and helps to support their balance and stability while walking.

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  • 9. 

    A patient arrives at your clinic with a dowager’s hump what is the clinical name for this abnormal curvature?

    • A.

      Kyphosis

    • B.

      Lordosis

    • C.

      Scoliosis

    • D.

      Crooked Back

    Correct Answer
    A. Kyphosis
    Explanation
    Kyphosis is the correct answer because it refers to the abnormal curvature of the spine that causes a hunchback or dowager's hump. This condition is characterized by an excessive outward curve of the upper back, leading to a rounded appearance. Lordosis, on the other hand, is an abnormal inward curvature of the lower back, while scoliosis refers to a sideways curvature of the spine. "Crooked Back" is not a clinical term and does not accurately describe the condition.

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  • 10. 

    How many processes sprout from typical vertebrae?

    • A.

      5

    • B.

      6

    • C.

      7

    • D.

      8

    Correct Answer
    C. 7
    Explanation
    In vertebrates, the typical vertebrae have seven processes. These processes include the spinous process, two transverse processes, two superior articular processes, and two inferior articular processes. These processes serve various functions such as providing attachment points for muscles, facilitating movement, and forming joints with adjacent vertebrae.

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  • 11. 

    The arch is attached to the body of a typical vertebrae via:

    • A.

      Ligaments

    • B.

      Processes

    • C.

      Laminae

    • D.

      Pedicles

    Correct Answer
    D. Pedicles
    Explanation
    The arch of a typical vertebrae is attached to the body through pedicles. Pedicles are short, thick processes that extend from the body of the vertebrae and help form the sides of the vertebral arch. They connect the body to the laminae, which are flat plates of bone that join together at the back of the vertebrae to complete the arch. Ligaments and processes are also present in the vertebrae, but they do not directly attach the arch to the body.

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  • 12. 

    Between the pedicle and lamina, there are ____ processes.

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    C. 3
    Explanation
    The question is asking about the number of processes between the pedicle and lamina. In the context of anatomy, the pedicle and lamina are parts of the vertebrae. Between them, there are three processes: the transverse process, the superior articular process, and the inferior articular process.

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  • 13. 

    The vertebrae are interlocked via their:

    • A.

      Articular processes

    • B.

      Spinous processes

    • C.

      Transverse processes

    • D.

      Body

    Correct Answer
    A. Articular processes
    Explanation
    The vertebrae are interlocked via their articular processes. These processes are small bony projections that extend from the vertebrae and form joints with adjacent vertebrae. These joints allow for movement and flexibility in the spine. The articular processes help to stabilize the spine and prevent excessive movement between the vertebrae.

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  • 14. 

    Spinal Nerves exit the spine via:

    • A.

      Vertebral foramen

    • B.

      Intervetebral foramen

    • C.

      Intravertebral foramen

    • D.

      IVD foramen

    Correct Answer
    B. Intervetebral foramen
    Explanation
    Spinal nerves exit the spine through the intervertebral foramen. The intervertebral foramen is the opening formed between adjacent vertebrae, allowing the spinal nerves to pass through and connect with various parts of the body. This pathway allows for the transmission of sensory and motor information between the spinal cord and the rest of the body.

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  • 15. 

    IVDs consist of:

    • A.

      Anulus fibrosus

    • B.

      Anulus pulposus

    • C.

      Nucleus fibrosus

    • D.

      Nucleus pulposus

    • E.

      A & C

    • F.

      A & D

    • G.

      B & C

    • H.

      B & D

    Correct Answer
    F. A & D
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A & D. IVDs, or intervertebral discs, consist of the anulus fibrosus and the nucleus pulposus. The anulus fibrosus is the tough outer ring of the disc, while the nucleus pulposus is the gel-like center. Therefore, option A (Anulus fibrosus and Nucleus pulposus) and option D (Anulus fibrosus and Nucleus pulposus) are both correct.

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  • 16. 

    In a herniation of L5/S1 disc, which spinal nerve is likely to be compressed?

    • A.

      L4

    • B.

      L5

    • C.

      L6

    • D.

      S1

    Correct Answer
    D. S1
    Explanation
    In a herniation of the L5/S1 disc, the spinal nerve that is likely to be compressed is the S1 nerve. The L5/S1 disc is located between the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) and the first sacral vertebra (S1). When this disc herniates, it can put pressure on the S1 nerve, leading to symptoms such as pain, numbness, or weakness in the lower back, buttocks, and legs. Therefore, the compression of the S1 nerve is the most likely outcome in this scenario.

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  • 17. 

    Disc herniation of L4/L5 damages.

    • A.

      L4 process

    • B.

      L4 root

    • C.

      L5 process

    • D.

      L5 root

    Correct Answer
    D. L5 root
    Explanation
    The correct answer is L5 root. Disc herniation refers to the displacement of an intervertebral disc, causing compression or irritation of nearby nerves. In this case, the herniation is occurring at the L4/L5 level, which means that the L5 root, the nerve that exits the spinal cord at the L4/L5 level, is being damaged. This can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, or weakness in the lower back, buttocks, and legs, as well as potential issues with motor and sensory function.

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  • 18. 

    What is a key feature of typical cervical vertebrae?

    • A.

      Transverse foramen

    • B.

      Transverse ridges

    • C.

      Mamillary process

    • D.

      Costal facets

    Correct Answer
    A. Transverse foramen
    Explanation
    A key feature of typical cervical vertebrae is the presence of transverse foramen. These are small openings on each side of the vertebrae that allow for the passage of the vertebral artery and vein. The transverse foramen is unique to cervical vertebrae and is an important anatomical feature that helps to distinguish them from other vertebrae in the spine.

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  • 19. 

    What is a key feature of typical thoracic vertebrae?

    • A.

      Transverse foramen

    • B.

      Transverse ridges

    • C.

      Mamillary process

    • D.

      Costal facets

    Correct Answer
    D. Costal facets
    Explanation
    A key feature of typical thoracic vertebrae is the presence of costal facets. These facets are small, smooth surfaces located on the sides of the vertebral bodies and transverse processes. They articulate with the heads of the ribs, forming the joints that allow for movement and stability of the ribcage. The costal facets are essential for connecting the thoracic vertebrae to the ribs, enabling the protection and support of the vital organs in the chest cavity.

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  • 20. 

    What is a key feature of typical lumbar vertebrae?

    • A.

      Transverse foramen

    • B.

      Transverse ridges

    • C.

      Mamillary process

    • D.

      Costal facets

    Correct Answer
    C. Mamillary process
    Explanation
    A key feature of typical lumbar vertebrae is the presence of mamillary processes. These are small bony projections located on the posterior aspect of the vertebrae, specifically on the superior articular processes. The mamillary processes serve as attachment sites for ligaments and muscles, providing stability and support to the lumbar spine. They also play a role in limiting excessive movement and rotation of the vertebrae.

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  • 21. 

    A climber fell and broke his neck but a certain ligament of the neck prevented compression of the spinal cord by the dens. Which of the following is the ligament?

    • A.

      Ligamentum nuchae

    • B.

      Posterior atlanto-occipital

    • C.

      Alar ligament

    • D.

      Apical ligament

    • E.

      Transverse ligament of atlas

    Correct Answer
    E. Transverse ligament of atlas
    Explanation
    The transverse ligament of the atlas is the correct answer. This ligament holds the dens (the bony protuberance of the axis vertebra) in place, preventing it from compressing the spinal cord. If this ligament is damaged or weak, it can lead to instability and potential compression of the spinal cord, resulting in serious injury or paralysis.

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  • 22. 

    Which cervical vertebrae are atypical?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    • E.

      5

    • F.

      6

    • G.

      7

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. 1
    B. 2
    G. 7
    Explanation
    Cervical vertebrae 1, 2, and 7 are considered atypical because they have unique characteristics compared to the other cervical vertebrae. The first cervical vertebra, also known as the atlas, lacks a body and instead consists of a ring-like structure that supports the skull. The second cervical vertebra, also known as the axis, has a bony projection called the dens or odontoid process, which allows for rotation of the head. The seventh cervical vertebra, also known as the vertebra prominens, has a long and prominent spinous process that can be easily felt at the base of the neck.

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  • 23. 

    Which are the characteristics of the Atlas?

    • A.

      2 lateral masses connected to 2 arches: ring like

    • B.

      Very long spinous process, not bifid; Transverse formamen is smallest

    • C.

      A pair of demi facets

    • D.

      Dens with its ligaments; Transverse processes are the smallest

    Correct Answer
    A. 2 lateral masses connected to 2 arches: ring like
    Explanation
    The Atlas, also known as the C1 vertebra, has two lateral masses connected to two arches, giving it a ring-like structure. This unique characteristic allows for the articulation and movement of the head. The other characteristics mentioned, such as a very long spinous process, non-bifid, and the size of the transverse foramen and processes, are not specific to the Atlas and are not relevant to its defining features.

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  • 24. 

    Which are the characteristics of the Axis?

    • A.

      2 lateral masses connected to 2 arches: ring like

    • B.

      Very long spinous process, not bifid; Transverse formamen is smallest

    • C.

      A pair of demi facets

    • D.

      Dens with its ligaments; Transverse processes are the smallest

    Correct Answer
    D. Dens with its ligaments; Transverse processes are the smallest
    Explanation
    The characteristics of the Axis mentioned in the given options are the presence of Dens with its ligaments and the fact that the Transverse processes are the smallest.

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  • 25. 

    Where are the joints of Luschka found?

    • A.

      Cervical region

    • B.

      Thoracic region

    • C.

      Lumbar region

    • D.

      At the thickest part of the IVD

    Correct Answer
    A. Cervical region
    Explanation
    The joints of Luschka are found in the cervical region. These joints, also known as uncovertebral joints, are located between the uncinate processes of adjacent vertebrae in the cervical spine. They play a role in maintaining stability and allowing for controlled movement in the neck. These joints can become degenerated or develop osteophytes, which can lead to symptoms such as neck pain and restricted range of motion.

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  • 26. 

    In an automobile accident, a man has an undisplaced fracture of the dens with rupture of the ligaments attached to it: yet could move all 4 limbs and had the function of his diaphragm. Which is the anatomical basis of this surprising presentation?

    • A.

      Ligamentum nuchae is not attached to the dens and prevents certain movement of the atlas via attachment to the occipital bone and posterior axis

    • B.

      Alar ligaments are not attached to the dens and prevents certain movement of the atlas via attachment to the occipital bone and posterior axis

    • C.

      Transverse ligament of the atlas is not attached to the dens and prevents certain movement of the atlas via attachment to the occipital bone and posterior axis

    • D.

      Anterior Longitudinal ligament is not attached to the dens and prevents certain movement of the atlas

    Correct Answer
    C. Transverse ligament of the atlas is not attached to the dens and prevents certain movement of the atlas via attachment to the occipital bone and posterior axis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the transverse ligament of the atlas is not attached to the dens and prevents certain movement of the atlas via attachment to the occipital bone and posterior axis. This explains why the man in the automobile accident was able to move all four limbs and had the function of his diaphragm despite having an undisplaced fracture of the dens with rupture of the ligaments attached to it. The transverse ligament of the atlas plays a crucial role in stabilizing the atlas (C1) and preventing excessive movement, particularly rotation, between the atlas and the axis (C2). Without this attachment to the dens, the man was still able to maintain some degree of stability and function.

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  • 27. 

    If the transverse ligament of the atlas had been ruptured with the other ligaments in the previous example what would you expect?

    • A.

      Damage to the medulla oblongata

    • B.

      Damage to the spinal cord

    • C.

      Death

    • D.

      Quadriplegia

    • E.

      Possibility of all the above

    Correct Answer
    E. Possibility of all the above
    Explanation
    If the transverse ligament of the atlas, along with other ligaments, is ruptured, it can lead to a variety of serious consequences. The transverse ligament of the atlas is responsible for holding the atlas (C1 vertebra) in place and maintaining stability of the upper cervical spine. If it is ruptured, it can result in instability of the spine, potentially causing damage to the medulla oblongata (part of the brainstem), the spinal cord, or even death. Quadriplegia, which is paralysis of all four limbs, is also a possibility due to the damage to the spinal cord. Therefore, the possibility of all the above outcomes is likely if the transverse ligament of the atlas is ruptured.

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  • 28. 

    What does NOT travel through the transverse foramen of typical cervical vertebra?

    • A.

      Vertebral artery

    • B.

      Vertebral vein

    • C.

      Supportive ligaments

    • D.

      Plexus of sympathetic nerves

    Correct Answer
    C. Supportive ligaments
    Explanation
    The transverse foramen of a typical cervical vertebra is a small opening on the side of the vertebra through which the vertebral artery and vein pass. These blood vessels are responsible for supplying blood to the brain and other parts of the head and neck. However, supportive ligaments do not travel through the transverse foramen. Supportive ligaments are connective tissues that help stabilize and support the vertebrae, but they do not pass through the transverse foramen.

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  • 29. 

    What is the most important feature of the thoracic vertebra?

    • A.

      Long spinous process

    • B.

      Large transverse process

    • C.

      Heart-shaped body

    • D.

      Costal facets

    Correct Answer
    D. Costal facets
    Explanation
    The most important feature of the thoracic vertebra is the presence of costal facets. These are small, smooth surfaces located on the sides of the vertebral bodies and transverse processes. They serve as the articulation points for the ribs, allowing for the attachment and movement of the ribcage. The costal facets are crucial in providing stability and support to the thoracic region, as well as facilitating the respiratory function of the ribcage during breathing.

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  • 30. 

    Which is NOT a feature of typical lumbar vertebrae?

    • A.

      Absence of transverse foramen

    • B.

      Mamillary process

    • C.

      Accessory process

    • D.

      Heart-shaped body

    Correct Answer
    D. Heart-shaped body
    Explanation
    The typical lumbar vertebrae do not have a heart-shaped body. The body of a typical lumbar vertebra is larger and more cylindrical in shape compared to other vertebrae in the spine. It is designed to bear the weight of the upper body and provide stability. The absence of a transverse foramen, presence of a mamillary process, and an accessory process are all features that are typically found in lumbar vertebrae.

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  • 31. 

    Which is an important clinical feature of the Sacrum?

    • A.

      Sacral hiatus

    • B.

      Transverse ridges

    • C.

      Sacral foramina

    • D.

      Sacral cornua

    Correct Answer
    A. Sacral hiatus
    Explanation
    The sacral hiatus is an important clinical feature of the sacrum. It is a small opening at the bottom of the sacrum, where the sacral canal ends. This hiatus is clinically significant because it is used as a landmark for administering caudal epidural anesthesia, a procedure commonly used for pain management during childbirth or surgery. The injection is given through the sacral hiatus, allowing the medication to reach the nerves in the lower spinal region.

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  • 32. 

    Sacral hiatus is formed by:

    • A.

      Space between the Sacral and Coccyx

    • B.

      Absence of pedicles in S2 and S3

    • C.

      Sacral foramen creating a posterior opening

    • D.

      Absence of laminae and spinous process of S4 and S5

    Correct Answer
    D. Absence of laminae and spinous process of S4 and S5
    Explanation
    The sacral hiatus is formed by the absence of laminae and spinous process of S4 and S5. This means that the bony structures of the sacrum at the levels of S4 and S5 do not fully develop, creating an opening or gap known as the sacral hiatus. This opening allows for the passage of nerves and blood vessels in the sacral region.

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  • 33. 

    Sacral cornua is:

    • A.

      Inferior articular processes of S5

    • B.

      Transverse processes on sacral vertebra

    • C.

      Superior articular processes of S1

    • D.

      Spinous process of S5

    Correct Answer
    A. Inferior articular processes of S5
    Explanation
    The sacral cornua refers to the inferior articular processes of the sacrum's fifth vertebra (S5). These processes are bony projections that articulate with the superior articular processes of the coccyx, forming a joint called the sacrococcygeal joint. The sacral cornua play a role in providing stability and support to the sacrum and coccyx, allowing for movement and flexibility in the pelvic region.

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  • 34. 

    The thinnest part of IVDs is:

    • A.

      Anterior annulus fibrosus

    • B.

      Posterior annulus fibrosus

    • C.

      Anterior nucleus pulposus

    • D.

      Posterior nucleus pulposus

    Correct Answer
    B. Posterior annulus fibrosus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the posterior annulus fibrosus. The intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structures located between the vertebrae in the spine. They consist of an outer ring called the annulus fibrosus and an inner gel-like substance called the nucleus pulposus. The annulus fibrosus is made up of fibrocartilage and provides structural support to the disc. It is thicker in the posterior region, which helps to protect the nucleus pulposus and prevent herniation of the disc. Therefore, the thinnest part of the IVDs is the posterior annulus fibrosus.

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  • 35. 

    The clinical significance of the lamellae of the annuli fibrosis becoming thinner and less numerous posteriorly is:

    • A.

      Possibility for prolapse

    • B.

      Irritation of the vertebral bodies rubbing against each other

    • C.

      Slip discs wouldn’t occur if it wasn’t for this

    • D.

      Creates a space to access CSF

    Correct Answer
    A. Possibility for prolapse
    Explanation
    The lamellae of the annuli fibrosis becoming thinner and less numerous posteriorly increases the possibility for prolapse. This is because the annuli fibrosis is the outer layer of the intervertebral disc that helps maintain its shape and stability. When the lamellae become thinner and less numerous, it weakens the disc and makes it more prone to bulging or herniating, leading to a prolapse. This can cause compression of nearby nerves and result in pain and other symptoms.

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  • 36. 

    Zygapophyseal are:

    • A.

      Joints of the vertebral arches

    • B.

      Cartilagenous joints

    • C.

      Innervated by ventral primary rami

    • D.

      Joints the allow the spinal cord to move in any direction

    Correct Answer
    A. Joints of the vertebral arches
    Explanation
    Zygapophyseal joints are the joints of the vertebral arches. These joints connect the vertebrae and allow for movement and flexibility in the spine. They are synovial joints, which means they are surrounded by a joint capsule and contain synovial fluid. The zygapophyseal joints are important for maintaining the stability and alignment of the spine, as well as allowing for controlled movement and rotation. They are not cartilaginous joints, as stated in one of the options, and they are innervated by the dorsal primary rami, not the ventral primary rami as mentioned in another option.

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  • 37. 

    Which is a craniovertebral joint?

    • A.

      Lushka

    • B.

      Atlanto Axial

    • C.

      Zygapophyseal

    • D.

      Uncovertebral

    Correct Answer
    B. Atlanto Axial
    Explanation
    The craniovertebral joint refers to the joint between the atlas (C1) and the axis (C2) vertebrae in the neck. This joint allows for rotation of the head. The term "Atlanto Axial" refers to this specific joint, making it the correct answer. Lushka, Zygapophyseal, and Uncovertebral are not craniovertebral joints.

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  • 38. 

    Which is NOT a feature of Craniovertebral joints:

    • A.

      Synovial joints with no IVDs

    • B.

      Permit flexion, extention and lateral flexion

    • C.

      There are 2

    • D.

      Also called Facet Joints

    Correct Answer
    D. Also called Facet Joints
    Explanation
    The statement "Also called Facet Joints" is not a feature of Craniovertebral joints. Craniovertebral joints are synovial joints that permit flexion, extension, and lateral flexion. They are located between the cranial and vertebral bones, and there are two of them. However, they are not referred to as facet joints.

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  • 39. 

    Mobility of the vertebral column is affected by:

    • A.

      Elasticity and compressibility of the IVDs

    • B.

      Shape of zygapophyseal joints

    • C.

      Direction of zygapophyseal joint

    • D.

      Resistance of ligaments and muscles

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The mobility of the vertebral column is affected by multiple factors. The elasticity and compressibility of the intervertebral discs (IVDs) allow for movement and cushioning between the vertebrae. The shape of the zygapophyseal joints, which are the joints between the vertebrae, also influences mobility. The direction of the zygapophyseal joints determines the range of motion in different directions. Additionally, the resistance provided by ligaments and muscles surrounding the vertebral column affects its mobility. Therefore, all of the mentioned factors contribute to the overall mobility of the vertebral column.

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  • 40. 

    After a physical examination convinced the physician that he was dealing with a case of meningitis, she decided to do a spinal tap to confirm her diagnosis. Which of the following ligaments would she have to breach on her way to the subarachnoid space?

    • A.

      Ligamentum nuchae

    • B.

      Ligamentum flavum

    • C.

      Anterior longitudinal ligament

    • D.

      Posterior longitudinal ligament

    • E.

      Supraspinous ligament

    • F.

      Interspinous ligament

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Ligamentum flavum
    E. Supraspinous ligament
    F. Interspinous ligament
    Explanation
    The physician would have to breach the Ligamentum flavum, Supraspinous ligament, and Interspinous ligament on her way to the subarachnoid space during a spinal tap. These ligaments are located in the spinal column and would need to be pierced in order to access the subarachnoid space.

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  • 41. 

    Anterior Longitudinal ligament is located:

    • A.

      Anterior part of the vertebral foramen

    • B.

      Along the Anterior surface of all the vertebra bodies

    • C.

      Posterior part of the vertebral foramen

    • D.

      Anterior to the Dens

    Correct Answer
    B. Along the Anterior surface of all the vertebra bodies
    Explanation
    The anterior longitudinal ligament is located along the anterior surface of all the vertebral bodies. This ligament runs vertically down the length of the spinal column, attaching to the front of each vertebra. Its main function is to provide stability and prevent excessive movement of the vertebral column, particularly in flexion (forward bending). It also helps to maintain the natural curvature of the spine.

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  • 42. 

    Where is the ligament Flava attached?

    • A.

      Transverse processes of adjacent vertebrae

    • B.

      Articular processes of adjacent vertebrae

    • C.

      Laminae of adjacent vertebrae

    • D.

      Pedicles of adjacent vertebrae

    Correct Answer
    C. Laminae of adjacent vertebrae
    Explanation
    The ligament Flava is attached to the laminae of adjacent vertebrae. This ligament is a strong, elastic structure that runs along the posterior aspect of the vertebral column. Its main function is to help maintain the stability and flexibility of the spine. The attachment to the laminae of adjacent vertebrae allows the ligament Flava to provide support and limit excessive movement between the vertebrae.

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  • 43. 

    If a metastatic spread to the 4th lumbar intervertebral foramen, what spinal nerve is it likely to affect?

    • A.

      L4

    • B.

      L5

    • C.

      S1

    • D.

      S2

    Correct Answer
    A. L4
    Explanation
    If there is a metastatic spread to the 4th lumbar intervertebral foramen, it is likely to affect the L4 spinal nerve.

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  • 44. 

    A poster-lateral protrusion of the intervertebral disc between L4 and L5 vertebrae is likely to affect which spinal nerve?

    • A.

      L4

    • B.

      L5

    • C.

      S1

    • D.

      S2

    Correct Answer
    B. L5
    Explanation
    A poster-lateral protrusion of the intervertebral disc between L4 and L5 vertebrae is likely to affect the L5 spinal nerve. This is because the spinal nerves are named after the vertebrae they are located below. In this case, the protrusion is occurring between L4 and L5, so it is most likely to compress or irritate the L5 nerve.

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  • 45. 

    In a rear-end automobile collision, an automobile driver sustained a whiplash injury. Which of the following cervical vertebrae served as the fulcrum of the whiplash?

    • A.

      C2

    • B.

      C3

    • C.

      C4

    • D.

      C5

    Correct Answer
    C. C4
    Explanation
    The C4 vertebrae served as the fulcrum of the whiplash injury. In a rear-end automobile collision, the sudden impact causes the head to jerk forward and then snap back, resulting in a rapid back-and-forth motion of the neck. The C4 vertebrae, located in the middle of the cervical spine, is often the point where the neck experiences the most stress and movement during a whiplash injury.

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  • 46. 

    Which ligament is likely to rupture in a hyperextension injury?

    • A.

      Ligamentum nuchae

    • B.

      Ligamentum Flava

    • C.

      Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

    • D.

      Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

    Correct Answer
    C. Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
    Explanation
    The anterior longitudinal ligament is likely to rupture in a hyperextension injury. This ligament runs along the anterior surface of the vertebral bodies and helps to stabilize the spine. In a hyperextension injury, the spine is forced into excessive backward bending, which can put strain on the anterior longitudinal ligament and cause it to tear or rupture. This can lead to instability and potential damage to the spinal cord.

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  • 47. 

    C5-C7 acts as the whip in hyperextension what action do they perform during this injury?

    • A.

      Hyperextension

    • B.

      Hyperflexion

    • C.

      Rotation

    • D.

      Lateral bending

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyperflexion
    Explanation
    During hyperextension, the C5-C7 vertebrae act as the whip. This means that they perform the action of hyperflexion during this injury. Hyperflexion refers to the excessive forward bending of the neck, causing the head to move closer to the chest. Therefore, during hyperextension, the C5-C7 vertebrae move in a way that causes hyperflexion of the neck.

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  • 48. 

    Burst Fracture of C1 is known as:

    • A.

      Jefferson Fracture

    • B.

      Hangman’s Fracture

    • C.

      Axis Fracture

    • D.

      Atlas Fracture

    Correct Answer
    A. Jefferson Fracture
    Explanation
    Jefferson Fracture is the correct answer because it refers to a burst fracture of the first cervical vertebra (C1), also known as the atlas. This type of fracture occurs when there is a compression force applied to the skull, leading to the bursting of the ring of the atlas. It is typically caused by high-energy trauma, such as diving accidents or car crashes. The fracture can result in instability of the cervical spine and potential damage to the spinal cord.

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  • 49. 

    As a form of capital punishment, a certain leader was hanged in the gallows until he died. Which of the following cervical vertebral parts was fractured in the process?

    • A.

      Arches of the atlas

    • B.

      Dens of axis

    • C.

      Pedicles of Axis

    • D.

      Laminae of C7

    Correct Answer
    C. Pedicles of Axis
    Explanation
    During the process of hanging, the weight of the body is supported by the noose around the neck, causing extreme pressure and force on the cervical vertebrae. The pedicles of the axis, also known as C2, are the parts of the vertebrae that connect the body of the vertebrae to the transverse processes. Due to the intense pressure, the pedicles of the axis can fracture, leading to severe damage and potentially death.

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  • 50. 

    What is a stress fracture of L5 laminae or articular processes called?

    • A.

      Jefferson Fracture

    • B.

      Hangman’s Fracture

    • C.

      Spondyolysis

    • D.

      Lumber Fracture

    Correct Answer
    C. Spondyolysis
    Explanation
    Spondyolysis refers to a stress fracture of the pars interarticularis, which is the region between the L5 laminae or articular processes. It is a common condition, particularly among athletes involved in activities that require repetitive hyperextension of the lumbar spine. Spondyolysis can cause lower back pain and may lead to instability in the affected area. Treatment typically involves rest, physical therapy, and sometimes bracing or surgery, depending on the severity of the fracture.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Apr 12, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 02, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Askanes
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