2(A) How To Read Academic Research

11 Questions | Total Attempts: 79

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How to Read Academic Research Quiz 2


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    When comparing two groups in a sample, an insignificant p-value indicates
    • A. 

      This (sample) difference could have easily occurred even if the two (population) groups were the same

    • B. 

      The two groups do not differ in the population

    • C. 

      The two groups do not differ in the sample

    • D. 

      This (sample) difference could have easily occurred even if the two (population) groups were the completely different

  • 2. 
    Which of the following is an unacceptable interpretation of a statistically non-significant variable?  
    • A. 

      We can’t confidently tell the effect of this item

    • B. 

      We can’t tell if the population groups that differ based on this item also differ in the outcome variable

    • C. 

      The population groups that differ based on this item do not differ in the outcome variable

    • D. 

      This (sample) difference could have easily occurred even if the population showed no difference

  • 3. 
    A 95% confidence interval indicates that  
    • A. 

      The true population value is within 95% of the range of this confidence interval

    • B. 

      This confidence interval is within 95% of the true population

    • C. 

      The mean of the sample is within 95% of the mean of the confidence interval

    • D. 

      If you kept taking random samples, 95% of the time the sample value would appear inside the confidence interval associated with each sample

    • E. 

      If you kept taking random samples, 95% of the time the true (population) value would appear inside the confidence interval associated with each sample

  • 4. 
    If we analyzed 100 random variables with inferential statistics, how many of them would we expect to be statistically significantly associated with a random outcome?
    • A. 

      All of them

    • B. 

      None of them

    • C. 

      About 5

    • D. 

      About 95

    • E. 

      About 20

  • 5. 
    If a researcher tests 100 variables to find two statistically significant factors, but then reports that he only tested those two variables, the associated p-values are not valid due to the statistical problem of
    • A. 

      Multiple comparisons

    • B. 

      Statistical significance

    • C. 

      Lying bastards

    • D. 

      Statistical magnitude

    • E. 

      Correlation

  • 6. 
    Why might a relationship of high significance but tiny magnitude not have any practical importance?  
    • A. 

      Because the relationship is likely due to random chance

    • B. 

      Because even if the relationship exists, the effect of the relationship might be so small that we don’t care

    • C. 

      Because the relationship is likely impaired by multiple comparison

    • D. 

      Because highly significant relationships cannot actually have very small magnitude

    • E. 

      Because practical importance requires statistical significance

  • 7. 
    Even if we don’t know the underlying statistical methodology, a statistically significant negative coefficient can usually tell all of the following EXCEPT,
    • A. 

      The associated variable is negatively related to the outcome

    • B. 

      The associated variable has an opposite relationship with the outcome as compared with another significant positive variable

    • C. 

      The associated variable is probably more strongly negative in its association with the outcome than another variable with a much smaller negative coefficient where both variables have similar standard error

    • D. 

      The associated variable causes the outcome

  • 8. 
    When is an odds ratio negative?  
    • A. 

      When in the sample, the variable of interest is higher when the outcome variable is lower

    • B. 

      When in the sample, the variable of interest is lower when the outcome variable is higher

    • C. 

      When in the sample, the variable of interest is higher when the outcome variable is higher

    • D. 

      When in the sample, the variable of interest is lower when the outcome variable is lower

    • E. 

      Never

  • 9. 
    Which academic search engine will give you the largest number of documents related to your academic search?
    • A. 

      Google scholar

    • B. 

      Web of Science

    • C. 

      Econ Lit

    • D. 

      Blackboard

    • E. 

      Psychtoolbox

  • 10. 
    Statistical significance tells us
    • A. 

      The chance that the association found was due to an unusual random sample from a population in which there was no underlying association

    • B. 

      The chance that the association found has practical significance

    • C. 

      The chance that the association found was due to an unusual random sample from a population in which there was an underlying association

    • D. 

      The magnitude of the underlying association

    • E. 

      If there is a causal relationship between the significant factor and the measured outcome

  • 11. 
    A p-value of less than .05 (p<.05) means
    • A. 

      There is greater than a 5% chance that the result was caused by an unusual random sample where there was no actual (population) difference

    • B. 

      There is less than a .05% chance that the result was caused by an unusual random sample where there was no actual (population) difference

    • C. 

      There is less than a .05% chance that the result was caused by an unusual random sample where there was no actual (population) difference

    • D. 

      There is less than a 5% chance that the result was caused by an unusual random sample where there was no actual (population) difference

    • E. 

      There is a causal relationship between the significant factor and the measured outcome

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