Anatomy & Physiology: The Cell Membrane And Organelles

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Anatomy & Physiology: The Cell Membrane And Organelles - Quiz

A quiz testing knowledge of cell membrane and organelles


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The ______________ acts as a packaging and processing center in the cell to process proteins. (hint: see picture above)

    Explanation
    The Golgi apparatus is an organelle in the cell that acts as a packaging and processing center for proteins. It receives proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and modifies them by adding sugars and lipids. It then sorts and packages these modified proteins into vesicles, which can be transported to different parts of the cell or secreted outside the cell. The Golgi apparatus plays a crucial role in protein trafficking and secretion, making it an essential component of cellular function.

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  • 2. 

    Proteins embedded in the cell membrane function to

    • A.

      Transport materials in and out of the cell

    • B.

      Carry genetic information

    • C.

      Store excess water

    • D.

      Produce energy for the cell

    Correct Answer
    A. Transport materials in and out of the cell
    Explanation
    Proteins embedded in the cell membrane function to transport materials in and out of the cell. This is because the cell membrane is selectively permeable, meaning it allows certain substances to pass through while blocking others. The proteins in the membrane act as channels or carriers, facilitating the movement of ions, molecules, and other materials across the membrane. This transportation process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, allowing the cell to take in nutrients, expel waste products, and communicate with its environment.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is an enzyme filled organelle for the breaking down of waste in the cell?

    • A.

      Mitochondria

    • B.

      Centriole

    • C.

      Lysosome

    • D.

      Perioxisome

    Correct Answer
    C. Lysosome
    Explanation
    Lysosomes are organelles filled with enzymes that are responsible for breaking down waste materials in the cell. They contain digestive enzymes that can break down various molecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. Lysosomes play a crucial role in cellular waste disposal and recycling, as well as in the digestion of foreign materials that enter the cell through processes like endocytosis. They are involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and are essential for the proper functioning of cells. Mitochondria, centrioles, and peroxisomes have different functions and are not primarily involved in the breaking down of waste materials.

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  • 4. 

    This drawing illustrates the important aspect of the cell membrane which is its __________________.

    • A.

      Carboyhydrate bi-layer

    • B.

      Layer of proteins

    • C.

      Phosolipid bi-layer

    Correct Answer
    C. Phosolipid bi-layer
    Explanation
    This drawing illustrates the important aspect of the cell membrane which is its phosolipid bi-layer. The cell membrane is composed of a double layer of phospholipids, with the hydrophilic heads facing outward and the hydrophobic tails facing inward. This arrangement provides a barrier that controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing for selective permeability. The phospholipid bi-layer also plays a role in cell signaling and communication.

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  • 5. 

    The Fluid Mosaic Model suggests that the cell membrane can only have certain fluids pass through it, due to its phosolipid bi-layer.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The Fluid Mosaic Model suggests that the membrane is flexible.

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  • 6. 

    The _______________________ are used in cell division and are located inside the centrosome. They are arranged in a 9+0 array in which microtubules line up in a circle and the two sit perpindicular to one another in the centrosome.

    Correct Answer
    centrioles
    CENTRIOLES
    Explanation
    Centrioles are cylindrical structures found inside the centrosome, which play a crucial role in cell division. They are arranged in a 9+0 array, meaning that microtubules line up in a circle and the two centrioles sit perpendicular to one another within the centrosome. These structures are responsible for organizing the microtubules and ensuring their proper alignment during cell division, which is essential for the formation of the mitotic spindle and the proper segregation of chromosomes.

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  • 7. 

    The Rough Endomplasmic Reticulum serves as the main site for synthesis of adenosine triphosphate for the cell.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is primarily involved in protein synthesis, not the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP synthesis mainly occurs in the mitochondria through cellular respiration. The Rough ER is studded with ribosomes and plays a crucial role in the synthesis, folding, and transport of proteins within the cell. Therefore, the statement that the Rough ER serves as the main site for ATP synthesis is incorrect.

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  • 8. 

    These are membranous bubbles that may be formed by the Golgi apparatus, or by the pinching inward of the cell membrane to engulf external substances.

    • A.

      Microvilli

    • B.

      Vesicles

    • C.

      Ribosomes

    • D.

      Cytosol

    Correct Answer
    B. Vesicles
    Explanation
    Vesicles are membranous bubbles that can be formed by the Golgi apparatus or by the pinching inward of the cell membrane to engulf external substances. They are small sacs that transport and store various substances within the cell, such as proteins, lipids, and enzymes. Vesicles play a crucial role in intracellular transport, allowing molecules to be transported between different compartments of the cell. They can also fuse with the cell membrane to release their contents outside the cell.

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  • 9. 

    List some of the general characteristics of the cell membrane. What is it's function within the cell?

  • 10. 

    Identify all of the lipids/steroids below that play a role in the cell membrane. After identifying, briefly explain what thier role is.

    • A.

      Phospholipids

    • B.

      Adipose

    • C.

      Sphingolipids

    • D.

      Glycerolipids

    • E.

      Glycocalyx

    • F.

      Cholesterol

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Phospholipids
    C. Sphingolipids
    E. Glycocalyx
    F. Cholesterol
    Explanation
    Phospholipids are the main component of the cell membrane and form a lipid bilayer that provides structural integrity and acts as a barrier. Sphingolipids are also present in the cell membrane and play a role in cell signaling and recognition. Glycocalyx is a layer of carbohydrates attached to the cell membrane that helps with cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Cholesterol is another lipid that is present in the cell membrane and helps regulate fluidity and stability. Adipose and glycerolipids do not play a direct role in the cell membrane.

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  • 11. 

    Membrane proteins can be classified in two ways, by _________ and by ___________.[separate answers with a comma]

    Correct Answer(s)
    function, location
    location, function
    Explanation
    Membrane proteins can be classified in two ways: by their function and by their location. This means that proteins can be categorized based on the specific role they play within the cell membrane, as well as where they are located within the membrane. For example, some proteins may function as transporters, while others may serve as receptors. Similarly, some proteins may be found on the inner surface of the membrane, while others are located on the outer surface. Both function and location are important factors in understanding the role and behavior of membrane proteins.

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  • 12. 

    Briefly explain the process of G-Proteins on the cell membrane. How does GDP release? How does GTP attach? What is it made up of? How does the protein change shape?

  • 13. 

    This structual element of the cell membrane aids in the rapid depolarization of the cells through ion transfer. It serves as a site of communication between cells. What is this structural element called?

    • A.

      Desmosome

    • B.

      Ligand-gated channel

    • C.

      Gap junction

    • D.

      Hemi-desmosome

    Correct Answer
    C. Gap junction
    Explanation
    Gap junctions are specialized protein channels that allow for direct communication and transfer of ions between adjacent cells. These channels aid in the rapid depolarization of cells by allowing the flow of ions, such as calcium and potassium, from one cell to another. This enables the cells to synchronize their activities and coordinate functions. Therefore, the correct answer is gap junction.

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  • 14. 

    Desmosomes connect cells to other cells.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Desmosomes are a type of cell junction that serve to connect cells to other cells. They are composed of proteins that form strong connections between adjacent cells, providing structural support and allowing for communication and coordination between cells. Therefore, the given statement that desmosomes connect cells to other cells is correct.

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  • 15. 

    ______________________ are a structural element that attach cells to the membrane underneath.

    Correct Answer
    Hemidesmosomes
    hemidesmosomes
    Explanation
    Hemidesmosomes are a type of structural element that attach cells to the membrane underneath. They are responsible for anchoring cells to the extracellular matrix, providing stability and support to tissues. Hemidesmosomes consist of protein complexes that connect the cell's cytoskeleton to the basement membrane, allowing for strong adhesion between the cell and its surrounding environment. This adhesion is crucial for maintaining tissue integrity and preventing cell detachment.

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  • 16. 

    Some substances can pass through the cell membrane without facilitation. What sorts of substances can move through?

    • A.

      Small, non-polar

    • B.

      Large, polar

    • C.

      Small, polar

    • D.

      Small, ionic

    Correct Answer
    A. Small, non-polar
    Explanation
    The cell membrane is selectively permeable, meaning it allows certain substances to pass through while blocking others. Small, non-polar substances can move through the cell membrane without facilitation because they can easily dissolve in the lipid bilayer of the membrane. These substances include gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as small hydrophobic molecules. Large, polar substances, small polar substances, and small ionic substances, on the other hand, cannot easily pass through the cell membrane without the help of transport proteins or channels.

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  • 17. 

    There are three different types of gated channels. Check the channels below that are gated channels and then give an example of what flows through each one.

    • A.

      Ligand

    • B.

      Receptor

    • C.

      Voltage

    • D.

      Mechanical

    • E.

      Antiport

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Ligand
    C. Voltage
    D. Mechanical
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Ligand, Voltage, Mechanical. Ligand-gated channels open or close in response to the binding of a specific molecule or ligand. An example is the acetylcholine receptor channel, which opens when acetylcholine binds to it. Voltage-gated channels open or close in response to changes in the electrical potential across the cell membrane. An example is the sodium channel, which opens when the membrane potential reaches a certain threshold. Mechanical-gated channels open or close in response to physical forces or pressure. An example is the mechanoreceptor channel in the ear, which opens in response to sound waves.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the options below is not a physical trigger that triggers gated channel proteins?

    • A.

      Change in pressure

    • B.

      Change in tension

    • C.

      Change in salinity

    • D.

      Change in orientation

    Correct Answer
    C. Change in salinity
    Explanation
    Gated channel proteins are triggered by various physical stimuli. A change in pressure can activate these proteins, as it alters the force exerted on the channel. Similarly, a change in tension, or stretching of the membrane, can also trigger the opening or closing of these channels. Change in orientation, such as a change in the angle at which the stimulus is applied, can also activate gated channel proteins. However, a change in salinity is not a physical trigger for these proteins. Salinity refers to the concentration of salts in a solution and does not directly affect the physical forces acting on the channel proteins.

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  • 19. 

    There are several different types of carrier proteins. Carrier proteins that only carry through one type of molecule at a time are called ______________ proteins. Carrier proteins that can carry through two types of molecules at a time are called _________________ proteins. Carrier proteins that can carry through molecules headed in opposite directions are called ________________ proteins.[separate answers with a comma]

    Correct Answer
    uniport, symport, antiport
    uniport, cotransport, antiport
  • 20. 

    Saturation moves substances UP their concentration gradient.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Saturation actually moves substances DOWN their concentration gradient. Saturation occurs when a substance has reached its maximum concentration in a solution, and any additional substance added will not dissolve. In this case, the substance will move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is reached. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 21. 

    ATP is needed when a cell is trying to move _______________ the concentration gradient.

    Correct Answer
    AGAINST
    against
    in opposition to
    Explanation
    ATP is needed when a cell is trying to move against the concentration gradient. This means that the cell is moving from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration, which requires energy. ATP provides the necessary energy for active transport processes that move molecules or ions against their concentration gradient.

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  • 22. 

    ____________________ is "cell drinking" and __________________ is "cell eating".[separate answers with a comma]

    Correct Answer
    pinocytosis, phagocytosis
    Explanation
    Pinocytosis is the process of "cell drinking" where the cell engulfs small droplets or fluid from its surroundings. This allows the cell to take in nutrients or other substances dissolved in the fluid. On the other hand, phagocytosis is the process of "cell eating" where the cell engulfs larger solid particles or microorganisms. Phagocytosis is typically used by immune cells to engulf and destroy pathogens or foreign particles.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 17, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Carlyh
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