An Advanced Level Test On The Modern History Of China

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An Advanced Level Test On The Modern History Of China - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In what way, did China and Vietnam differ from the other nations of the Third World?  A) The traditional patterns of civilization in China and Vietnam collapsed, whereas most colonized peoples managed to retain much of their pre-colonial cultures. B) China and Vietnam, unlike most of the other regions of the Third World, were able to establish stable democracies without military interventions. C) China and Vietnam successfully industrialized in the early decades of the twentieth century, whereas most third world nations were unable to escape economic dependency. D) China and Vietnam were not part of the European colonial network, although Japanese imperialism was a factor. E) They never had to deal with the issue of a rapidly expanding population.

    Explanation
    China and Vietnam differed from the other nations of the Third World because the traditional patterns of civilization in China and Vietnam collapsed, while most colonized peoples were able to retain much of their pre-colonial cultures.

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  • 2. 

    In China and Vietnam, a combination of external aggression and internal upheavals discredited and destroyed the: A) middle class B) previously established patterns of industrialization                                                              C) Confucian system D) Communist influence                                                                                                             E) parliamentary system

    Explanation
    In China and Vietnam, a combination of external aggression and internal upheavals discredited and destroyed the Confucian system. The Confucian system, which was based on traditional values, social hierarchy, and obedience to authority, was seen as outdated and ineffective in addressing the challenges and changes brought about by external aggression and internal turmoil. This led to its discrediting and eventual destruction as a dominant ideology in both countries.

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  • 3. 

    The best-positioned contenders for power in the aftermath of the abdication of the Qing were the: A) merchants and bankers of coastal cities.                                                                                 B) warlords or military commanders.                                                                                          C) university students.                                                                                                                 D) secret societies.                                                                                                                                E) forces of modernization.

    Explanation
    The best-positioned contenders for power in the aftermath of the abdication of the Qing were warlords or military commanders. This is because warlords had significant control over regions and possessed military power, which allowed them to exert influence and establish their authority. They had the means to enforce their rule and were able to mobilize armies to maintain control and suppress opposition. Additionally, warlords often had access to resources and wealth, further strengthening their position.

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  • 4. 

    The leader of the Revolutionary Alliance, a loose coalition of anti-Qing political groups that spearheaded the 1911 revolt, was: A) Yuan Shikai. B) Chiang Kai-shek. C) Sun Yat-sen. D) Mao Zedong. E) Zhao En-lai

    Explanation
    Sun Yat-sen was the leader of the Revolutionary Alliance, a loose coalition of anti-Qing political groups that spearheaded the 1911 revolt.

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  • 5. 

    What happened to the parliamentary government established in China by the Revolutionary Alliance in 1912? A) It was overthrown by a Communist insurrection. B) Sun Yat-sen resigned the presidency in favor of the northern warlord, Yuan Shikai. C) The parliamentary government under the presidency of Sun Y at-Sen effectively governed northern China from the capital at Beijing for 20 years.                                             D) The parliamentary government was overthrown by the Boxer rebellion.                                  E) It remained in power until the Japanese invasion of 1931.

    Explanation
    Sun Yat-sen resigned the presidency in favor of the northern warlord, Yuan Shikai.

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  • 6. 

    Japan gained influence in China by seizing the concessionary areas of what European power during World War I? A) Britain B) United States                                                                                                                              C) Russia D) Germany E) Netherlands

    Explanation
    During World War I, Japan gained influence in China by seizing the concessionary areas of Germany.

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  • 7. 

    The initial goal of the May Fourth movement was: A) Communist insurrection. B) ridding China of all Western influences. C) the creation of a liberal democracy along Western lines. D) Chinese subjection to Japan. E) ridding China of all Confucian ideas and practices.

    Explanation
    The initial goal of the May Fourth movement was to rid China of all Western influences. The movement, which emerged in 1919, was a response to the perceived humiliation of China by Western powers, particularly in the aftermath of the Treaty of Versailles. The movement advocated for modernization and the adoption of Western values and institutions in order to strengthen China and regain its sovereignty. The May Fourth movement played a significant role in shaping Chinese politics and society in the 20th century.

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  • 8. 

    10) Most of the members of the early May Fourth movement were: A) warlords.                                                                                                                                B) peasants. C) Communists. D) intellectuals and students. E) European nationals.

    Explanation
    Most of the members of the early May Fourth movement were intellectuals and students. This movement was a cultural and intellectual revolution in China that emerged in response to the Treaty of Versailles, which gave Japan control over German territories in China. Intellectuals and students played a crucial role in advocating for political and cultural reforms, criticizing traditional Chinese values, and promoting Western ideas and democracy. They were at the forefront of the movement, organizing protests, publishing influential articles, and calling for social change.

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  • 9. 

    What made Chinese thinkers aware of a possible Marxist solution to China's ills? A) Russian revolution of 1905                                                                                                     B) Russian revolution of 1917 C) Frederick Engels's visit to China in 1912                                                                                 D) Japanese example E) writings of Mao

    Explanation
    The Russian revolution of 1917 made Chinese thinkers aware of a possible Marxist solution to China's ills. This revolution, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and led to the establishment of a socialist government, inspired many Chinese intellectuals and revolutionaries. They saw the success of the Russian revolution as evidence that Marxism could be a viable solution for China's problems, such as social inequality and foreign imperialism. The Russian revolution served as a model for Chinese revolutionaries and played a significant role in the development of Chinese communism.

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  • 10. 

    The man who headed the study circle at the University of Beijing and who first gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy was: A) Chiang Kai-shek                                                                                                                        B) Li Bo C) Li Dazhao D) Yuan Shikai E) Sun Yat-sen

    Explanation
    The correct answer is C) Li Dazhao. Li Dazhao was a Chinese intellectual and one of the founding members of the Communist Party of China. He played a significant role in introducing Marxist philosophy to China and was the head of the study circle at the University of Beijing, where he gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy. Chiang Kai-shek, Li Bo, Yuan Shikai, and Sun Yat-sen were all important figures in Chinese history, but they were not specifically known for their involvement in studying or promoting Marxist philosophy at the University of Beijing.

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  • 11. 

    13) How did early Chinese Marxist philosophy differ from Lenin's? A) Chinese philosophers emphasized the role of the proletariat in the revolution.                      B) Chinese thinkers stressed the gradualist approach to political change. C) Sun Yat-sen taught that the revolution could only occur after the complete industrialization of China. D) The study circle at the University of Beijing saw the peasants as the vanguard of revolution. E) Chinese philosophers thought that imperialism was the last stage of capitalism.

    Explanation
    Early Chinese Marxist philosophy differed from Lenin's in that the study circle at the University of Beijing saw the peasants as the vanguard of revolution. This is in contrast to Lenin's emphasis on the role of the proletariat in the revolution.

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  • 12. 

    Early Marxist philosophers in China characterized all of China's society as: A) proletarian                                                                                                                              B) peasant C) bourgeois D) westernized E) modem

    Explanation
    Early Marxist philosophers in China characterized all of China's society as proletarian. This means that they believed that the working class, or the proletariat, made up the majority of the population and held the most power and influence in society. They saw the bourgeoisie, or the capitalist class, as a small minority who exploited the proletariat for their own gain. This characterization reflects the Marxist belief in class struggle and the eventual overthrow of the bourgeoisie by the proletariat.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following organizations and publications was NOT associated with the early Marxist movement in China? A) New Youth B) Socialist Youth Corps C) Communist Youth Corps D) Guomindang E) Marx study clubs  

    Explanation
    The correct answer is D) Guomindang. The Guomindang, also known as the Chinese Nationalist Party, was not associated with the early Marxist movement in China. The Guomindang was a political party that emerged in the early 20th century and had a different ideological orientation than Marxism. It was initially allied with the Chinese Communist Party, but later became their political rival. The other options, A) New Youth, B) Socialist Youth Corps, C) Communist Youth Corps, and E) Marx study clubs, were all associated with the early Marxist movement in China.

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  • 14. 

    The founder of the Communist Youth Corps in Paris in 1920 was: A) Mao Zedong.                                                                                                                          B) Zhou Enlai. C) Sun Yat-sen.                                                                                                                                                                          D) Li Dazhao. E) Chiang Kai-shek.

    Explanation
    Zhou Enlai was the founder of the Communist Youth Corps in Paris in 1920. This can be inferred from the given answer choice B. Mao Zedong, Sun Yat-sen, Li Dazhao, and Chiang Kai-shek were all prominent figures in Chinese history, but they were not the founders of the Communist Youth Corps in Paris. Therefore, the correct answer is B.

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  • 15. 

    In 1919, Sun Yat-sen returned to China and attempted to unify the various political organizations struggling for political influence in China by reorganizing the revolutionary movement under what name? A) Socialist Youth Corps B) May Fourth movement                                                                                                               C) Red Army D) Nationalist Party of China                                                                                                        E) Yuan shi-kai movement

    Explanation
    Sun Yat-sen attempted to unify the various political organizations struggling for political influence in China by reorganizing the revolutionary movement under the name "Nationalist Party of China".

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following groups were NOT allied with the Nationalist Party by 1924? A) United States B) Urban businessmen and merchants of the southern coastal cities                                             C) Communists D) Local warlords and the criminal underworld                                                                            E) Green Gang

    Explanation
    The United States was not allied with the Nationalist Party by 1924.

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  • 17. 

    The Chinese Nationalist Party received much of its early foreign assistance from: A) the United States                                                                                                                                                                                   B) Britain C) Soviet Russia D) Japan E) Germany

    Explanation
    The Chinese Nationalist Party received much of its early foreign assistance from Soviet Russia. This suggests that the Soviet Union played a significant role in supporting the Chinese Nationalist Party during its early years.

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  • 18. 

    What was Chiang Kai-shek's initial role within the Chinese Nationalist Party? A) delegate to the League of Nations B) representative at the Treaty of Versailles C) family head of the Green Gang D) head of the Whampoa Military Academy E) writer for The New Youth

    Explanation
    Chiang Kai-shek's initial role within the Chinese Nationalist Party was as the head of the Whampoa Military Academy.

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  • 19. 

    The Nationalist Party's greatest failure was its inability to: A) create a military wing of the party. B) deal with the social and economic crisis of the Chinese peasantry.                                       C) industrialize China. D) rid itself of its ties to the Qing dynasty. E) isolate the Communists.

    Explanation
    The Nationalist Party's greatest failure was its inability to deal with the social and economic crisis of the Chinese peasantry. This suggests that the party was unable to address the issues faced by the rural population, such as poverty, landlessness, and lack of access to basic resources. This failure likely contributed to the party's loss of support and ultimately hindered its ability to effectively govern and address the needs of the Chinese people.

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  • 20. 

    22) What early Communist leader emphasized the role of the peasantry in revolutionary solutions to Chinese problems? A) Sun Yat-sen B) Chiang Kai-shek                                                                                                                       C) Mao Zedong                                                                                                                              D) Yuan Shikai E) LiLisan

    Explanation
    Mao Zedong is the correct answer because he was a prominent early Communist leader in China who emphasized the role of the peasantry in revolutionary solutions to Chinese problems. Mao believed that the peasants, who made up the majority of the population, were the key to achieving a successful revolution and transforming Chinese society. He advocated for their active involvement in the Communist movement and implemented policies that aimed to improve their living conditions and empower them politically. Mao's emphasis on the peasantry set him apart from other leaders like Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek, who focused more on urban elites and military power.

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  • 21. 

    Early Chinese Communist Party thinking was dominated by thinkers such as Li Lisan who emphasized: A) revolution based on the urban working class.                                                                              B) revolution based on the peasantry. C) gradualist responses to China's economic problems. D) equitable redistribution of land. E) the teachings of Confucius.

    Explanation
    Li Lisan and other early Chinese Communist Party thinkers believed in revolution based on the urban working class. This means that they believed that the urban proletariat, or the working class in cities, should be the driving force behind the revolution and the establishment of a communist society. They saw the urban working class as having the potential to overthrow the capitalist system and create a more equitable society. This emphasis on the urban working class was a key aspect of early Chinese Communist Party thinking.

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  • 22. 

    24) Following Sun Yat-sen's death in 1925, what group seized control of the Nationalist Party? A) urban businessmen and merchants of the southern Chinese coast                                            B) communists C) warlords and military chiefs D) peasants E) the middle class

    Explanation
    Following Sun Yat-sen's death in 1925, warlords and military chiefs seized control of the Nationalist Party.

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  • 23. 

    25) Who emerged as the head of the Nationalist party and de facto ruler of China by the late 1920s? A) Sun Yat-sen                                                                                                                                           B) Mao Zedong C) Chiang Kai-shek D) Li Dizhao E) Li Lisan

    Explanation
    Chiang Kai-shek emerged as the head of the Nationalist party and de facto ruler of China by the late 1920s.

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  • 24. 

    26) Open warfare began between the communists and Nationalist party following A) the communist assault on Beijing. B) the intervention of Japan on the side of the Nationalists. C) the announcement of Soviet Russian support for the Nationalist cause D) the Nationalist slaughter of their former allies in Shanghai E) the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is D) the Nationalist slaughter of their former allies in Shanghai. This event led to open warfare between the communists and the Nationalist party. The Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek, turned against their former allies, the communists, and launched a violent crackdown in Shanghai, resulting in the deaths of many communist supporters. This act of betrayal and violence sparked the beginning of open warfare between the two factions.

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  • 25. 

    27) Which of the following groups did NOT initially support the Nationalists in their contest with the Communists for control of China? A) urban businessmen and merchants                                                                                         B) urban workers C) intellectuals and students D) rural landlords E) western powers

    Explanation
    Urban workers initially supported the Communists rather than the Nationalists in their contest for control of China. The Communist Party appealed to the urban workers by promising to improve their working conditions, provide better wages, and address their grievances. The Nationalists, on the other hand, were seen as being more aligned with the interests of the urban bourgeoisie and landlords. This led to the urban workers siding with the Communists, as they believed that the Communist Party would better represent their interests and fight for their rights.

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  • 26. 

    28) What impact did the Nationalist smashing of the workers' movement have on the development of the Communist Party in China? A) It destroyed the early communist movement, leaving only small cells of intellectuals and students. B) The slaughter of the workers in Shanghai had little impact, because the great concentration of workers was in Beijing. C) It allowed Mao's program of revolutionary activity among the peasants to come to the forefront. D) It forced the communists to become increasingly dependent on the Soviet Union. E) It made the Communists less dependent on the USSR.

    Explanation
    The Nationalist smashing of the workers' movement in China had the impact of allowing Mao's program of revolutionary activity among the peasants to come to the forefront. This means that with the destruction of the workers' movement, the focus of the Communist Party shifted towards organizing and mobilizing the rural peasantry. This shift in strategy was crucial in the development of the Communist Party in China, as it laid the foundation for Mao's later successful revolution and the establishment of the People's Republic of China.

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  • 27. 

    29) The center of communist operations in the late 1920s was A) Beijing. B) Hunan province. C) Shanghai. D) Canton. E) Formosa.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is B) Hunan province. During the late 1920s, the center of communist operations was in Hunan province. This province played a crucial role in the early development of the Chinese Communist Party, as it was the birthplace of Mao Zedong, who later became the leader of the party. Mao and other communist leaders organized peasant uprisings and established rural revolutionary bases in Hunan, which eventually led to the formation and expansion of the communist movement in China.

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  • 28. 

    30) The Long March refers to A) the humiliating exportation of Chinese prisoners to Japan. B) the march of 90,000 communists from Hunan to Shaanxi province. C) the Nationalist Party progression from minor movement to ascendancy in China. D) Chiang Kai-shek's assault on the communist stronghold in Beijing. E) a period of civil war during the 19405.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is B) the march of 90,000 communists from Hunan to Shaanxi province. The Long March was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China from 1934 to 1935. The communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Nationalist Party's forces and embarked on a long and arduous journey covering thousands of miles. The march played a significant role in the Chinese Communist Party's rise to power and solidified Mao's leadership within the party.

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  • 29. 

    31) The center of the Communist party in China from 1934 to the mid-1940s was A) Shaanxi province.           B) Hunan province.             C) Beijing.              D) Macao.             E) Korea.

    Explanation
    The center of the Communist party in China from 1934 to the mid-1940s was Shaanxi province.

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  • 30. 

    32) What interrupted Chiang Kai-shek's destruction of the Chinese Communist Party in the late 1930s? A) Russian intervention B) The death of Sun Yat-sen C) Japanese invasion of the Chinese mainland D) The intervention of the United States E) War with Tibet.

    Explanation
    The Japanese invasion of the Chinese mainland interrupted Chiang Kai-shek's destruction of the Chinese Communist Party in the late 1930s. This invasion shifted Chiang's focus from internal conflicts to defending against the Japanese aggression. Chiang had to form a united front with the Chinese Communist Party to fight against the common enemy, which temporarily halted his plans to destroy the party.

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  • 31. 

    33) What was the impact of the Japanese invasion on the relative strengths of the struggle in China between the Nationalist Party and the Communist Party? A) Chiang's position as commander of the Chinese military was enormously strengthened as a result of the Japanese invasion. B) The heroic stand by the Nationalist armies at Beijing aided the position of the Nationalists versus the Communists. C) Communist victories in set-piece battles proved the military superiority of Mao over Chiang. D) Japanese victories robbed the Nationalists of their supporters in the southern cities and diminished Chiang's military reputation as savior of China. E) Because the Communists were in the path of invasion they were the first to be crushed by Japan.  

  • 32. 

    34) The Communist victory over the Nationalist forces was achieved following Chiang's withdrawal to Taiwan in A) 1941.                 B) 1945. C) 1949. D) 1954. E) 1960.

    Explanation
    The Communist victory over the Nationalist forces was achieved following Chiang's withdrawal to Taiwan in 1949.

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  • 33. 

    35) In what way was the Chinese Communist takeover of China different than the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia? A) China was already more industrialized than Russia at the time of the communist success. B) The Russian seizure of power was accomplished without ridding the country of the ruling dynasty. C) The Chinese Communists claimed a unified country and did not experience years of civil war and foreign intervention. D) The Chinese Communist leadership was unable to move directly to the tasks of social reform and economic development. E) The Chinese Communists had the full assistance of another Communist power.

    Explanation
    The Chinese Communist takeover of China was different from the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia because the Chinese Communists claimed a unified country and did not experience years of civil war and foreign intervention. Unlike Russia, China was already more industrialized at the time of the communist success. Additionally, the Russian seizure of power did not involve getting rid of the ruling dynasty, whereas the Chinese Communist leadership was unable to immediately focus on social reform and economic development. Lastly, the Chinese Communists did not have the full assistance of another Communist power, unlike the Bolsheviks in Russia.

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  • 34. 

    36) Which of the following statements is most accurate? A) After the civil war that brought the Communists to power, the country was rapidly demilitarized. B) The Peoples Liberation Army, the source of the Communist rise to power, gained dominance over the Communist Party . C) Most of China was administered by civilian bureaucrats recruited from the old Confucian scholar-gentry . D) The army remained clearly subordinate to the Communist Party, with cadre advisors attached to military contingents. E) Chiang continued to mount effective resistance from Taiwan.

    Explanation
    The statement that is most accurate is option D, which states that the army remained clearly subordinate to the Communist Party, with cadre advisors attached to military contingents. This means that the Communist Party had control over the army and there were advisors from the party attached to the military units. This shows that the Communist Party had a strong influence over the military and maintained control over it.

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  • 35. 

    37) Which of the following statements concerning Chinese foreign policy during the 1950s and 1960s is NOT accurate? A) The Chinese intervened militarily in the conflict between North and South Korea, forcing the United States to settle £or a stalemate a permanent division of the country. B) The close collaboration between the Soviet Union and China that marked the early years of Mao's rule broke down. C) China was able to achieve a close alliance with the emerging Third World government in India as a means of uniting the major powers of Asia. D) China became the first non-industrial nation to explode a nuclear device. E) Japan ceased to be a major factor in Chinese politics.

    Explanation
    During the 1950s and 1960s, China did not achieve a close alliance with the emerging Third World government in India as a means of uniting the major powers of Asia. This statement is not accurate because China and India had strained relations during this time period, with border disputes and conflicts such as the Sino-Indian War in 1962. China instead formed alliances with other countries in the Third World, such as Pakistan.

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  • 36. 

    38) Which of the following statements concerning Chinese domestic policies during the 1950s and 1960s is most accurate? A) Despite pledges made during the civil war, the Communist Party £ailed to undertake substantial land redistribution programs. B) With the introduction of the first five-year plan in 1953, the Communist leadership turned away from the peasantry. C) Increasingly Mao came to embrace the old Confucian concept of a bureaucratic elite as the means of government. D) Mao's primary trust came to rest in a group of intellectuals associated with the University of Beijing. E) Many steps were taken to improve the lives of small farmers  

  • 37. 

    39) Mao's 1958 program of pushing industrialization through small-scale projects integrated into the peasant communes was called A) the May Fourth program. B) "Thousand Flowers Bloom." C) the Great Leap Forward. D) the Long March. E) the Five Year Plan.

    Explanation
    Mao's 1958 program of pushing industrialization through small-scale projects integrated into the peasant communes was called the Great Leap Forward. This program aimed to rapidly transform China into an industrialized nation by mobilizing the population for large-scale agricultural and industrial production. However, it ultimately led to economic and social disasters, including widespread famine and the death of millions of people.

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  • 38. 

    40) Unlike most third world countries, China responded to its population problem in the mid-1960s by A) accepting U.N. proposals for birth control programs. B) limiting urban couples to two children and rural couples to one. C) refusing to adopt any birth-control programs in order to foster more communist children. D) allowing unrestricted births among the peasantry , but limiting urban couples to one child. E) encouraging emigration to the United States.

    Explanation
    China responded to its population problem in the mid-1960s by limiting urban couples to two children and rural couples to one. This means that China implemented a policy that restricted the number of children that couples in urban areas could have to two, and couples in rural areas could have only one child. This was done in order to control and manage the population growth in the country.

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  • 39. 

    41) By 1960, Mao lost his position as State Chairman A) because of the general and catastrophic failure of the Great Leap Forward.                         B) when he was assassinated by a disgruntled intellectual. C) when he proposed the destruction of Buddhist monasteries throughout China.                       D) following the defeat of Chinese forces in Vietnam. E) because of tensions he created between China and the USSR.

    Explanation
    Mao lost his position as State Chairman by 1960 due to the general and catastrophic failure of the Great Leap Forward. This policy, which aimed to rapidly transform China into an industrialized nation, resulted in widespread famine, economic collapse, and the death of millions of people. The failure of the Great Leap Forward led to a loss of confidence in Mao's leadership and ultimately his removal from power.

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  • 40. 

    42) Which of the following "pragmatists" came to power following Mao's fall in 1960? A) Li Dizhao B) Chiang Kai-shek C) Jiang Qing D) Zhou Enlai E) ]iang Zemin

    Explanation
    Zhou Enlai came to power following Mao's fall in 1960. This is evident from the fact that he is the correct answer to the question.

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  • 41. 

    43) Which of the following principles was NOT part of the Chinese Communist party attitudes towards women'? A) Women should achieve legal equality B) Career opportunities should be open to women, who should work outside of the household C) "Virtue was more important for women than learning" D) "Women hold up half of the heavens" E) Women proved themselves during World War II.

    Explanation
    The Chinese Communist party believed in promoting legal equality for women (A), opening career opportunities for women (B), recognizing the importance of women's contributions (D), and acknowledging women's achievements during World War II (E). However, they did not prioritize learning over virtue for women (C). This principle suggests that the party valued traditional moral values and virtues for women rather than focusing solely on their education and intellectual development.

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  • 42. 

    44) Mao's last campaign, launched in 1965, was the A) Long March. B) Cultural Revolution. C) Great Leap Forward. D) May Fourth movement. E) Decembrist movement.

    Explanation
    Mao's last campaign, launched in 1965, is commonly known as the Cultural Revolution. This campaign aimed to reassert Mao's dominance over the Communist Party and eliminate any perceived threats to his leadership. It involved widespread purges, mass mobilization of students and workers, and the destruction of traditional Chinese culture and institutions. The Cultural Revolution had a devastating impact on Chinese society, causing widespread chaos, violence, and economic disruption. It only ended with Mao's death in 1976.

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  • 43. 

    45) The "Gang of Four" were A) the temporarily dismissed "pragrimatists," who sought to remove Mao from power. B) Britain, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States-identified by Mao as China's chief rivals. C) Jiang Qing and three allies who contested for power with the "pragmatists" on behalf of the aging Mao! D) university intellectuals identified as "capitalist roaders" during the Cultural Revolution. E) China, Japan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, the four postwar Asian economic powers.

    Explanation
    The "Gang of Four" refers to Jiang Qing and three allies who contested for power with the "pragmatists" on behalf of the aging Mao during the Cultural Revolution. This group played a significant role in promoting Mao's radical policies and suppressing opposition. They were eventually arrested and tried for their actions after Mao's death.

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  • 44. 

    46) During the 1980s, all of the following were typical of the Chinese government EXCEPT A) encouragement of private market production for the peasantry.                                             B) private enterprise within the industrial sector.                                                                             C) domination by the "pragmatists."                                                                                              D) democratic reform. E) continued oppression of the masses.

    Explanation
    During the 1980s, the Chinese government encouraged private market production for the peasantry (A), allowed private enterprise within the industrial sector (B), and was dominated by the "pragmatists" (C). However, democratic reform (D) was not typical of the Chinese government during this time. Therefore, the correct answer is E, continued oppression of the masses.

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  • 45. 

    47) In which of the following ways were the preconditions for revolution in Vietnam NOT similar to those in China? A) Possession of a polity based on the Confucian system of China A polity or policy? B) Failure of imperial government to respond to foreign intervention leading to complete collapse of dynastic system C) Actual colonization by a European power D) Radical rather than gradualist solutions to reconstruction E) Ancient civilization feeling oppressed by the West

    Explanation
    The preconditions for revolution in Vietnam were similar to those in China in terms of the failure of imperial government to respond to foreign intervention leading to the collapse of the dynastic system (B) and the ancient civilization feeling oppressed by the West (E). However, the preconditions in Vietnam were different from China in terms of the possession of a polity based on the Confucian system (A) and actual colonization by a European power (C). Additionally, the radical rather than gradualist solutions to reconstruction (D) were also not similar between Vietnam and China.

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  • 46. 

    48) From the seventeenth century, Vietnam had been part of the colonial system of what European power? A) Britain B) Portugal C) Spain D) France E) The Netherlands

    Explanation
    From the seventeenth century, Vietnam had been part of the colonial system of France. This can be inferred from the fact that France colonized Vietnam during this time period and established control over the country. The French colonial rule in Vietnam lasted for several decades until it ended in the mid-20th century.

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  • 47. 

    49) The Vietnamese rebellion that toppled both the Trinh and the Nguyen dynasties of the eighteenth century was the A) Tayson.                                                                                                                                                  B) Boxer. C) Mekong. D) Chu Lai. E) Indochina.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is A) Tayson. The Tayson rebellion was a major uprising in Vietnam during the late 18th century that led to the overthrow of both the Trinh and Nguyen dynasties. The rebellion was led by the Tayson brothers, who were able to gain support from various social classes and regions of Vietnam. They established their own dynasty and ruled for a brief period before being defeated by the Nguyen dynasty. The Tayson rebellion had a significant impact on Vietnamese history and marked a shift in power dynamics within the country.

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  • 48. 

    50) The French intervened in the eighteenth century Vietnamese rebellion and supported A) the Chu Lai.                                                                                                                             B) the Tayson. C) NguyenAnh. D) Hong Trinh. E) the Boxers.

    Explanation
    The French intervened in the eighteenth century Vietnamese rebellion and supported Nguyen Anh.

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  • 49. 

    51) The outcome of the eighteenth century Vietnamese rebellion was A) the unification of the country under a single emperor at Hue.                                                                        B) the expulsion of the French from Vietnam. C) the victory of the Tayson and the creation of a new dynasty under Chu Lai. D) the destruction of all rebels by the French and the establishment of direct French administration. E) Chinese tolerance

    Explanation
    The correct answer is A) the unification of the country under a single emperor at Hue. This means that as a result of the Vietnamese rebellion in the eighteenth century, the country was unified under one emperor who ruled from the city of Hue. This suggests that the rebellion was successful in overthrowing previous rulers and establishing a new centralized authority. The other answer choices do not mention the unification of the country or the establishment of a new emperor, making them incorrect.

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  • 50. 

    52) By what decade did the French manage to achieve control of all of Vietnam? A) 1810s                B) 1840s                 C) 1870s                 D) 1890s                 E) 1770s

    Explanation
    In the 1890s, the French managed to achieve control of all of Vietnam.

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  • Current Version
  • Jan 11, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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    Quiz Created by
    Waterbug
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