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Chem Jan 2012 Regents

50 Questions
Chem Jan 2012 Regents

Use your Reference Table. As you go over this test, eliminate any wrong answers.

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What is the number of electrons in a completely filled second shell of an atom? 
    • A. 

      32

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      18

    • D. 

      8

  • 2. 
    What is the number of electrons in an atom that has 3 protons and 4 neutrons? 
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      7

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

  • 3. 
    As a result of the gold foil experiment, it was concluded that an atom 
    • A. 

      Contains protons, neutrons, and electrons

    • B. 

      Contains a small, dense nucleus

    • C. 

      Has positrons and orbitals

    • D. 

      Is a hard, indivisible sphere

  • 4. 
    Which statement describes the distribution of charge in an atom? 
    • A. 

      A neutral nucleus is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons.

    • B. 

      A neutral nucleus is surrounded by one or more positively charged electrons.

    • C. 

      A positively charged nucleus is surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons.

    • D. 

      A positively charged nucleus is surrounded by one or more positively charged electrons.

  • 5. 
    Which atom in the ground state has an outermost electron with the most energy? 
    • A. 

      Cs

    • B. 

      K

    • C. 

      Li

    • D. 

      Na

  • 6. 
    Which particle has the least mass?
    • A. 

      Alpha particle

    • B. 

      Beta particle

    • C. 

      Neutron

    • D. 

      Proton

  • 7. 
    The elements in Group 2 are classified as    
    • A. 

      Metals

    • B. 

      Metalloids

    • C. 

      Nonmetals

    • D. 

      Noble gases

  • 8. 
    Which list includes elements with the most similar chemical properties? 
    • A. 

      Br, Ga, Hg

    • B. 

      Cr, Pb, Xe

    • C. 

      O, S, Se

    • D. 

      N, O, F

  • 9. 
    • A. 

      Mass number, only

    • B. 

      Atomic number, only

    • C. 

      Both mass number and atomic number

    • D. 

      Neither mass number nor atomic number

  • 10. 
    Which pair represents two forms of an element in the same phase at STP but with different structures and different properties? 
    • A. 

      I2(s) and I2(g)

    • B. 

      O2(g) and O3(g)

    • C. 

      H2(g) and Hg(g)

    • D. 

      H2O(s) and H2O(l)

  • 11. 
    The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing 
    • A. 

      Atomic mass

    • B. 

      Atomic number

    • C. 

      Molar mass

    • D. 

      Oxidation number

  • 12. 
    What is the IUPAC name for the compound ZnO? 
    • A. 

      Zinc oxide

    • B. 

      Zinc oxalate

    • C. 

      Zinc peroxide

    • D. 

      Zinc hydroxide

  • 13. 
    Which atom attains a stable valence electron configuration by bonding with another atom? 
    • A. 

      Neon

    • B. 

      Radon

    • C. 

      Hydrogen

    • D. 

      Helium

  • 14. 
    An ionic bond can be formed when one or more electrons are 
    • A. 

      Equally shared by two atoms

    • B. 

      Unequally shared by two atoms

    • C. 

      Transferred from the nucleus of one atom to the nucleus of another atom

    • D. 

      Transferred from the valence shell of one atom to the valence shell of another atom

  • 15. 
    Which sample of CO2 has a definite shape and a definite volume? 
    • A. 

      CO2 (aq)

    • B. 

      CO2 (g)

    • C. 

      CO2 (l)

    • D. 

      CO2 (s)

  • 16. 
    What occurs in order to break the bond in a Cl2 molecule? 
    • A. 

      Energy is absorbed.

    • B. 

      Energy is released.

    • C. 

      The molecule creates energy.

    • D. 

      The molecule destroys energy.

  • 17. 
    A sealed, rigid 1.0-liter cylinder contains He gas at STP. An identical sealed cylinder contains Ne gas at STP. These two cylinders contain the same number of 
    • A. 

      Atoms

    • B. 

      Electrons

    • C. 

      Ions

    • D. 

      Protons

  • 18. 
    Which statement describes a chemical change?    
    • A. 

      Alcohol evaporates.

    • B. 

      Water vapor forms snowflakes.

    • C. 

      Table salt (NaCl) is crushed into powder.

    • D. 

      Glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen produce CO2 and H2O.

  • 19. 
    Which statement describes the particles of an ideal gas according to the kinetic molecular theory? 
    • A. 

      The gas particles are arranged in a regular geometric pattern.

    • B. 

      The gas particles are in random, constant, straight-line motion.

    • C. 

      The gas particles are separated by very small distances, relative to their sizes.

    • D. 

      The gas particles are strongly attracted to each other.

  • 20. 
    Which sample of matter is classified as a substance? 
    • A. 

      Air

    • B. 

      Ammonia

    • C. 

      Milk

    • D. 

      Seawater

  • 21. 
    Which element has the lowest electronegativity value? 
    • A. 

      F

    • B. 

      Fr

    • C. 

      Cl

    • D. 

      Cr

  • 22. 
    At standard pressure, CH4 boils at 112 K and H2O boils at 373 K. What accounts for the higher boiling point of H2O at standard pressure? 
    • A. 

      Covalent bonding

    • B. 

      Ionic bonding

    • C. 

      Hydrogen bonding

    • D. 

      Metallic bonding

  • 23. 
    A mixture of sand and table salt can be separated by filtration because the substances in the mixture differ in 
    • A. 

      Boiling point

    • B. 

      Density at STP

    • C. 

      Freezing point

    • D. 

      Solubility in water

  • 24. 
    Systems in nature tend to undergo changes toward 
    • A. 

      Lower energy and lower entropy

    • B. 

      Lower energy and higher entropy

    • C. 

      Higher energy and lower entropy

    • D. 

      Higher entropy and higher entropy

  • 25. 
    In the wave-mechanical model of the atom, an orbital is the most probable location of 
    • A. 

      A proton

    • B. 

      A positron

    • C. 

      A neutron

    • D. 

      An electron

  • 26. 
    Functional groups are used to classify    
    • A. 

      Organic compounds

    • B. 

      Inorganic compounds

    • C. 

      Heterogeneous mixtures

    • D. 

      Homogeneous mixtures

  • 27. 
    Which class of compounds contains at least one element from Group 17 of the Periodic Table?
    • A. 

      Aldehyde

    • B. 

      Amine

    • C. 

      Ester

    • D. 

      Halide

  • 28. 
    In a propanal molecule, an oxygen atom is bonded with a carbon atom.  What is the total number of pairs of electrons shared between these atoms?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

  • 29. 
    When a voltaic cell operates, ions move through the 
    • A. 

      Anode

    • B. 

      Cathode

    • C. 

      Salt bridge

    • D. 

      External circuit

  • 30. 
    When dissolved in water, an Arrhenius base yields
    • A. 

      Hydrogen ions

    • B. 

      Hydronium ions

    • C. 

      Hydroxide ions

    • D. 

      Oxide ions

  • 31. 
    What is the total number of valence electrons in a germanium atom in the ground state? 
    • A. 

      22

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      32

    • D. 

      4

  • 32. 
    Which element is paired with an excited-state electron configuration for an atom of the element? 
    • A. 

      Ca: 2-8-8-2

    • B. 

      Na: 2-8-2

    • C. 

      K: 2-6-8-3

    • D. 

      F: 2-8

  • 33. 
    Given the balanced equations representing two chemical reactions:      Cl2 + 2NaBr → 2NaCl + Br2      2NaCl → 2Na + Cl2 Which types of chemical reactions are represented by these equations? 
    • A. 

      Single replacement and decomposition

    • B. 

      Single replacement and double replacement

    • C. 

      Synthesis and decomposition

    • D. 

      Synthesis and double replacement

  • 34. 
    An ion that consists of 7 protons, 6 neutrons, and 10 electrons has a net charge of 
    • A. 

      4−

    • B. 

      3−

    • C. 

      3+

    • D. 

      4+

  • 35. 
    Which Lewis electron-dot diagram represents a molecule having a nonpolar covalent bond? 
    • A. 
    • B. 
    • C. 
    • D. 
  • 36. 
    Which quantity is equal to 50 kilojoules?    
    • A. 

      0.05 J

    • B. 

      5000 J

    • C. 

      500 J

    • D. 

      50 000 J

  • 37. 
    Which compound is formed from its elements by an exothermic reaction at 298 K and 101.3 kPa? 
    • A. 

      C2H4 (g)

    • B. 

      HI (g)

    • C. 

      H2O (g)

    • D. 

      NO2 (g)

  • 38. 
    At which temperature is the vapor pressure of ethanol equal to 80. kPa? 
    • A. 

      48°C

    • B. 

      73°C

    • C. 

      80.°C

    • D. 

      101°C

  • 39. 
    At 25°C, gas in a rigid cylinder with a movable piston has a volume of 145 mL and a pressure of 125 kPa. Then the gas is compressed to a volume of 80. mL. What is the new pressure of the gas if the temperature is held at 25°C? 
    • A. 

      69 kPa

    • B. 

      93 kPa

    • C. 

      160 kPa

    • D. 

      230 kPa

  • 40. 
    A 2400.-gram sample of an aqueous solution contains 0.012 gram of NH3. What is the concentration of NH3 in the solution, expressed as parts per million? 
    • A. 

      5.0 ppm

    • B. 

      15 ppm

    • C. 

      20. ppm

    • D. 

      50. ppm

  • 41. 
    Which equation represents a change that results in an increase in disorder? 
    • A. 

      I2 (s) → I2 (g)

    • B. 

      CO2 (g) → CO2 (s)

    • C. 

      2Na (s) + Cl2 (g) → 2NaCl (s)

    • D. 

      2H2 (g) + O2 (g) → 2H2O (l)

  • 42. 
    A solution consists of 0.50 mole of CaCl2 dissolved in 100. grams of H2O at 25°C. Compared to the boiling point and freezing point of 100. grams of H2O at standard pressure, the solution at standard pressure has 
    • A. 

      A lower boiling point and a lower freezing point

    • B. 

      A lower boiling point and a higher freezing point

    • C. 

      A higher boiling point and a lower freezing point

    • D. 

      A higher boiling point and a higher freezing point

  • 43. 
    Given the balanced ionic equation representing a reaction:  Which half-reaction represents the reduction that occurs? 
    • A. 
    • B. 
    • C. 
    • D. 
  • 44. 
    Given the equation and potential energy diagram representing a reaction:  If each interval on the axis labeled “Potential Energy (kJ/mol)” represents 10. kJ/mol, what is the heat of reaction? 
    • A. 

      +60. kJ/mol

    • B. 

      +20. kJ/mol

    • C. 

      +30. kJ/mol

    • D. 

      +40. kJ/mol

  • 45. 
    Some solid KNO3 remains at the bottom of a stoppered flask containing a saturated KNO3(aq) solution at 22°C. Which statement explains why the contents of the flask are at equilibrium? 
    • A. 

      The rate of dissolving is equal to the rate of crystallization.

    • B. 

      The rate of dissolving is greater than the rate of crystallization.

    • C. 

      The concentration of the solid is equal to the concentration of the solution.

    • D. 

      The concentration of the solid is greater than the concentration of the solution.

  • 46. 
    Which formula represents the product of the addition reaction between ethene and chlorine, Cl2? 
    • A. 
    • B. 
    • C. 
    • D. 
  • 47. 
    Based on Reference Table J, which two reactants react spontaneously? 
    • A. 

      Mg(s) + ZnCl2(aq)

    • B. 

      Cu(s) + FeSO4(aq)

    • C. 

      Pb(s) + ZnCl2(aq)

    • D. 

      Co(s) + NaCl(aq)

  • 48. 
    When the pH value of a solution is changed from 2 to 1, the concentration of hydronium ions 
    • A. 

      Decreases by a factor of 2

    • B. 

      Increases by a factor of 2

    • C. 

      Decreases by a factor of 10

    • D. 

      Increases by a factor of 10

  • 49. 
    Given the balanced equation representing a nuclear reaction:  Which phrase identifies and describes this reaction? 
    • A. 

      Fission, mass converted to energy

    • B. 

      Fission, energy converted to mass

    • C. 

      Fusion, mass converted to energy

    • D. 

      Fusion, energy converted to mass

  • 50. 
    Given the equation representing a reversible reaction:  According to one acid-base theory, the reactant that donates an H+ ion in the forward reaction is 
    • A. 

      NH3(g)

    • B. 

      H2O(l)

    • C. 

      NH4+(aq)

    • D. 

      OH (aq)