Viruses And Antiviral Drugs

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Viruses And Antiviral Drugs - Quiz


Based on Hussmann's lecture, all questions are multiple-multiple choice.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which are highest risk viri?

    • A.

      Flu

    • B.

      HIV

    • C.

      West nile

    • D.

      Ebola

    • E.

      HPV

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Flu
    B. HIV
    C. West nile
    D. Ebola
    E. HPV
    Explanation
    The highest risk viruses mentioned in the options are flu, HIV, west nile, ebola, and HPV. These viruses are considered high risk due to their ability to cause severe illnesses and have a significant impact on public health. The flu virus is highly contagious and can lead to severe respiratory symptoms. HIV is a sexually transmitted virus that weakens the immune system, making individuals susceptible to various infections. West Nile virus is transmitted through mosquito bites and can cause neurological complications. Ebola is a highly infectious virus that can lead to severe hemorrhagic fever. HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that can cause various types of cancers.

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  • 2. 

    How do viri survive?

    • A.

      Mutualism

    • B.

      Parasitism

    • C.

      Commensalism

    Correct Answer
    B. Parasitism
    Explanation
    Parasitism is the correct answer because viruses survive by infecting host cells and using their cellular machinery to replicate and produce more viruses. In this relationship, the virus benefits by obtaining resources and shelter from the host, while the host is harmed or negatively affected. This type of interaction is characteristic of parasitism, where one organism benefits at the expense of another.

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  • 3. 

    Virus life cycles are

    • A.

      Lytic

    • B.

      Lysogenic

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Lytic
    B. Lysogenic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "lytic, lysogenic". Virus life cycles can be either lytic or lysogenic. In the lytic cycle, the virus immediately takes over the host cell, replicates itself, and then destroys the host cell to release new viral particles. In the lysogenic cycle, the virus integrates its genetic material into the host cell's DNA and remains dormant for a period of time. The viral genetic material is replicated along with the host cell's DNA during cell division. At a later time, the lysogenic cycle may switch to the lytic cycle, leading to the destruction of the host cell and the release of new viral particles.

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  • 4. 

    Virus DNA/RNA is always encased.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Viruses are infectious agents that contain either DNA or RNA as their genetic material. This genetic material is always encased or surrounded by a protective protein coat called a capsid. Some viruses may also have an additional envelope derived from the host cell membrane. This encapsulation is necessary for the virus to protect its genetic material and to facilitate its entry into host cells. Therefore, the statement "Virus DNA/RNA is always encased" is true.

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  • 5. 

    Viri are

    • A.

      Big, mm

    • B.

      Medium, micro m

    • C.

      Small, nm

    Correct Answer
    C. Small, nm
    Explanation
    This question is asking for the size of "Viri". The answer is "small, nm". This means that Viri are small in size and are measured in nanometers (nm).

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  • 6. 

    Classifications of viri depend on

    • A.

      Single or double strand

    • B.

      + or -

    • C.

      Host

    • D.

      Size

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Single or double strand
    B. + or -
    C. Host
    Explanation
    The classifications of viruses depend on several factors. One factor is whether the virus has a single or double strand of genetic material. Another factor is whether the virus has a positive (+) or negative (-) sense RNA or DNA. Additionally, the host organism that the virus infects is also considered in its classification. Finally, the size of the virus is another factor that can be used to classify it. These factors help scientists categorize and study different types of viruses based on their characteristics.

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  • 7. 

    B cells breakdown antibodies.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    B cells do not breakdown antibodies. B cells are responsible for producing and secreting antibodies, not breaking them down. Antibodies are broken down by other cells in the immune system, such as macrophages. Therefore, the statement "B cells breakdown antibodies" is false.

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  • 8. 

    Immune cells have memory

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Immune cells have memory refers to the ability of immune cells to remember specific pathogens or antigens that they have encountered before. This memory allows the immune system to mount a faster and more effective response upon subsequent exposure to the same pathogen, leading to a quicker elimination of the threat. This memory is mainly achieved through the action of specialized immune cells called memory cells, which can persist in the body for a long time after the initial infection or vaccination. This phenomenon is the basis for the development of immunological memory and the effectiveness of vaccines.

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  • 9. 

    The secondary immune response to a virus is big and is called a

    • A.

      Vaccine

    • B.

      Innoculation

    • C.

      Booster

    Correct Answer
    C. Booster
    Explanation
    The secondary immune response to a virus is big because it involves a stronger and faster reaction from the immune system compared to the primary response. This is because the immune system has already encountered the virus before and has memory cells that recognize it. A booster is a term used to describe an additional dose of a vaccine given to enhance and strengthen the immune response. Therefore, a booster is an appropriate term to describe the secondary immune response to a virus.

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  • 10. 

    A virus can hide from immunosurveillance by

    • A.

      Hit and run

    • B.

      Shift and drift

    • C.

      Hide and sleep

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Hit and run
    B. Shift and drift
    C. Hide and sleep
    Explanation
    The given answer options suggest different ways in which a virus can evade immunosurveillance. "Hit and run" implies that the virus quickly infects a host and then moves on, making it difficult for the immune system to detect and respond to it. "Shift and drift" refers to the ability of viruses to constantly mutate and change their surface proteins, evading recognition by the immune system. "Hide and sleep" suggests that the virus can enter a dormant state within the host's cells, avoiding detection and immune response. These strategies allow the virus to successfully hide from immunosurveillance.

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  • 11. 

    Order these from smallest to biggest spread:

    • A.

      Epidemic, pandemic, endemic

    • B.

      Pandemic, endemic, epidemic

    • C.

      Endemic, epidemic, pandemic

    • D.

      Epidemic, endemic, pandemic

    Correct Answer
    D. Epidemic, endemic, pandemic
    Explanation
    The correct order from smallest to biggest spread is epidemic, endemic, pandemic. An epidemic refers to the rapid spread of a disease within a specific community or region. Endemic means that a disease is consistently present in a particular population or area, but the spread is relatively limited. A pandemic, on the other hand, is a global outbreak of a disease that affects a large number of people across different countries or continents. Therefore, epidemic has the smallest spread, followed by endemic, and pandemic has the largest spread.

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  • 12. 

    Flu is an example of

    • A.

      Genetic shift

    • B.

      Genetic drift

    Correct Answer
    B. Genetic drift
    Explanation
    Genetic drift refers to the random changes in the frequency of gene variants within a population over time. It occurs due to chance events rather than natural selection. In the case of the flu, genetic drift can occur when random mutations in the virus's genetic material lead to changes in its characteristics. These changes can potentially affect the virus's ability to infect individuals or evade the immune system. Therefore, flu is an example of genetic drift as it demonstrates random changes in the genetic makeup of the virus over time.

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  • 13. 

    Farmer Ron likes to farm llamas and lions.  Farmer Ron gets sick, then the llamas get sick.  The virus then goes to the lions, where the genetic material gets inserted into a lion virus.  This is called

    • A.

      Genetic shift

    • B.

      Genetic drift

    • C.

      That can happen?

    • D.

      I like llamas

    Correct Answer
    A. Genetic shift
    Explanation
    In this scenario, the explanation for the correct answer, genetic shift, is that it refers to the process where the genetic material from one virus gets inserted into another virus. In this case, the virus from the llamas gets inserted into the lion virus, causing a change in the genetic makeup of the lion virus. This process is known as genetic shift.

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  • 14. 

    Why don't we just block virus replication of DNA?

    • A.

      We don't know how it works

    • B.

      We can't find drugs that target the mechanism

    • C.

      It uses the same mechanism as the host

    Correct Answer
    C. It uses the same mechanism as the host
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that viruses use the same mechanism as the host. This means that blocking virus replication of DNA would also block the replication of the host's DNA, which is essential for the host's survival and normal cellular functions. Therefore, it is not feasible to specifically target virus replication without causing harm to the host organism.

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  • 15. 

    How many strains of herpes are there?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    • E.

      5

    Correct Answer
    B. 2
    Explanation
    There are two strains of herpes, namely herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 typically causes oral herpes, such as cold sores, while HSV-2 is mainly responsible for genital herpes. Both strains are highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with an infected person or through sexual activities.

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  • 16. 

    Which herpes causes genital warts?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    • E.

      5

    Correct Answer
    B. 2
  • 17. 

    Herpes may infect the eye

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Herpes is a viral infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the eye. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can cause a condition called herpes keratitis, which is the inflammation of the cornea. This can lead to symptoms such as eye redness, pain, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light. If left untreated, herpes keratitis can cause scarring and vision loss. Therefore, it is important to recognize the potential for herpes to infect the eye and seek appropriate medical attention if any symptoms occur.

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  • 18. 

    To thrive, herpes must both enter and exit the cell

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Herpes is a viral infection that requires both entry into and exit from host cells to survive and replicate. The virus enters the cell by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface and then fusing its envelope with the cell membrane. Once inside, the viral genetic material is released and used to hijack the cellular machinery for replication. To spread and infect other cells, newly formed viral particles must exit the infected cell. This occurs through a process called budding, where the viral envelope is acquired from the host cell membrane, allowing the virus to be released and infect neighboring cells. Therefore, for herpes to thrive, it is necessary for it to both enter and exit the cell.

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  • 19. 

    What triggers a herpes outbreak?

    • A.

      Stress

    • B.

      Exercise

    • C.

      Immunosuppression

    • D.

      Sex

    • E.

      Using dirty dishes

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Stress
    C. Immunosuppression
    Explanation
    Stress and immunosuppression are known triggers for a herpes outbreak. When a person is under stress, their immune system weakens, making them more susceptible to infections, including the activation of the herpes virus. Similarly, immunosuppression, which can occur due to certain medications or medical conditions, weakens the immune system and allows the herpes virus to become active. Exercise, sex, and using dirty dishes do not directly trigger herpes outbreaks.

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  • 20. 

    Abreva will cure your cold sore 1 day faster than nothing.  This groundbreaking drug works by

    • A.

      Preventing viral entry

    • B.

      Preventing uncoating

    • C.

      Preventing viral exit

    • D.

      Preventing viral fusion

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Preventing viral entry
    D. Preventing viral fusion
    Explanation
    Abreva works by preventing viral entry and viral fusion. This means that it prevents the cold sore virus from entering healthy cells and fusing with them, thereby stopping the virus from replicating and spreading. By blocking these crucial steps in the viral life cycle, Abreva helps to shorten the duration of a cold sore by one day compared to not using any treatment.

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  • 21. 

    Acyclovir is an oral prodrug.  Thymidine kinase turns acyclovir into

    • A.

      Acyclo guanosine monophosphate

    • B.

      Acyclo guanosine triphosphate

    Correct Answer
    A. Acyclo guanosine monophosphate
    Explanation
    Acyclovir is an oral prodrug, meaning it is inactive until it is converted into its active form in the body. Thymidine kinase is the enzyme responsible for this conversion. In this case, thymidine kinase turns acyclovir into acyclo guanosine monophosphate, which is the active form of the drug. This active form is then further converted into acyclo guanosine triphosphate, which is the form that inhibits viral DNA synthesis and replication. Therefore, acyclo guanosine monophosphate is the correct answer as it represents the immediate active form of acyclovir.

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  • 22. 

    Acyclovir has

    • A.

      High bioavailability

    • B.

      Low bioavailability

    Correct Answer
    B. Low bioavailability
    Explanation
    Acyclovir has low bioavailability, which means that only a small percentage of the drug is able to enter the bloodstream and reach its target site. This could be due to factors such as poor absorption, extensive metabolism in the liver, or rapid elimination from the body. As a result, higher doses of acyclovir may be required to achieve the desired therapeutic effect.

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  • 23. 

    Valtrex is taken

    • A.

      Parenterally

    • B.

      Orally

    • C.

      Rectally

    • D.

      Topically

    Correct Answer
    B. Orally
    Explanation
    Valtrex is taken orally because it is available in the form of tablets or capsules that are meant to be swallowed. When taken orally, the medication is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream, allowing it to reach the target area and effectively treat conditions caused by the herpes virus. Taking Valtrex orally is the most common and convenient method of administration for this medication.

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  • 24. 

    Herpevac is FDA approved

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "Herpevac is FDA approved" is false. This means that Herpevac has not been approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration).

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  • 25. 

    HIV is a(n)

    • A.

      Epidemic

    • B.

      Endemic

    • C.

      Pandemic

    Correct Answer
    C. Pandemic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is pandemic. HIV is considered a pandemic because it has spread widely across different countries and continents, affecting a large number of people globally. It is not limited to a specific region or population, making it a global health issue.

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  • 26. 

    HIV is transmitted by

    • A.

      Air

    • B.

      Touch

    • C.

      Blood

    • D.

      Saliva

    Correct Answer
    C. Blood
    Explanation
    HIV is transmitted through blood because the virus can be present in high concentrations in blood and can easily enter the bloodstream of another person through direct contact with infected blood. This can occur through sharing needles, receiving contaminated blood transfusions, or from mother to child during childbirth or breastfeeding. Other modes of transmission, such as air, touch, or saliva, are not significant routes for HIV transmission.

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  • 27. 

    HIV has proteins named

    • A.

      Gag

    • B.

      Chk

    • C.

      Env

    • D.

      RT polymerase

    • E.

      Gen

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Gag
    C. Env
    D. RT polymerase
    Explanation
    The correct answer is gag, env, and RT polymerase. These proteins are all associated with the HIV virus. The gag protein is involved in the packaging and assembly of the viral particles. The env protein is responsible for the attachment and entry of the virus into host cells. The RT polymerase, or reverse transcriptase, is an enzyme that converts the viral RNA into DNA during the replication process. These proteins play crucial roles in the lifecycle of HIV and are important targets for antiviral therapies.

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  • 28. 

    HIV is

    • A.

      Ds

    • B.

      Ss

    • C.

      +

    • D.

      -

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Ss
    C. +
  • 29. 

    CXCR4 and CCR5 are ____ for HIV to enter

    • A.

      Essential

    • B.

      Modulatory

    • C.

      Nonessential

    Correct Answer
    A. Essential
    Explanation
    CXCR4 and CCR5 are essential for HIV to enter because they are co-receptors that the virus uses to bind to and enter target cells. HIV primarily uses either CXCR4 or CCR5, depending on the strain, to attach to CD4 receptors on the surface of immune cells. Without these co-receptors, HIV cannot effectively enter and infect cells, making them essential for the virus's life cycle.

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  • 30. 

    The most common HIV test is the

    • A.

      RT PCR

    • B.

      ELIZA

    • C.

      ELISA

    • D.

      Western blot

    Correct Answer
    C. ELISA
    Explanation
    ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) is the most common HIV test because it is highly sensitive and specific. It detects the presence of HIV antibodies in a person's blood sample. ELISA is a cost-effective and efficient screening test used to identify individuals who may be infected with HIV. It is widely used in healthcare settings and provides reliable results. RT PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction) is another type of HIV test that detects the genetic material of the virus, but it is not as commonly used as ELISA for routine screening purposes. Western blot is a confirmatory test used to validate positive ELISA results.

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  • 31. 

    ELISA gives lots of false positives.  It uses ___ antibody(ies).

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    • E.

      5

    Correct Answer
    B. 2
    Explanation
    ELISA gives lots of false positives because it uses two antibodies. The first antibody binds to the target antigen, and the second antibody, which is labeled with a detection molecule, binds to the first antibody. If there are any non-specific bindings or cross-reactivity with other molecules, it can result in false positive signals. Using two antibodies helps increase the specificity of the assay and reduce false positives.

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  • 32. 

    HAART contains

    • A.

      One drug

    • B.

      Many drugs

    Correct Answer
    B. Many drugs
    Explanation
    HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) is a treatment used for HIV/AIDS. It involves the combination of multiple antiretroviral drugs to effectively suppress the virus and prevent its replication in the body. The use of a single drug would not be as effective in controlling the virus and could lead to the development of drug resistance. Therefore, the correct answer is "many drugs" as HAART typically consists of a combination of different antiretroviral medications.

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  • 33. 

    The best (most effective) HAART contains

    • A.

      2 RT inhibitors and 1 protease inhibitor

    • B.

      2 protease inhibitors and 1 RT inhibitor

    • C.

      3 protease inhibitors

    • D.

      3 RT inhibitors

    Correct Answer
    A. 2 RT inhibitors and 1 protease inhibitor
    Explanation
    The most effective Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) contains 2 RT inhibitors and 1 protease inhibitor. RT inhibitors target the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is essential for the replication of the HIV virus. By inhibiting this enzyme, the virus is unable to replicate and spread. Protease inhibitors, on the other hand, target the protease enzyme, which is responsible for the maturation of new viral particles. By inhibiting this enzyme, protease inhibitors prevent the virus from producing new infectious particles. Combining both types of inhibitors in the HAART regimen ensures a more comprehensive and effective approach to suppressing HIV replication and reducing viral load.

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  • 34. 

    Efavirenz is a(n)

    • A.

      RT inhibitor

    • B.

      Protease inhibitor

    • C.

      Nucleoside analogue

    • D.

      Non nucleoside analogue

    • E.

      Competitive

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. RT inhibitor
    D. Non nucleoside analogue
    Explanation
    Efavirenz is classified as a non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor. RT inhibitors are drugs that inhibit the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which is essential for the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Efavirenz specifically belongs to the non-nucleoside analogue class of RT inhibitors, which means it does not resemble the structure of the nucleoside building blocks of DNA. Instead, it binds to a different site on the reverse transcriptase enzyme, preventing it from functioning properly and inhibiting viral replication.

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  • 35. 

    Zidovudine is

    • A.

      Competitive

    • B.

      Noncompetitive

    • C.

      Nucleoside

    • D.

      Non nucleoside

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Competitive
    C. Nucleoside
    Explanation
    Zidovudine is a competitive nucleoside. This means that it competes with natural nucleosides for binding to the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is involved in the replication of the HIV virus. By binding competitively, zidovudine inhibits the enzyme's activity and prevents the virus from replicating. Being a nucleoside, zidovudine is structurally similar to the building blocks of DNA and can be incorporated into the viral DNA, causing chain termination and further inhibiting viral replication.

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  • 36. 

    Lopinavir inhibits

    • A.

      RT

    • B.

      Protease

    Correct Answer
    B. Protease
    Explanation
    Lopinavir is a medication that inhibits the activity of the protease enzyme. Protease enzymes are responsible for breaking down proteins into smaller peptides. By inhibiting protease, lopinavir prevents the virus from replicating and spreading in the body. This inhibition is important in the treatment of certain viral infections, such as HIV, where protease plays a crucial role in the virus's life cycle. Therefore, the correct answer is "protease."

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  • 37. 

    HAART has

    • A.

      Many side effects

    • B.

      Moderate side effects

    • C.

      No side effects

    Correct Answer
    A. Many side effects
    Explanation
    HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) is a combination of drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS. While it is highly effective in suppressing the virus and improving the immune system, it is also associated with many side effects. These side effects can vary from person to person and may include nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, rash, and changes in body fat distribution. Some side effects can be severe and impact the quality of life for individuals on HAART. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor patients and manage these side effects to ensure the best possible outcomes.

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  • 38. 

    Enfuvirtide blocks HIV

    • A.

      Entry

    • B.

      Exit

    Correct Answer
    B. Exit
    Explanation
    Enfuvirtide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as fusion inhibitors. It works by blocking the entry of the HIV virus into healthy cells, specifically by inhibiting the fusion of the virus with the cell membrane. This prevents the virus from entering and infecting the cell. Therefore, the correct answer is "exit" because enfuvirtide blocks the exit of HIV from infected cells, thereby inhibiting the spread of the virus.

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  • 39. 

    Maraviroc blocks HIV

    • A.

      Entry

    • B.

      Exit

    Correct Answer
    A. Entry
    Explanation
    Maraviroc is a medication used to treat HIV infection. It works by blocking the entry of the virus into human cells. By inhibiting the CCR5 receptor, which is used by HIV to enter CD4+ T cells, maraviroc prevents the virus from infecting these cells. This helps to reduce the spread of HIV in the body and slows down the progression of the disease. Therefore, the correct answer is "entry".

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  • 40. 

    The most common flu type is

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    Correct Answer
    A. A
    Explanation
    The most common flu type is A. This is because type A influenza viruses are capable of infecting both humans and animals, making them more widespread and easily transmitted between species. Type A flu viruses are also known to cause more severe symptoms and can lead to pandemics. In contrast, type B and C influenza viruses primarily infect humans and tend to cause milder illness. Type C flu viruses are less common and generally do not cause outbreaks or epidemics.

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  • 41. 

    Flus vary in these proteins

    • A.

      HA

    • B.

      CA

    • C.

      IA

    • D.

      NA

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. HA
    D. NA
    Explanation
    This answer suggests that the proteins HA and NA are the ones that vary in flus. The other two proteins, CA and IA, are not mentioned as varying in flus.

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  • 42. 

    Flu is spread by

    • A.

      Air

    • B.

      Skin contact

    • C.

      Sex

    • D.

      Blood

    Correct Answer
    A. Air
    Explanation
    The flu is primarily spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, releasing respiratory droplets that can be inhaled by others. This is the most common mode of transmission for the flu virus. Skin contact, sex, and blood are not typical routes of transmission for the flu.

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  • 43. 

    Flu is

    • A.

      +

    • B.

      -

    • C.

      Ss

    • D.

      Ds

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. -
    C. Ss
  • 44. 

    You think you are coming down with a flu.  Should you spend the 10 dollars on Airborne?

    • A.

      Yes

    • B.

      No

    • C.

      I don't have ten dollars

    Correct Answer
    B. No
    Explanation
    The answer "no" suggests that the person should not spend the 10 dollars on Airborne. This could be because Airborne is a dietary supplement that claims to boost the immune system, but there is limited scientific evidence to support its effectiveness in preventing or treating the flu. Therefore, it may not be worth spending the money on this product when there are other more proven methods for managing flu symptoms, such as rest, fluids, and over-the-counter medications.

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  • 45. 

    How is the flu shot made?

    • A.

      The first person who gets the flu that year is used to make vaccine

    • B.

      Antibodies to flu are created in rabbits then injected into humans

    • C.

      Manufacturers guess what strain will be popular that year

    Correct Answer
    C. Manufacturers guess what strain will be popular that year
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Manufacturers guess what strain will be popular that year." This means that the flu shot is made based on the prediction of which strain of the flu virus will be most prevalent in a given year. Manufacturers use data and research to make an educated guess about the strains that are likely to circulate and cause illness. This allows them to produce vaccines that target the specific strains and provide protection against them.

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  • 46. 

    Amantidine is good for flu type

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    Correct Answer
    A. A
    Explanation
    Amantadine is an antiviral medication that is primarily used to treat and prevent influenza A virus infections. It works by inhibiting the replication of the virus, thereby reducing the severity and duration of flu symptoms. This makes option A the correct answer as it states that Amantadine is good for flu type. Option B and C do not provide any relevant information about Amantadine's effectiveness in treating the flu.

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  • 47. 

    Rimantadine crosses the BBB

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Rimantadine does not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a protective barrier that prevents certain substances from freely entering the brain. Rimantadine is a medication used to treat influenza A virus infections, and it primarily acts outside the central nervous system. Therefore, it does not have the ability to cross the BBB and directly affect the brain.

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  • 48. 

    A virus may be used for

    • A.

      Good

    • B.

      Evil

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Good
    B. Evil
    Explanation
    A virus may be used for both good and evil purposes. In the context of cybersecurity, a virus can be used for malicious activities such as stealing sensitive information, damaging computer systems, or spreading malware. On the other hand, viruses can also be utilized for beneficial purposes like testing the security of a system, identifying vulnerabilities, or developing antivirus software. The intention and actions of the person or organization behind the virus determine whether it is being used for good or evil.

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  • 49. 

    Cystic fibrosis may be treated with altered

    • A.

      Adenovirus

    • B.

      Papilloma virus

    • C.

      Simplex virus

    • D.

      HIV

    Correct Answer
    A. Adenovirus
    Explanation
    Adenovirus can be used to treat cystic fibrosis because it is a type of virus that can be genetically modified to deliver healthy copies of the CFTR gene to the cells of the lungs. Cystic fibrosis is caused by a faulty CFTR gene, and by introducing a functional copy of this gene into the affected cells, it can help restore normal function and alleviate the symptoms of the disease. Adenovirus is commonly used in gene therapy because it has the ability to infect a wide range of cell types, making it an effective vehicle for delivering therapeutic genes.

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  • 50. 

    Cystic fibrosis is associated with a faulty

    • A.

      Na channel

    • B.

      Ca channel

    • C.

      Cl channel

    • D.

      K channel

    Correct Answer
    C. Cl channel
    Explanation
    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the production and function of a protein called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). This protein is responsible for regulating the movement of chloride ions across cell membranes. In cystic fibrosis, there is a faulty chloride channel, meaning that the CFTR protein is either absent or not functioning properly. This leads to the accumulation of thick, sticky mucus in various organs, particularly the lungs and digestive system, causing a range of symptoms and complications.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • May 22, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 19, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Icanhasfarm
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