# Steering And Suspension-(S)

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Unit Test

• 1.

### Tech A says that the steering column transfers the linear movement of the steering wheel to the steering knuckle. Tech B says that the steering wheel transmits the driver's steering effort from the steering wheel to the steering box. Who is correct?

• A.

Tech A

• B.

Tech B

• C.

Both Techs A and B

• D.

Neither Tech A nor B

B. Tech B
Explanation
Tech B is correct. The steering wheel transmits the driver's steering effort from the steering wheel to the steering box. The steering column, on the other hand, connects the steering wheel to the steering mechanism, allowing for the transfer of rotational movement from the steering wheel to the steering box.

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• 2.

### There are two main types of steering systems used on vehicles today. They include:

• A.

Rack and pinion and parallelogram.

• B.

• C.

• D.

A. Rack and pinion and parallelogram.
Explanation
The correct answer is rack and pinion and parallelogram. These are the two main types of steering systems used on vehicles today. The rack and pinion system uses a gear (pinion) connected to the steering wheel and a toothed rack to convert the rotational motion into linear motion, which turns the wheels. The parallelogram system, also known as the recirculating ball system, uses a series of rods and joints to transfer the rotational motion of the steering wheel to the wheels. Both systems are commonly used in different types of vehicles for steering control.

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• 3.

### The _______________ connect(s) the wheels to the suspension and steering system.

• A.

Pitman arm

• B.

Inner tie rods

• C.

Steering knuckle

• D.

Idler arm

C. Steering knuckle
Explanation
The steering knuckle connects the wheels to the suspension and steering system. It is a crucial component that allows the wheels to turn and be controlled by the steering system. The steering knuckle is responsible for transmitting the steering input from the steering system to the wheels, allowing for precise steering and control of the vehicle.

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• 4.

### The ______________ is a tooth gear that meshes with the rack.

• A.

Side gear

• B.

Front gear

• C.

Ring gear

• D.

Pinion gear

D. Pinion gear
Explanation
The pinion gear is a tooth gear that meshes with the rack. It is commonly used in mechanical systems to convert rotational motion into linear motion. The pinion gear is designed to engage with the teeth on the rack, allowing for smooth and efficient transmission of power. This gear arrangement is often used in applications such as steering systems, where the rotational motion of the steering wheel needs to be converted into linear motion to turn the wheels.

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• 5.

### The ______________ protect(s) the inner joints from dirt and contaminants.

• A.

Inner tie rod ends

• B.

Ball joints

• C.

Rubber bellows

• D.

Control arm

C. Rubber bellows
Explanation
Rubber bellows serve as a protective covering for the inner joints, preventing dirt and contaminants from entering and causing damage. They act as a barrier, shielding the inner tie rod ends, ball joints, and control arm from external elements that could potentially impair their function. By keeping these joints clean and free from debris, rubber bellows contribute to the overall longevity and performance of the inner joints.

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• 6.

### The _____________ transfer(s) movement from the steering box to the center link.

• A.

Inner tie rods

• B.

Pitman arm

• C.

Ball joints

• D.

Control arm

B. Pitman arm
Explanation
The pitman arm transfers movement from the steering box to the center link. It is a connecting arm that converts the rotary motion of the steering box into linear motion, allowing the wheels to turn in response to steering input. The pitman arm is attached to the steering box on one end and the center link on the other end, effectively transmitting the steering force and directing it to the wheels.

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• 7.

### The _______________ is used to measure the run-out or movement on different parts of the steering system, such as play in tie rod ends.

• A.

Power steering analyzer

• B.

Dial indicator

• C.

Digital volt-ohmmeter

• D.

Circuit tester

B. Dial indicator
Explanation
A dial indicator is used to measure the run-out or movement on different parts of the steering system, such as play in tie rod ends. It is a precision measuring tool that provides accurate readings of small movements or deviations. By using a dial indicator, mechanics can identify any excessive play or misalignment in the steering system components, allowing them to make necessary adjustments or replacements to ensure proper functioning and safety of the vehicle.

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• 8.

### The _____________ power steering pump also applies assist to hydraulic brakes on some vehicles.

• A.

Fully electric

• B.

Electric powered

• C.

Hydraulic

• D.

None of the above

C. Hydraulic
Explanation
The correct answer is hydraulic because hydraulic power steering pumps are designed to provide assistance to the steering mechanism by using hydraulic pressure. Additionally, some vehicles also utilize the same hydraulic system to apply assist to the hydraulic brakes, making it a dual-purpose system. Fully electric and electric powered options are not applicable in this context as they do not involve hydraulic mechanisms.

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• 9.

### The ___________________ keeps constant electrical contact with the air bag as the steering wheel is turned from lock to lock

• A.

Rotary spring

• B.

Coil spring

• C.

Leaf spring

• D.

Clock spring

D. Clock spring
Explanation
The clock spring is a component that maintains constant electrical contact with the airbag system while the steering wheel is being turned from lock to lock. It is a coiled ribbon-like structure that allows the steering wheel to rotate continuously without tangling or breaking the electrical connections. This ensures that the airbag system remains functional and ready to deploy in case of an accident, regardless of the steering wheel's position.

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• 10.

### A tie rod on each side of the vehicle connects each ______________ to the center link.

• A.

Control arm

• B.

Wheel assembly

• C.

Idler arm

• D.

Pitman arm

B. Wheel assembly
Explanation
The tie rod on each side of the vehicle connects each wheel assembly to the center link. The tie rod is a crucial component of the steering system and helps to transmit the steering input from the driver to the wheels. It is responsible for maintaining proper alignment and allowing for smooth and controlled steering. By connecting the wheel assembly to the center link, the tie rod ensures that the wheels move in unison and respond accurately to steering commands.

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• 11.

### Unsprung mass is all these EXCEPT:

• A.

Wheels.

• B.

Axles.

• C.

Frame.

• D.

Outboard brake assemblies.

C. Frame.
Explanation
Unsprung mass refers to the components of a vehicle that are not supported by the suspension system, such as the wheels, axles, and outboard brake assemblies. These components directly impact the vehicle's handling and ride quality. However, the frame of a vehicle is considered part of the sprung mass, as it is supported by the suspension system. Therefore, the frame is not included in the unsprung mass category.

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• 12.

### Tech A says a shock absorber dampens spring oscillation. Tech B says there is oil in the shock that heats up as it absorbs the energy of the motion. Who is correct?

• A.

Tech A

• B.

Tech B

• C.

Both Techs A and B

• D.

Neither Tech A nor B

C. Both Techs A and B
Explanation
Both Techs A and B are correct. A shock absorber is designed to dampen the oscillation of a spring, reducing the bouncing or vibrations caused by the motion of the vehicle. It works by converting the kinetic energy of the motion into heat energy. This is achieved through the use of oil in the shock absorber, which heats up as it absorbs the energy and helps to dissipate it, resulting in a smoother ride.

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• 13.

### Tech A says all ball joints are loaded. Tech B says on a short/long-arm suspension system, the upper ball joint is normally a follower ball joint. Who is correct?

• A.

Tech A

• B.

Tech B

• C.

Both Techs A and B

• D.

Neither Tech A nor B

B. Tech B
Explanation
Tech B is correct. On a short/long-arm suspension system, the upper ball joint is indeed normally a follower ball joint. This means that it follows the movements of the lower control arm and does not bear the weight or load of the vehicle. The lower ball joint, on the other hand, is responsible for supporting the weight and load of the vehicle. Therefore, Tech B's statement is accurate.

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• 14.

### Camber is the:

• A.

Axes between the upper and lower pivots on the control arm.

• B.

Side-to-side vertical tilt of the wheel.

• C.

Axis around which the wheel assembly swivels as it turns.

• D.

angle the steering arms make with the steering axis projected toward the center of the rear axle.

B. Side-to-side vertical tilt of the wheel.
Explanation
Camber refers to the side-to-side vertical tilt of the wheel. It is the angle at which the top of the wheel tilts inward or outward from the vertical axis when viewed from the front of the vehicle. Camber affects the tire's contact patch with the road surface, and proper camber alignment is crucial for even tire wear and optimal handling.

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• 15.

### Positive caster is:

• A.

Forward tilt of the steering axes.

• B.

Backward tilt of the steering axes.

• C.

Outward tilt of the wheel.

• D.

Inward tilt of the wheel.

B. Backward tilt of the steering axes.
Explanation
Positive caster refers to the backward tilt of the steering axes. This means that the steering pivot points are positioned slightly behind the vertical line drawn through the wheel's center. This design feature helps improve stability and steering returnability. When the wheels are turned, the positive caster causes the wheel to self-center, enhancing the vehicle's straight-line stability and reducing the effort required for steering. It also helps to maintain a straight trajectory when driving on uneven road surfaces or during crosswinds.

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• 16.

### Toe is the:

• A.

Wheel tilted out at the top.

• B.

Wheel tilted in at the top.

• C.

The angle of the tires relative to each other when viewed from above.

• D.

Line through the center of the car.

C. The angle of the tires relative to each other when viewed from above.
Explanation
The correct answer is "the angle of the tires relative to each other when viewed from above." This is because the term "toe" refers to the alignment of the tires and specifically describes the angle at which the tires point inward or outward when viewed from above. It is an important aspect of wheel alignment that affects the handling and stability of the vehicle.

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• 17.

• A.

What the tire does when turning in a circle.

• B.

The distance between two imaginary points on the road surface between the camber line and the steering axis inclination (SAI) centerline.

• C.

The scuff marks made by car tires.

• D.

None of the above

B. The distance between two imaginary points on the road surface between the camber line and the steering axis inclination (SAI) centerline.
Explanation
The scrub radius refers to the distance between two imaginary points on the road surface between the camber line and the steering axis inclination (SAI) centerline. It is not related to what the tire does when turning in a circle or the scuff marks made by car tires. Therefore, the correct answer is the distance between two imaginary points on the road surface between the camber line and the steering axis inclination (SAI) centerline.

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• 18.

### Vehicle wander may be caused by what?

• A.

Worn joints and bushings

• B.

Looseness in steering and suspension components

• C.

Caster angle is off

• D.

All the above

D. All the above
Explanation
Vehicle wander refers to the tendency of a vehicle to drift or veer off course without driver input. This can be caused by a combination of factors including worn joints and bushings, looseness in steering and suspension components, and an incorrect caster angle. Worn joints and bushings can create play in the steering system, leading to instability. Looseness in steering and suspension components can result in a lack of control and responsiveness. An incorrect caster angle can cause the vehicle to pull to one side. Therefore, all of the mentioned factors can contribute to vehicle wander.

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• 19.

### Ride height may only be checked if the vehicle has:

• A.

Matching tires.

• B.

Properly inflated tires.

• C.

No additional weight in the vehicle.

• D.

All the above

D. All the above
Explanation
Ride height, which refers to the distance between the ground and the vehicle's chassis, can only be accurately checked if certain conditions are met. Firstly, the vehicle must have matching tires, as different tire sizes or types can affect the ride height. Secondly, the tires must be properly inflated, as underinflated or overinflated tires can also impact the ride height. Lastly, there should be no additional weight in the vehicle, as this can cause the suspension to compress and alter the ride height. Therefore, all of the above conditions must be satisfied in order to accurately check the ride height.

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• 20.

### When checking for a bad shock absorber, you should look for:

• A.

A slight oil film on the shock.

• B.

Excessive oil.

• C.

Worn-out bushings.

• D.

Both B and C

D. Both B and C
Explanation
When checking for a bad shock absorber, you should look for excessive oil and worn-out bushings. Excessive oil can indicate a leak or malfunction in the shock absorber, while worn-out bushings can cause the shock absorber to be less effective in dampening vibrations. Therefore, both options B and C are correct indicators of a bad shock absorber.

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• 21.

### When doing an alignment, the adjustments need to be made in which specific order?

• A.

Front toe, rear toe, front camber, rear camber, front caster, rear caster

• B.

Rear caster, rear camber, rear toe, front caster, front camber, front toe

• C.

Rear camber, rear toe, front caster, front toe, front camber, rear caster

• D.

Front caster, rear caster, front toe, rear toe, rear camber, front camber

B. Rear caster, rear camber, rear toe, front caster, front camber, front toe
• 22.

### During cornering, centrifugal force acts on a vehicle to produce:

• A.

Under-steer.

• B.

Side force.

• C.

Over-steer.

• D.

Slip angle.

B. Side force.
Explanation
During cornering, centrifugal force acts on a vehicle to produce a side force. This force pushes the vehicle towards the outside of the turn, counteracting the inward force of gravity. The side force helps to maintain the vehicle's stability and prevents it from sliding or skidding out of control. It is essential for maintaining control and maneuverability while navigating curves or corners. Under-steer, over-steer, and slip angle are related concepts but not directly caused by centrifugal force.

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• 23.

### True or False. Over inflation of a tire causes excessive wear on the outer edges of the tread.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Over inflation of a tire causes excessive wear in the center of the tread, not on the outer edges. When a tire is overinflated, the center of the tread bulges out and makes the contact patch smaller, causing the center of the tire to bear most of the weight and wear out faster. This can lead to uneven wear and reduced traction.

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• 24.

### True or False. When checking air pressure, always refer to the tire sidewall, because this is the most accurate air pressure reading.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because the most accurate air pressure reading should be obtained from the vehicle manufacturer's recommended tire pressure, which is usually found on a sticker on the driver's side door jamb or in the owner's manual. The tire sidewall may display the maximum recommended pressure for the tire, but it does not necessarily indicate the correct pressure for the specific vehicle.

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• 25.

### True or False. When a radial tire bulges on the sidewall, this means that the tire is underinflated all the time.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
When a radial tire bulges on the sidewall, it does not necessarily mean that the tire is underinflated all the time. Bulging sidewalls can be caused by various factors such as overloading, impact damage, or manufacturing defects. Underinflation can be one of the causes of sidewall bulging, but it is not the only reason. Therefore, it is incorrect to assume that a bulging sidewall always indicates underinflation.

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• 26.

### Technician A says that paying attention to tires and wheels can also assist in identifying problems in the steering system. Technician B says that paying attention to tires and wheels can also assist in identifying problems in the suspension system. Who is correct?

• A.

Tech A

• B.

Tech B

• C.

Both Techs A and B

• D.

Neither Tech A nor B

C. Both Techs A and B
Explanation
Both Technician A and Technician B are correct. Paying attention to tires and wheels can indeed assist in identifying problems in both the steering system and the suspension system. Issues such as uneven tire wear, vibrations, and pulling to one side can indicate problems in both systems. Therefore, both technicians are correct in their statements.

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• 27.

### The _________ seat is the edge of the rim that creates a seal between the tire bead and the wheel.

• A.

Rim

• B.

• C.

Wheel

• D.

Disc

Explanation
The bead seat is the edge of the rim that creates a seal between the tire bead and the wheel. This is where the tire bead sits and locks onto the rim, ensuring a secure fit and preventing the tire from coming off the wheel during operation. The bead seat is an important component in maintaining tire pressure and stability.

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• 28.

### The tire must be an exact fit on the rim to:

• A.

Ensure the tire and rim will seal the air in a tubeless tire.

• B.

Transfer forces between the tire and wheel without slipping or chafing.

• C.

Prevent the tire from turning on the rim.

• D.

All the above

D. All the above
Explanation
The tire must be an exact fit on the rim to ensure that the tire and rim will seal the air in a tubeless tire. This is important to maintain proper tire pressure and prevent air leaks. Additionally, an exact fit is necessary to transfer forces between the tire and wheel without slipping or chafing. This ensures a secure and stable connection between the tire and rim, allowing for efficient and safe operation of the vehicle. Lastly, an exact fit prevents the tire from turning on the rim, which can cause uneven wear and affect the vehicle's handling and performance. Therefore, all of the given options are correct.

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• 29.

### There are three different wheel offsets: zero offset, positive offset, and negative offset. Technician A says that negative offset places the hub mounting closer to the brake side of the wheel. Technician B says that negative offset is farther away from the brake side of the wheel. Who is correct?

• A.

Tech A

• B.

Tech B

• C.

Both Techs A and B

• D.

Neither Tech A nor B

A. Tech A
Explanation
Technician A is correct. Negative offset places the hub mounting closer to the brake side of the wheel. This means that the wheel will be positioned further inward towards the vehicle's suspension components. Conversely, positive offset moves the hub mounting further away from the brake side of the wheel, causing the wheel to be positioned further outward. Zero offset means that the hub mounting is in the centerline of the wheel.

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• 30.

### The principle that allows your car to stop is:

• A.

Rubber in the tires

• B.

Friction.

• C.

Centrifugal force.

• D.

Ply rating.

B. Friction.
Explanation
Friction is the force that allows your car to stop. When you apply the brakes, the brake pads create friction against the rotors, which slows down the wheels and eventually brings the car to a stop. Without friction, the tires would not be able to grip the road surface, and the car would continue moving forward even when the brakes are applied. Therefore, friction is the principle that enables your car to stop.

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• 31.

### A green valve stem cap on newer tires means that the tires are:

• A.

Green design.

• B.

Filled with nitrogen.

• C.

Filled with helium.

• D.

Filled with hydrogen.

B. Filled with nitrogen.
Explanation
A green valve stem cap on newer tires indicates that the tires are filled with nitrogen. Nitrogen is commonly used instead of regular air to fill tires because it has larger molecules that are less likely to escape through the rubber. This helps to maintain proper tire pressure for a longer period of time, leading to improved fuel efficiency, better handling, and increased tire life. Additionally, nitrogen-filled tires are less prone to temperature fluctuations, reducing the risk of tire blowouts.

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• 32.

### The aspect ratio of a tire is:

• A.

The width of a tire.

• B.

The rim diameter.

• C.

How much air to inflate the tire to.

• D.

Ratio of height to width.

D. Ratio of height to width.
Explanation
The aspect ratio of a tire refers to the ratio of its height to its width. This means that the height of the tire's sidewall is a certain percentage of its width. For example, if a tire has an aspect ratio of 60, it means that the height of the sidewall is 60% of the tire's width. This aspect ratio is important because it affects the tire's performance and handling characteristics. A lower aspect ratio generally means better handling and a sportier look, while a higher aspect ratio provides a smoother ride and better traction.

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• 33.

### Technician A says some tire pressure monitoring systems have a sensor mounted in each wheel rim. Technician B says some tire pressure monitoring systems use the wheel speed sensors in the ABS system to detect tire pressure. Who is correct?

• A.

Tech A

• B.

Tech B

• C.

Both Techs A and B

• D.

Neither Tech A nor B

C. Both Techs A and B
Explanation
Both Technician A and Technician B are correct. Some tire pressure monitoring systems do have a sensor mounted in each wheel rim to detect tire pressure. Additionally, some systems also utilize the wheel speed sensors in the ABS system to detect tire pressure changes. Therefore, both technicians are correct in their statements.

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• 34.

### Technician A says that tires need to be checked when cold. Technician B says that tires need to be checked before they are driven less than 1 mile. Who is correct?

• A.

Tech A

• B.

Tech B

• C.

Both Techs A and B

• D.

Neither Tech A nor B

C. Both Techs A and B
Explanation
Both Technician A and Technician B are correct. Tires should be checked when they are cold because the air pressure can increase as the tires heat up from driving. Checking the tires when they are cold ensures an accurate reading of their pressure. Additionally, tires should be checked before they are driven less than 1 mile because even a short distance can cause changes in tire pressure. Therefore, both technicians are correct in their statements.

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• 35.

### Tires can be balanced by the __________ method.

• A.

Static

• B.

Dynamic

• C.

• D.

All the above

D. All the above
Explanation
Tires can be balanced using the static method, which involves adding weights to the tire to even out any weight imbalances. The dynamic method involves spinning the tire on a balancing machine to identify any imbalances and then adding weights accordingly. The road force method involves measuring the force exerted on the tire as it rolls on the road and making adjustments to balance it. Therefore, all of the mentioned methods can be used to balance tires.

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• 36.

### What could cause air bubbles in the power steering fluid?

• A.

A. Checking the fluid before it reached operating temperature

• B.

B. Overheated fluid

• C.

C. Engine idling too fast

• D.

D. Low fluid level

D. D. Low fluid level
Explanation
Low fluid level can cause air bubbles in the power steering fluid because when the fluid level is low, air can enter the system and mix with the fluid. This can happen due to a leak in the power steering system or if the fluid has not been regularly checked and topped up. When air bubbles are present in the fluid, it can lead to a loss of power steering effectiveness and cause the steering to feel stiff or jerky.

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• 37.

### During a routine steering inspection on a rack and pinion system, the tech finds that a bellows boot is cracked.  The tech should:

• A.

A. Use a good quality silicone sealer to fill the crack

• B.

B. Ignore it; this is a normal condition

• C.

C. Replace the bellows boot

• D.

D. Inspect and/or replace the inner tie-rod, and replace the bellows boot

D. D. Inspect and/or replace the inner tie-rod, and replace the bellows boot
Explanation
The correct answer is D because a cracked bellows boot indicates potential damage to the inner tie-rod, which is connected to the steering system. By inspecting and possibly replacing the inner tie-rod, the tech can ensure the integrity of the steering system and prevent further damage or failure. Additionally, replacing the bellows boot is necessary to protect the inner tie-rod from dirt, debris, and moisture, which can further compromise its functionality.

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• 38.

### Tech A says MacPherson strut assemblies are often changed because the vehicle bounces too much on irregular roads.  Tech B says on some models, the alignment must be checked after new MacPherson struts are installed.  Who is right?

• A.

A. Tech A

• B.

B. Tech B

• C.

C. Both techs

• D.

D. Neither tech

C. C. Both techs
Explanation
Both Tech A and Tech B are correct. Tech A is correct because MacPherson strut assemblies are often changed when a vehicle bounces too much on irregular roads. This is because worn or damaged struts can no longer effectively absorb shocks and vibrations, leading to excessive bouncing. Tech B is also correct because on some models, the alignment must be checked after new MacPherson struts are installed. This is because changing the struts can affect the suspension geometry, potentially causing misalignment. Therefore, both Tech A and Tech B provide valid and accurate explanations.

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• 39.

### The thrust angle on a front-wheel drive vehicle is more than specified, and the thrust line is positioned to the left of the geometric centerline.  This problem could be caused by:

• A.

A. Excessive toe-out on the left rear wheel

• B.

B. Excessive toe-out on the right rear wheel

• C.

C. Excessive positive camber on the left rear wheel

• D.

D. Excessive wear in the left rear lower ball joint

A. A. Excessive toe-out on the left rear wheel
Explanation
Excessive toe-out on the left rear wheel can cause the thrust line to be positioned to the left of the geometric centerline. Toe-out refers to the condition where the front of the wheels point outward. When the left rear wheel has excessive toe-out, it can cause the vehicle to pull to the left, resulting in a thrust angle that is more than specified. This misalignment can lead to uneven tire wear and affect the vehicle's stability and handling.

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• 40.

### When unloading the ball joints on a front suspension with the coil spring located between the lower control arm and the frame:

• A.

A. A safety stand must be placed under the chassis

• B.

B. The shock absorber must be disconnected

• C.

C. The sway bar link bushings must be disconnected

• D.

D. A safety stand must be placed under the lower control arm

D. D. A safety stand must be placed under the lower control arm
Explanation
When unloading the ball joints on a front suspension with the coil spring located between the lower control arm and the frame, it is important to place a safety stand under the lower control arm. This is necessary to ensure that the suspension remains stable and secure while the ball joints are being worked on. Placing the safety stand under the chassis or disconnecting the shock absorber or sway bar link bushings would not provide adequate support for the suspension system during this procedure.

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• 41.

### A vehicle has excessive inside tire wear on the right rear tire.  The cause of this problem could be:

• A.

A. A bent rear spindle

• B.

B. Excessive negative caster

• C.

C. Excessive positive camber

• D.

D. Worn out front struts

A. A. A bent rear spindle
Explanation
Excessive inside tire wear on the right rear tire can be caused by a bent rear spindle. A bent rear spindle can result in the tire not being properly aligned, causing it to wear unevenly on the inside. This can be due to an impact or accident that has caused damage to the spindle.

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• 42.

### While performing an alignment on a front wheel drive vehicle, the technician notices that caster is out of specification and that caster is not adjustable on the vehicle.  Which of the following should the tech do first?

• A.

A. Replace both front strut assemblies

• B.

B. Heat and bend the lower control arms

• C.

• D.

D. Measure thrust angle

C. C. Check the cradle(subframe) alignment
Explanation
When the caster is out of specification and not adjustable on the vehicle, the technician should first check the cradle (subframe) alignment. The cradle alignment can affect the caster angle, so ensuring that the cradle is properly aligned may help to correct the caster issue. Replacing the front strut assemblies or heating and bending the lower control arms would not address the caster problem, and measuring the thrust angle is not relevant to the caster issue.

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• 43.

### The __________ connects the pitman arm to the idler arm.

• A.

• B.

• C.

Tie-rod end

• D.

None of the above

Explanation
The center link connects the pitman arm to the idler arm. It is an important component of the steering system in a vehicle. The center link transfers the motion from the pitman arm to the idler arm, allowing for the proper movement and control of the front wheels. It helps to maintain stability and control while steering the vehicle. The drag link, on the other hand, connects the pitman arm to the steering arm, and the tie-rod end connects the steering arm to the wheel. Therefore, the correct answer is the center link.

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• 44.

### What type of spring is mounted on a strut suspension system?

• A.

Leaf spring

• B.

Coil spring

• C.

Torsion bar

• D.

None of the above

B. Coil spring
Explanation
A coil spring is mounted on a strut suspension system. This type of spring is commonly used in vehicles to absorb shocks and provide support to the suspension system. It is made of a helical coil of wire that compresses and expands to absorb the impact from bumps and uneven surfaces. The coil spring is designed to provide a smooth and comfortable ride by maintaining the proper height and stability of the vehicle.

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• 45.

### The Ackermann principle is:

• A.

When the steering wheel automatically returns to center.

• B.

Where the inside wheels are able to turn at a different radius than the outside wheels.

• C.

The offset of the front wheels.

• D.

The difference in the ride height from front to rear.

B. Where the inside wheels are able to turn at a different radius than the outside wheels.
Explanation
The Ackermann principle refers to the design of a steering system in which the inside wheels of a vehicle are able to turn at a different radius than the outside wheels. This allows for better maneuverability and stability during turns, as the inside wheels need to cover a shorter distance compared to the outside wheels. This principle ensures that all wheels maintain optimal contact with the road surface, resulting in improved handling and reduced tire wear.

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• 46.

### Tech A says you can adjust camber with shims. Tech B says you can adjust caster with shims. Who is correct?

• A.

Tech A

• B.

Tech B

• C.

Both Techs A and B

• D.

Neither Tech A nor B

C. Both Techs A and B
Explanation
Both Techs A and B are correct. Camber refers to the angle of the wheels in relation to the vertical axis, and it can be adjusted by using shims. Caster, on the other hand, refers to the angle of the steering axis in relation to the vertical axis, and it can also be adjusted using shims. Therefore, both Tech A and Tech B are correct in their statements.

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• 47.

### If the thrust angle is off bad enough, what animal will your car look like?

• A.

A cat

• B.

A dog

• C.

A horse

• D.

A snake

B. A dog
Explanation
If the thrust angle of a car is off bad enough, it will cause the car to veer to one side while driving, resembling the movement of a dog pulling on a leash and going off in a different direction. This misalignment can lead to uneven tire wear and handling issues.

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• 48.

### Technician A says that all lug nuts must be torqued. Technician B says that all lug nuts must be properly sequenced. Who is correct?

• A.

Tech A

• B.

Tech B

• C.

Both Techs A and B

• D.

Neither Tech A nor B

C. Both Techs A and B
Explanation
Both Technician A and Technician B are correct. Torquing the lug nuts is important to ensure that they are tightened to the correct specifications, preventing them from coming loose while driving. Proper sequencing refers to tightening the lug nuts in a specific order, usually in a star or cross pattern, to ensure even distribution of the load and prevent warping or damage to the wheel. Both torque and sequencing are necessary for safe and effective installation of lug nuts.

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• 49.

### All of the statements about tire inflation are true EXCEPT:

• A.

A. Overinflation causes excessive wear on the center of the tread

• B.

B. Underinflation causes excessive wear on both edges of the tread

• C.

C. Tire pressure should be adjusted when the tires are hot

• D.

D. Underinflation may cause wheel damage

C. C. Tire pressure should be adjusted when the tires are hot
• 50.

### A vehicle pulls to the left while driving straight ahead.  The cause of the problem could be:

• A.

A. Inadequate caster on the left front wheel

• B.

B. Excessive positive caster on the left front wheel

• C.

C. Excessive toe in

• D.

D. Improper toe out on turns on the right front wheel

A. A. Inadequate caster on the left front wheel
Explanation
The correct answer is A. Inadequate caster on the left front wheel. Caster is the angle of the steering axis when viewed from the side of the vehicle. If there is inadequate caster on the left front wheel, it can cause the vehicle to pull to the left while driving straight ahead. This is because inadequate caster can result in a lack of stability and straight-line tracking, causing the vehicle to veer to one side.

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