2.3 Study Sheet #4

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2.3 Study Sheet #4 - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following do all the terrestrial planets have in common?
    • A. They all have moderate temperatures.
    • B. They all have a solid, rocky surface.
    • C. They all have liquid cores.
    • D. They can all support human life.

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    B. B
    Explanation
    All the terrestrial planets have a solid, rocky surface.

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  • 2. 

    At 15.6 million degrees Celcius, the temperature of the sun's core is high enough for nuclear _____ to occur.

    Correct Answer
    fusion
    nuclear fusion
    Explanation
    At a temperature of 15.6 million degrees Celsius, the sun's core is extremely hot. This high temperature allows for nuclear fusion to occur. Nuclear fusion is the process in which atomic nuclei combine to form heavier nuclei, releasing a tremendous amount of energy in the process. In the sun's core, hydrogen nuclei combine to form helium nuclei through nuclear fusion, releasing a vast amount of energy in the form of light and heat.

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  • 3. 

    Visible light comes from which one of the sun's layers?
    • A. The core
    • B. The radiative zone
    • C. The convection zone
    • D. The photosphere
    • E. The corona

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    Correct Answer
    D. D
    Explanation
    The correct answer is D. The photosphere. The photosphere is the outermost layer of the sun's surface that emits visible light. It is the layer that we see when we look at the sun. The other layers mentioned in the options (core, radiative zone, convection zone, and corona) do not emit visible light.

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  • 4. 

    Solar flares may be seen in the sun's _____.

    Correct Answer
    corona
    Explanation
    Solar flares may be seen in the sun's corona. The corona is the outermost layer of the sun's atmosphere, consisting of extremely hot plasma. Solar flares are intense bursts of radiation and energy that occur on the sun's surface. They are often associated with magnetic activity and can cause disturbances in the Earth's magnetic field and atmosphere. Since the corona is the region where solar flares originate, it is the most likely place to observe them.

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  • 5. 

    Which best describes how the sun rotates?
    • A. The sun rotates once each year.
    • B. The sun does not rotate.
    • C. The sun rotates every 11 years.
    • D. The sun rotates more slowly at its poles.

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    D. D
    Explanation
    The correct answer is D. The sun rotates more slowly at its poles. This is because the sun is a gaseous body and it does not rotate as a solid object. The equator of the sun rotates faster than the poles due to the differential rotation caused by the convective motion of the sun's outer layers. This causes the sun to have a faster rotation at its equator and a slower rotation at its poles.

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  • 6. 

    The sun rotates _______.
    • A. once per year.
    • B. around Earth once per year.
    • C. every 31 days.
    • D. at different speeds along its sphere.

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    D. D
    Explanation
    The correct answer is D. The sun rotates at different speeds along its sphere. This means that different parts of the sun rotate at different speeds. The equator of the sun rotates faster than the poles, which is known as differential rotation. This differential rotation is caused by the sun's composition and magnetic field.

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  • 7. 

    It takes an extremely high temperature for nuclear _____ to occur inside the sun.

    Correct Answer
    fusion
    nuclear fusion
    Explanation
    Nuclear fusion is the process in which two atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus, releasing a large amount of energy in the process. This process is what powers the sun and other stars. The phrase "nuclear _____" suggests that the missing word is related to nuclear reactions, and "fusion" is the most appropriate term to complete the sentence. Therefore, the correct answer is "fusion" or "nuclear fusion."

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  • 8. 

    Prominences may be seen in the sun's _____.

    Correct Answer
    corona
    Explanation
    Prominences are large, bright, gaseous features that are often seen extending from the sun's corona. The corona is the outermost layer of the sun's atmosphere, consisting of extremely hot plasma. Prominences are formed by the interaction between the sun's magnetic field and the plasma in the corona. They can appear as loops, arcs, or sheets of glowing gas, and can extend for thousands of kilometers above the sun's surface. Therefore, it is correct to say that prominences may be seen in the sun's corona.

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  • 9. 

    How do we know the sun rotates?
    • A. Both sides are red-shifted.
    • B. Both sides are blue-shifted.
    • C. Because Earth rotates.
    • D. One side is blue-shifted and the other side is red-shifted.

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    D. D
    Explanation
    We know the sun rotates because one side is blue-shifted and the other side is red-shifted. This is known as the Doppler effect, where the wavelengths of light from an object moving towards us (blue-shifted) are shorter, and the wavelengths of light from an object moving away from us (red-shifted) are longer. By observing the different shifts in the wavelengths of light from different sides of the sun, we can conclude that it is rotating.

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  • 10. 

    What do all of the terrestrial planets have in common?
    • A. They all have solid cores.
    • B. They all have rocky surfaces.
    • C. They all have liquid cores.
    • D. They all have liquid water.

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    B. B
    Explanation
    All of the terrestrial planets have rocky surfaces. This means that the outer layer of these planets is composed of solid rock rather than gas or liquids. This is in contrast to the gas giants, which have thick atmospheres and do not have solid surfaces.

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  • 11. 

    In which layer of the sun is energy transferred between atoms?
    • A. The core
    • B. The radiative zone
    • C. The photosphere
    • D. The convection zone
    • E. The corona

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    Correct Answer
    D. D
    Explanation
    In the convection zone of the sun, energy is transferred through the movement of hot plasma. This layer is located just below the photosphere and is characterized by convective currents that transport energy from the interior of the sun to its outer layers.

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  • 12. 

    Why are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars called the "terrestrial" planets?
    • A. They all have solid cores.
    • B. They are all made of rock.
    • C. They all have liquid cores and rocky surfaces.
    • D. They have all been able to support some form of life.

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    B. B
    Explanation
    The reason Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are called the "terrestrial" planets is because they are all made of rock. They have solid surfaces and are primarily composed of silicate rocks and metals. This distinguishes them from the gas giants, such as Jupiter and Saturn, which have a mostly gaseous composition.

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  • 13. 

    The sun produces energy from matter in its core through the process of _______.

    Correct Answer
    fusion
    nuclear fusion
    nuclearfusion
    Explanation
    The sun produces energy from matter in its core through the process of fusion, specifically nuclear fusion. Fusion is the process in which two atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus, releasing a large amount of energy in the process. In the sun's core, hydrogen nuclei combine to form helium nuclei, releasing a tremendous amount of energy in the form of light and heat. This process is known as nuclear fusion and is the primary source of the sun's energy.

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  • 14. 

    Which lists the terrestrial planets in order from smallest to largest?
    • A. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
    • B. Mercury, Venus, Mars, Earth
    • C. Mercury, Mars, Venus, Earth
    • D. Mercury, Mars, Earth, Venus

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    C. C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is C because it lists the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Mars, Venus, Earth) in order from smallest to largest.

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  • 15. 

    Of all the rocky planets, Mars is the one humans are most likely to colonize.
    • A. True
    • B. False

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Mars is considered the most likely planet for humans to colonize among all the rocky planets. This is because Mars has several characteristics that make it a potential candidate for colonization, such as its proximity to Earth, its similar day-night cycle, and the presence of water ice. Additionally, Mars has been the focus of numerous space exploration missions and research, with plans for future manned missions to the planet. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that Mars is the most likely rocky planet for human colonization.

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  • 16. 

    Which planet experiences the smallest range of temperatures?
    • A. Earth
    • B. Venus
    • C. Mercury
    • D. Mars

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    A. A
    Explanation
    Earth experiences the smallest range of temperatures compared to the other planets listed. This is because Earth has a relatively stable climate due to its atmosphere, which helps regulate temperature by trapping heat and distributing it evenly. Venus, on the other hand, experiences extreme temperatures due to its thick atmosphere and greenhouse effect. Mercury has a large temperature range because it lacks an atmosphere to regulate heat. Mars also has a large temperature range due to its thin atmosphere and distance from the sun.

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  • 17. 

    Of all the rocky planets, Venus is the one humans are most likely to colonize.
    • A. True
    • B. False

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Venus is not the planet that humans are most likely to colonize among all the rocky planets. While Venus is similar in size and composition to Earth, it has a hostile environment with extremely high temperatures, toxic atmosphere, and crushing atmospheric pressure. Mars is considered a more viable option for human colonization due to its closer proximity to Earth, the potential for water resources, and a more moderate climate. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 18. 

    Which planet experiences the widest range of temperatures?
    • A. Mercury
    • B. Venus
    • C. Earth
    • D. Mars

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    A. A
    Explanation
    Mercury experiences the widest range of temperatures compared to the other planets listed. This is because Mercury is the closest planet to the sun and has very little atmosphere to retain heat. During its daytime, temperatures on Mercury can reach up to 800 degrees Fahrenheit (430 degrees Celsius), while during its nighttime, temperatures can drop to -290 degrees Fahrenheit (-180 degrees Celsius). This extreme difference in temperature makes Mercury the planet with the widest range of temperatures.

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  • 19. 

    Which planet has high temperatures due to the runaway greenhouse effect?
    • A. Venus
    • B. Earth
    • C. Mercury
    • D. Mars

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    A. A
    Explanation
    Venus has high temperatures due to the runaway greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect occurs when certain gases in a planet's atmosphere trap heat from the sun, causing the planet to warm up. On Venus, the atmosphere is mostly made up of carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas. The thick atmosphere on Venus traps heat, causing the temperatures to rise to extremely high levels, making it the hottest planet in our solar system.

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