# 2nd 6 Weeks Mid-term Core Assessment Study Guide

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SPI 0807. INQ. 3 (USING CHARTS AND GRAPHS)
SPI 0807. INQ. 2 (SELECTING TOOLS TO COLLECT, STUDY, AND ORGANIZE INFORMATION)
SPI 0807.5. 3 (VARIATION IN A POPULATION)
SPI 0807.5. 2 (PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS FOR SURVIVAL)
SPI 0807.5. 5 (RELATIVE DATING OF FOSSILS)

• 1.

### Which best describes measurements that are accurate?

• A.

They are very close to an accepted value.

• B.

They are based on an estimate.

• C.

They are very close to each other.

• D.

They are not based on numbers.

A. They are very close to an accepted value.
Explanation
Measurements that are accurate are very close to an accepted value. This means that the measured value is in close agreement with the true or expected value. Accuracy is a measure of how close a measured value is to the actual value. It indicates the absence of systematic errors in the measurement process. By being close to an accepted value, accurate measurements provide reliable and trustworthy information.

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• 2.

### Which is NOT a unit of volume?

• A.

Milliliter

• B.

Cubic centimeter

• C.

Deciliter

• D.

Kelvin

D. Kelvin
Explanation
Kelvin is a unit of temperature, not volume. Volume is a measure of the amount of space occupied by an object or substance, whereas Kelvin is used to measure temperature on the Kelvin scale. Milliliter, cubic centimeter, and deciliter are all units of volume commonly used in the metric system.

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• 3.

### What would you use to measure length?

• A.

• B.

Triple-beam balance

• C.

Meterstick

• D.

Spring scale

C. Meterstick
Explanation
A meterstick is a long, flat, and rigid measuring tool that is specifically designed to measure length. It is marked with a scale in centimeters and millimeters, allowing for precise measurements. The other options listed, such as a graduated cylinder, triple-beam balance, and spring scale, are not suitable for measuring length. A graduated cylinder is used to measure volume, a triple-beam balance is used to measure mass, and a spring scale is used to measure weight or force. Therefore, the most appropriate tool for measuring length is a meterstick.

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• 4.

### Josephine and Enrico both measured the width of a table using their hands. Josephine determined that the width of the table was six hands. Enrico determined that it was five hands. Both of these are valid measurements, but neither is accurate. If they would like to use their hands, how can they best determine the actual width of the table?

• A.

Use only one of their hands

• B.

Measure each student's hand with a ruler

• C.

Use only the fingers on their hands

• D.

Measure both students' hands with a ruler and use the total

D. Measure both students' hands with a ruler and use the total
Explanation
To determine the actual width of the table using their hands, Josephine and Enrico should measure both of their hands with a ruler and use the total. This method takes into account the fact that each person's hand size may vary, and by measuring both hands of each person and adding the measurements together, they can get a more accurate estimation of the table's width. This approach eliminates the potential inaccuracies of using only one hand or only the fingers on their hands.

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• 5.

### Which two tools could be used to determine the speed at which a person runs?

• A.

Calculator and meterstick

• B.

Stopwatch and meterstick

• C.

Meterstick and Celsius thermometer

• D.

Stopwatch and Celsius thermometer

B. Stopwatch and meterstick
Explanation
A stopwatch can be used to measure the time it takes for a person to run a certain distance, providing an indication of their speed. A meterstick can be used to measure the distance covered by the person during their run. By combining the time and distance measurements, one can calculate the speed at which the person runs. Therefore, the correct answer is stopwatch and meterstick.

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• 6.

### A student is to determine how much salt will dissolve in 50 milliliters of water. Which tool is best for measuring the volume of water to be used?

• A.

• B.

Thermometer

• C.

Spring scale

• D.

25-milliliter beaker

Explanation
A 100-milliliter graduated cylinder is the best tool for measuring the volume of water to be used because it has markings that allow for precise measurement of liquid volumes. The student needs to measure 50 milliliters of water, and the graduated cylinder can accurately measure this amount. The thermometer and spring scale are not suitable for measuring liquid volumes, and the 25-milliliter beaker may not have the necessary precision for this task.

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• 7.

### Which tool is the best choice to observe single-cell organisms in a sample of pond water?

• A.

Beaker

• B.

Spring scale

• C.

Microscope

• D.

Telescope

C. Microscope
Explanation
A microscope is the best choice to observe single-cell organisms in a sample of pond water because it allows for high magnification and resolution, enabling the viewer to see small and detailed structures of the organisms. A beaker is not suitable as it is used for holding liquids, a spring scale is used for measuring weight, and a telescope is used for observing distant objects in space.

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• 8.

### You want to know whether adding sugar changes the temperature at which water freezes. Which of the following tools would NOT be useful for studying this?

• A.

Pan balance

• B.

Thermometer

• C.

Microscope

• D.

Beaker

C. Microscope
Explanation
A microscope would not be useful for studying whether adding sugar changes the temperature at which water freezes because a microscope is used for magnifying and examining small objects or organisms, not for measuring temperature or studying the freezing point of substances. To study the effect of sugar on the freezing point of water, a thermometer would be needed to measure the temperature, a beaker would be used to hold the water and sugar mixture, and a pan balance could be used to measure the amount of sugar added.

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• 9.

### A student wants to learn how robins build nests. The student wants to observe a robin without disturbing or frightening it. Which tool will allow the student to make observations without disturbing the bird?

• A.

Compound microscope

• B.

Telescope

• C.

Pan balance

• D.

Hand lens

B. Telescope
Explanation
A telescope will allow the student to make observations of a robin without disturbing or frightening it because the student can observe the bird from a distance. The telescope will provide a magnified view of the robin's nest-building activities, allowing the student to study and learn about the process without interfering with the bird's natural behavior.

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• 10.

### Which of these would a hand lens be useful for studying?

• A.

The growth of a tree

• B.

The behavior of a squirrel

• C.

A birdâ€™s feather

• D.

The density of a rock

C. A birdâ€™s feather
Explanation
A hand lens would be useful for studying a bird's feather because it allows for close observation of the feather's structure, color, and texture. The lens magnifies the details, making it easier to identify different types of feathers, examine their patterns, and analyze any abnormalities or adaptations. This can provide valuable information about the bird's species, health, and ecological role.

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• 11.

### What kind of graph would be the most appropriate to visually compare the number of tickets that each group purchased for the concert?

• A.

Bar grapH

• B.

Line grapH

• C.

Pie chart

• D.

Range grapH

A. Bar grapH
Explanation
A bar graph would be the most appropriate type of graph to visually compare the number of tickets that each group purchased for the concert. A bar graph uses rectangular bars to represent data, with the length of each bar indicating the quantity or value being compared. In this case, each group can be represented by a separate bar, and the height of each bar can represent the number of tickets purchased by that group. This allows for easy comparison between the different groups and their ticket purchases.

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• 12.

### Marine biologists conducted a study to determine how water depth affects algae populations. The scientists found that the size of algal populations steadily decreases as water depth increases. Which graph below reflects this finding?

C.
Explanation
The correct answer would be the graph that shows a decreasing trend in algal populations as water depth increases. This is because the question states that the size of algal populations steadily decreases as water depth increases. Therefore, the graph that shows a downward trend in algal populations with increasing water depth would be the most accurate representation of the finding.

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• 13.

B.
• 14.

### The line graph shows the results of a field study that monitored the size of a cricket population in a small area over ten days. Which data set was used to make the graph?

B.
Explanation
The data set used to make the graph is the results of a field study that monitored the size of a cricket population in a small area over ten days.

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• 15.

### Which type of graph is best to use to show how many rainy days there were in each month of the year?

• A.

Line grapH

• B.

Bar grapH

• C.

Histogram

• D.

Circle grapH

C. Histogram
Explanation
A histogram is the best type of graph to use to show how many rainy days there were in each month of the year. A histogram displays numerical data by dividing it into intervals and showing the frequency of each interval with vertical bars. In this case, each month would be represented by a separate interval, and the height of the bar would represent the number of rainy days in that month. This allows for easy comparison and visualization of the distribution of rainy days throughout the year.

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• 16.

### The table shows the average distance from the sun to the planets Mercury, Venus, and Earth. Which graph best compares the distances from the sun for these planets?

B.
Explanation
The correct answer would be a graph that shows Mercury closest to the sun, followed by Venus, and then Earth. This is because the table shows the average distance from the sun to these planets, and based on the data provided, Mercury has the smallest average distance, followed by Venus, and then Earth. Therefore, the graph should reflect this order of distances.

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• 17.

### Based on the data provided, what would you predict the mass of 50 mL of this substance to be?

• A.

30 g

• B.

50 g

• C.

400 g

• D.

500 g

D. 500 g
Explanation
Based on the data provided, it can be predicted that the mass of 50 mL of this substance would be 500 g.

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• 18.

### The graph illustrates changes in a deer population over time. Which most likely led to the change in population size between 1999 and 2000?

• A.

There was a decrease in the predator population.

• B.

Extra rainfall caused an increase in the deer's food source.

• C.

Few variations caused one disease to be able to kill many of the deer.

• D.

Helpful variations caused many of the deer to evolve into new species.

C. Few variations caused one disease to be able to kill many of the deer.
Explanation
The correct answer suggests that the change in population size between 1999 and 2000 was likely caused by a few variations that made the deer susceptible to a disease that killed many of them. This explanation implies that the decrease in population size was a result of a disease outbreak that affected the deer population.

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• 19.

### Variation between members of a species plays an important role in Darwin’s theory of natural selection. What happens to variation in endangered species where the number of individuals is very low?

• A.

They become extinct

• B.

They evolve into a species that can survive

• C.

Few variations occur

• D.

C. Few variations occur
Explanation
In endangered species with a very low number of individuals, there is a reduced gene pool and limited genetic diversity. This lack of genetic variation makes it difficult for new variations to arise through mutations or recombination. As a result, few variations occur within the population. This can be detrimental to the species' ability to adapt to changing environments and increases their vulnerability to extinction.

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• 20.

### What might a series of helpful variations in a species result in?

• A.

• B.

Fossils

• C.

Embryology

• D.

Climate change

Explanation
A series of helpful variations in a species can result in adaptation. This means that over time, the species develops traits that allow it to better survive and reproduce in its environment. These variations can include physical characteristics, behaviors, or physiological changes that give the species an advantage in finding food, avoiding predators, or reproducing successfully. Adaptations are essential for the long-term survival and success of a species.

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• 21.

### Aphids are insects that live on plants. The graph below illustrates how an aphid population changes over time. Which most likely happened at point C?

• A.

A disease killed many of the apHidsâ€™ natural predators

• B.

There was an increase in the apHidsâ€™ food source

• C.

The apHids evolved and developed a new adaptation

• D.

A farmer sprayed the sample area with a new pesticide

D. A farmer sprayed the sample area with a new pesticide
Explanation
At point C, the most likely event that happened is that a farmer sprayed the sample area with a new pesticide. This is because the graph shows a sudden decrease in the aphid population, which is consistent with the effect of pesticide spraying. Pesticides are commonly used to control insect populations, including aphids, by killing them or reducing their numbers. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that the sudden decrease in aphid population at point C is due to the spraying of a new pesticide by the farmer.

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• 22.

### Two different fossils found in the same layer of sedimentary rock are most likely

• A.

Fossils of the same species.

• B.

Fossils that formed in lava that cooled.

• C.

The remains of organisms that have the same relative age.

• D.

The remains of organisms that lived in different climates.

C. The remains of organisms that have the same relative age.
Explanation
Two different fossils found in the same layer of sedimentary rock are most likely the remains of organisms that have the same relative age. Sedimentary rocks are formed by the accumulation of sediments over time, with each layer representing a different time period. Fossils found in the same layer would have been deposited at the same time, indicating that they are of similar age. This suggests that the organisms from which the fossils originated lived around the same time and are therefore likely to have the same relative age.

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• 23.

### The diagram shows four types of fossils and the rock layers in which they were found. Fossil A is located nearest Earth's surface. The oldest fossil is most likely

• A.

Fossil A.

• B.

Fossil B.

• C.

Fossil C.

• D.

Fossil D.

D. Fossil D.
Explanation
Based on the information given, Fossil A is located nearest to Earth's surface. This implies that Fossil A is found in the topmost rock layer, which is the youngest layer. Therefore, the oldest fossil is most likely to be found in the deepest rock layer, which is represented by Fossil D.

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• 24.

### A paleontologist discovers a layer of sedimentary rock filled with fossils of known and unknown species. She collects some of the fossils of the unknown species for further analysis. Which would BEST improve her analysis?

• A.

Dating the unknown fossils with those from known species

• B.

Digging deeper to the next sedimentary layer

• C.

Studying the region's geograpHic isolation

• D.

Collecting all of the unknown fossils

A. Dating the unknown fossils with those from known species
Explanation
To improve her analysis, the paleontologist should date the unknown fossils with those from known species. By comparing the ages of the known and unknown fossils, she can determine the relative age of the unknown species and gain insights into the timeline of their existence. This information can help her understand the evolutionary history and relationships between different species, contributing to a more comprehensive analysis of the fossil layer.

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• 25.

### A dig in a desert finds a large number of fossils of marine (sea) plants and animals thought to be more than 200 million years old. What is the MOST LIKELY explanation for this finding?

• A.

The area was once covered by an ocean.

• B.

The area was a dumping ground for humans that ate sea creatures.

• C.

The area used to receive large amounts of rainfall.

• D.

The area was once covered by a glacier.

A. The area was once covered by an ocean.
Explanation
The presence of marine fossils in a desert suggests that the area was once covered by an ocean. Fossils are the remains or traces of ancient organisms, and the fact that these fossils are of marine plants and animals indicates that there was once a body of water in the area. Over millions of years, geological processes such as tectonic movements or changes in sea level could have caused the ocean to recede, leaving behind the fossils in what is now a desert. The other options, such as human activity or glacial coverage, are less likely explanations as they do not align with the evidence of marine fossils.

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• 26.

### A cross section of rock layers is shown below. Which fossil is found in the oldest layer?

• A.

Dinosaur

• B.

Fish

• C.

Shell

• D.

Leaf

C. Shell
Explanation
The correct answer is shell because in the given cross section of rock layers, the oldest layer is at the bottom. Fossils are typically found in sedimentary rock layers, with the oldest fossils being found in the deepest layers. Since the shell is the only fossil listed and it is found in the oldest layer, it is the correct answer.

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• 27.

### Which of the following is an example of relative age?

• A.

30,000 years ago

• B.

In 300 CE

• C.

In the beginning of the Jurassic period

• D.

After the extinction of Tyrannosaurus rex

D. After the extinction of Tyrannosaurus rex
Explanation
Relative age refers to the age of an event or object in relation to another event or object. In this case, "after the extinction of Tyrannosaurus rex" is an example of relative age because it describes a time period that occurred after the extinction event of the Tyrannosaurus rex. It does not provide an exact date or timeline, but rather establishes a chronological relationship between two events.

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• 28.

### The diagram below shows three substrate layers with fossils. Which statement is best supported by the diagram?

• A.

The fossil in Layer 1 is older than the fossil in Layer 2.

• B.

The fossil in Layer 3 is older than the fossil in Layer 2.

• C.

The fossils in Layers 2 and 3 are from closely related organisms.

• D.

The fossils in Layers 1 and 3 are from closely related organisms.

B. The fossil in Layer 3 is older than the fossil in Layer 2.
Explanation
The diagram shows three substrate layers with fossils. The fossils in Layer 3 are found below the fossils in Layer 2, indicating that they were deposited earlier. Therefore, the fossil in Layer 3 is older than the fossil in Layer 2.

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• 29.

### Which of these is a behavioral adaptation?

• A.

Feathers

• B.

A thick layer of fat under the skin

• C.

A long neck

• D.

Hibernating

D. Hibernating
Explanation
Hibernating is a behavioral adaptation because it is a specific behavior that animals exhibit in response to changing environmental conditions. Hibernation is a period of inactivity and lowered metabolic rate that allows animals to conserve energy during times of food scarcity or extreme cold. This behavior helps them survive unfavorable conditions by reducing their energy expenditure and relying on stored fat reserves.

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• 30.

### Which population would be best adapted to life in a deep lake?

• A.

A population of organisms with long legs

• B.

A population of organisms that use fins for movement

• C.

A population of organisms with wings

• D.

A population of organisms that get their energy from the sun

B. A population of organisms that use fins for movement
Explanation
A population of organisms that use fins for movement would be best adapted to life in a deep lake because fins are specialized appendages that allow for efficient swimming and maneuvering in water. Fins provide stability, control, and propulsion, enabling organisms to navigate through the water column and effectively capture prey or escape predators. In a deep lake, where swimming is the primary mode of movement, fins would be advantageous for these organisms to survive and thrive in their aquatic environment.

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• 31.

### When looking in a book, you see a picture of a small animal with very short light-tan fur, extremely large ears, and padded paws with claws. In which environment is this animal best adapted for survival?

• A.

A river environment

• B.

An arctic environment

• C.

A desert environment

• D.

A rainforest environment

C. A desert environment
Explanation
The animal described in the question has adaptations that are well-suited for survival in a desert environment. The light-tan fur would help it blend in with the sandy surroundings, providing camouflage from predators. The large ears would aid in dissipating heat, as well as enhancing hearing to detect prey or predators. The padded paws with claws would allow it to navigate the sandy terrain more effectively, providing traction and stability. Overall, these adaptations suggest that the animal is best adapted for survival in a desert environment.

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• 32.

### The Burmese python, like other snakes, has a loosely hinged jaw. Which of these best describes an advantage of this adaptation?

• A.

This type of jaw allows the snake to scoop up water from ponds and rives.

• B.

This type of jaw allows the snake to climb and live in trees.

• C.

This type of jaw can be stretched wide, allowing the python to swallow animals that are larger than its head.

• D.

This type of jaw provides no advantage.

C. This type of jaw can be stretched wide, allowing the python to swallow animals that are larger than its head.
Explanation
The Burmese python, like other snakes, has a loosely hinged jaw. This adaptation provides the advantage of allowing the snake to stretch its jaw wide, enabling it to swallow animals that are larger than its head. This is a crucial advantage for the python as it allows it to consume larger prey, which provides more nutrients and sustains its energy levels.

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• 33.

### Which structural adaptation BEST allows a tiger to hunt prey in tall grasses?

• A.

Powerful jaws

• B.

Striped fur

• C.

Long, sharp claws

• D.

Large teeth

B. Striped fur
Explanation
The striped fur of a tiger allows it to blend in with the tall grasses, making it difficult for prey to spot the tiger. This camouflage helps the tiger to approach its prey without being detected, increasing its chances of a successful hunt.

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• 34.

### Which population would best be adapted to maneuver in a rocky, mountainous region?

• A.

A population of organisms with hooves

• B.

A population of organisms with thick fur

• C.

A population of organisms with gills

• D.

A population of organisms with moist skin

A. A population of organisms with hooves
Explanation
A population of organisms with hooves would be best adapted to maneuver in a rocky, mountainous region because hooves provide stability and traction on uneven terrain. The hard, durable structure of hooves allows these organisms to navigate through rocky surfaces without slipping or losing balance. Additionally, hooves can also help distribute weight evenly, which further aids in maneuverability in such challenging environments.

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