1.
This term describes the degree of conformity of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value.
Correct Answer
B. Accuracy
Explanation
Accuracy is the correct answer because it refers to the degree of conformity of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value. In other words, accuracy measures how close a measurement or calculation is to the true value. It is different from precision, which refers to the degree of consistency or reproducibility of measurements. Variance is a statistical measure of the spread between numbers in a data set, and an outlier is a value that is significantly different from other values in a data set.
2.
Which of the following is TRUE about Standard Deviation?
Correct Answer
A. The more spread apart the data, the higher the deviation.
Explanation
Standard deviation is a measure of how spread out the data points are in a dataset. It quantifies the amount of variation or dispersion in the data. A higher standard deviation indicates that the data points are more spread apart, meaning there is greater variability or dispersion in the dataset. Conversely, a lower standard deviation suggests that the data points are closer to the mean, indicating less variability or dispersion in the dataset. Therefore, the statement "The more spread apart the data, the higher the deviation" is true as it correctly describes the relationship between the spread of data and the standard deviation.
3.
Which one of the following is a calculation of practical significance for two measurement variables.
Correct Answer
C. Pearson's r
Explanation
Pearson's r is a calculation of practical significance for two measurement variables. It measures the strength and direction of the linear relationship between the variables. It ranges from -1 to +1, where -1 indicates a perfect negative relationship, +1 indicates a perfect positive relationship, and 0 indicates no relationship. Pearson's r is commonly used in statistics and research to determine the degree of association between variables and is particularly useful when analyzing continuous data.
4.
A situation in which the values of variables occur at irregular frequencies and the mean, median and mode occur at different points.
Correct Answer
D. Asymmetrical Distribution
Explanation
An asymmetrical distribution refers to a situation where the values of variables occur at irregular frequencies and the mean, median, and mode occur at different points. In this type of distribution, the data is not evenly distributed around the central point and is skewed towards one side. It can be either right-skewed or left-skewed, depending on which side the tail of the distribution extends towards. Therefore, an asymmetrical distribution is the correct answer as it accurately describes the given situation.
5.
How does outliers effect range in a set of data?
Correct Answer
C. Greatly affected by outliers, as it can change the actual calculations by extreme numbers, up or down.
Explanation
The range in a set of data is greatly affected by outliers, as they can significantly change the actual calculations by introducing extreme numbers, either increasing or decreasing the range. Outliers have a strong impact on the range because they represent values that are far away from the majority of the data points. Therefore, the presence of outliers can distort the overall range of the dataset, making it an unreliable measure of spread.
6.
An outbreak or the spread of disease that is observed at higher than normal frequency is known as a/an:
Correct Answer
B. Epidemic
Explanation
An outbreak or the spread of disease that is observed at higher than normal frequency is known as an epidemic. This term is used when a disease affects a large number of people within a specific community or region. Unlike an endemic, which refers to the constant presence of a disease within a particular population, an epidemic represents a sudden increase in the number of cases. A pandemic, on the other hand, refers to a global outbreak of a disease that affects a large number of people across different countries or continents.
7.
Epidemiology plays an integral role in:
Correct Answer
C. Both a and b
Explanation
Epidemiology plays an integral role in both disease prevention and health promotion. Epidemiologists study patterns and causes of diseases in order to develop strategies for preventing their spread. They also work to promote public health by identifying risk factors and implementing interventions to improve overall well-being. Therefore, the correct answer is both a and b.
8.
The scientific method of research:
Correct Answer
D. All of the above
Explanation
The scientific method of research is a step-by-step approach that involves following a systematic process to conduct research. This approach helps to reduce bias in studies by ensuring that the research is conducted in a methodical and objective manner. Additionally, the scientific method increases the validity and reliability of the study by providing a structured framework for collecting and analyzing data. Therefore, all of the given options are correct, as they accurately describe the benefits and characteristics of the scientific method of research.
9.
Bias is:
Correct Answer
A. The conscious and unconscious error
Explanation
Bias refers to the conscious and unconscious errors that can occur in various situations, such as decision-making, data collection, or interpretation. It involves the tendency to favor or be influenced by certain factors or perspectives, which can lead to unfairness or inaccuracies. This can occur in individuals, organizations, or systems, and it is important to be aware of and address bias to ensure fairness and objectivity.
10.
The ability to consistently measure what we think we are measuring is:
Correct Answer
B. Reliability
Explanation
Reliability refers to the consistency and stability of a measurement. It means that if the same measurement is repeated multiple times, it should yield similar results. In this context, the ability to consistently measure what we think we are measuring refers to reliability. This means that the measurement tool or instrument used is reliable and can produce consistent results, regardless of who is using it or when it is used.
11.
Studies designed to be internally valid:
Correct Answer
C. Produce unbiased inferences or conclusions about a target population.
Explanation
The correct answer is "produce unbiased inferences or conclusions about a target population." This means that studies designed to be internally valid are able to draw accurate and unbiased conclusions about the larger population they are studying. These studies are not influenced by any confounding factors or biases that could skew the results. Therefore, the findings of such studies can be applied to the target population with confidence.
12.
One of the largest publicly available databases of medical literature is:
Correct Answer
A. PubMed
Explanation
PubMed is one of the largest publicly available databases of medical literature. It is a free resource that provides access to a vast collection of biomedical literature, including articles from scientific journals, research papers, and conference proceedings. PubMed is widely used by researchers, healthcare professionals, and students to search for and access relevant medical information. It offers a comprehensive and up-to-date repository of medical literature, making it a valuable tool for evidence-based medicine and research in the healthcare field.
13.
Quantitative methods of research:
Correct Answer
D. All of the Above
Explanation
The correct answer is "All of the Above" because quantitative methods of research involve looking for associations between interventions and outcomes, as well as the measurement and description of variables. These variables can include sex, age, height, and weight. Therefore, all of the statements mentioned in the question are true regarding quantitative methods of research.
14.
Which approach is most commonly used in a study design?
Correct Answer
C. Mixed
Explanation
Mixed approach is the most commonly used in a study design because it combines both qualitative and quantitative methods. This approach allows researchers to gather both numerical data and subjective information, providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research topic. By using a mixed approach, researchers can analyze data from different perspectives and gain a deeper insight into the phenomenon under investigation. This approach is particularly useful when studying complex social phenomena that cannot be fully captured by either qualitative or quantitative methods alone.
15.
The two main study design strategies used in research studies are:
Correct Answer
B. Descriptive and analytic studies
Explanation
Descriptive and analytic studies are the two main study design strategies used in research studies. Descriptive studies aim to describe the characteristics of a population or phenomenon, providing information about the prevalence and distribution of a particular condition or behavior. Analytic studies, on the other hand, aim to examine the relationship between different variables and determine causality. These studies involve comparing groups or populations and analyzing the data to draw conclusions about the potential risk factors or causes of a particular outcome.
16.
Which best describes a correlational study?
Correct Answer
D. Both a and b.
Explanation
A correlational study is a type of research that examines the relationship between two or more variables without manipulating them. It uses data from entire populations to compare disease frequencies between same/different groups during the same or different points in time. It cannot be used to test a hypothesis because of a number of limitations, such as the inability to establish causation. Therefore, the answer "Both a and b" is correct as it encompasses the characteristics and limitations of a correlational study.
17.
In a cohort study, the investigator selects a group of exposed individuals and a group of non exposed individuals and:
Correct Answer
D. Both a and c
Explanation
In a cohort study, the investigator selects a group of exposed individuals and a group of non-exposed individuals and follows both groups prospectively to compare the incidence of disease. This means that the investigator will track both groups over time to see how many individuals in each group develop the disease. This type of study is also considered an observational study, which falls under analytical studies. Therefore, the correct answer is both a and c.
18.
A retrospective cohort study:
Correct Answer
D. Both a and b.
Explanation
A retrospective cohort study is referred to as a non-concurrent study because it looks back at past data and follows a group of individuals over time to assess the relationship between exposure to a risk factor and the development of a disease. This type of study can reduce the time required to undertake the study because it uses existing data rather than collecting new data. However, it can also increase the time required to undertake the study if the necessary data is not readily available and needs to be collected retrospectively. Therefore, both options a and b are correct.
19.
Incidence of disease can be defined as the number of:
Correct Answer
D. Both a and b
Explanation
The incidence of disease is defined as the number of new cases in a given population over a given time period. This means that it measures the occurrence of new cases of a disease within a specific population during a specific time frame. Additionally, it also includes persons who have been exposed to the risk of the disease during that time period. Therefore, the correct answer is both a and b.
20.
Comparing the incidence of disease in persons with exposure to the incidence of disease in persons without the exposure is called:
Correct Answer
A. Relative risk of disease
Explanation
The correct answer is relative risk of disease. This term refers to the comparison of disease incidence between individuals who have been exposed to a certain factor and those who have not. It is a measure used in epidemiology to assess the association between exposure and disease occurrence. By comparing the relative risk, researchers can determine the likelihood of developing the disease in the exposed group compared to the unexposed group.
21.
In a study example where looking at the effects of caffeine on newborns' birth weight, caffeine is:
Correct Answer
B. Exposure or independent variable
Explanation
In this study example, caffeine is considered the exposure or independent variable. This means that it is the factor being manipulated or controlled by the researchers to observe its effects on newborns' birth weight. The researchers are intentionally exposing the newborns to different levels of caffeine to determine if it has any impact on their birth weight. The birth weight of the newborns is the outcome or dependent variable, which is being measured and observed as a result of the caffeine exposure.
22.
The mode for the following data; 2,2,1,5,9,7,5,4,3
Correct Answer
D. 2
Explanation
The mode is the value that appears most frequently in a set of data. In this case, the number 2 appears twice, which is more than any other number in the data set. Therefore, the mode of the given data is 2.
23.
Used to compare parts to the whole
Correct Answer
A. Pie graphs
Explanation
Pie graphs are used to compare parts to the whole. They are circular graphs that are divided into sectors, with each sector representing a different category or data point. The size of each sector is proportional to the quantity it represents, allowing for a visual comparison of the parts to the whole. This makes pie graphs particularly useful for displaying data that is divided into different categories or percentages, such as market shares, budget allocations, or demographic distributions.
24.
Used to show a relationship or correlation between two variables and how they interact with each other in either a positive ornegative relationship
Correct Answer
B. Scatter plot
Explanation
A scatter plot is used to show a relationship or correlation between two variables and how they interact with each other. It is particularly useful when studying the relationship between continuous variables. In a scatter plot, each data point represents an observation, and the position of the point on the graph represents the values of the two variables being compared. The scatter plot allows us to visually identify any patterns or trends in the data and determine if there is a positive or negative relationship between the variables.
25.
Which of the following is NOT an Elements of data analysis?
Correct Answer
B. Data Modeling
Explanation
Data modeling is not an element of data analysis because it is a separate process that involves designing the structure and relationships of a database or data system. Data modeling focuses on creating a conceptual representation of the data and is typically done before data analysis takes place. In contrast, data analysis involves the exploration, preparation, and statistical analysis of data to discover patterns, relationships, and insights.
26.
In a well-designed study the sample will likely be _________________ of the population and thus the findings from the sample will probably (95% confidence) be generalized to those of the target population. The better the sampling design, the stronger the _______________________.
Correct Answer
B. Representative, External validity
Explanation
In a well-designed study, the sample will likely be representative of the population, meaning that it accurately reflects the characteristics and diversity of the target population. This allows for findings from the sample to be generalized to the larger population with a high level of confidence (95% confidence). The better the sampling design, the stronger the external validity, which refers to the ability to generalize the findings to the target population.
27.
Independent variable is also known as:
Correct Answer
C. Exposure
Explanation
The independent variable is also known as the exposure. This is because the independent variable is the variable that is manipulated or changed by the researcher in order to observe its effect on the dependent variable. In other words, it is the variable that is hypothesized to cause a change in the outcome or dependent variable. Therefore, exposure is a term commonly used to describe the independent variable in research studies.
28.
If you do this three times, weighing the water each time, and get 0.751, 0.753 and 0.750 grams would this impact precision or accuracy?
Correct Answer
C. Precision
Explanation
The given scenario describes the process of weighing water three times and obtaining measurements of 0.751, 0.753, and 0.750 grams. Precision refers to the consistency and repeatability of measurements. In this case, the measurements are very close to each other, indicating a high level of precision. The fact that the measurements are consistently within a narrow range suggests that the process is precise, regardless of whether the measurements are accurate (closeness to the true value).
29.
The act of converting 'potential participants' into 'actual participants'. This must be done as an invitation.
Correct Answer
D. Recruitment
Explanation
Recruitment refers to the process of converting potential participants into actual participants through an invitation. It involves identifying and attracting individuals who meet the criteria for participation in a study or project. This process is crucial for ensuring a representative sample and collecting the necessary data from the target population.
30.
Individuals get assigned one of the groups randomly. One of the groups (treatment) gets a dose of the independent variable, while the other (control) gets nothing or a placebo.
Correct Answer
A. Randomization
Explanation
Randomization refers to the process of assigning individuals to different groups randomly. In this context, it means that individuals are randomly assigned to either the treatment group or the control group. This is important in research because it helps to ensure that any differences observed between the groups can be attributed to the independent variable and not to any pre-existing differences between the individuals. Randomization helps to minimize bias and increase the internal validity of the study.
31.
Categories form a natural order, but no real sense of the difference between the levels.
Correct Answer
A. Ordinal
Explanation
The given answer "Ordinal" is correct because in ordinal data, the categories have a natural order or ranking, but the differences between the levels are not clearly defined or meaningful. This means that while we can arrange the categories in a specific order, we cannot determine the exact magnitude of the differences between them. In this case, the categories form a natural order, but there is no real sense of the difference between the levels, which aligns with the characteristics of ordinal data.
32.
A study followed 50 randomly sampled children from the start of grade 8 to the end of grade 9 and measured how many books they read per month in each grade. The theory was that the mean number of books each individual child read would drop in grade 9. The study should have conducted a hypothesis test of
Correct Answer
A. Two related means
Explanation
The study should have conducted a hypothesis test of two related means because it is comparing the mean number of books read by the same group of children in two different grades (grade 8 and grade 9). By comparing the means of the same group, the study can determine if there is a significant difference in the number of books read between the two grades. This type of hypothesis test is appropriate when comparing related or paired data.
33.
A researcher has obtained referrals from 5 different healthcare locations, and would like to determine if there is a relationship between locations and number of home visits per year. Which hypothesis test is the most appropriate to use in order to asses statistical significance of the differences between the 5 locations?
Correct Answer
C. ANOVA
Explanation
ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is the most appropriate hypothesis test to use in order to assess the statistical significance of the differences between the 5 locations. ANOVA is used to compare the means of three or more groups and determine if there is a significant difference between them. In this case, the researcher wants to compare the number of home visits per year across the different healthcare locations. ANOVA will allow the researcher to determine if there is a significant difference in the means of the home visits between the locations.
34.
The null hypothesis is rejected when?
Correct Answer
C. P-value is < 0.05
Explanation
When the p-value is less than 0.05, it indicates that the observed data is statistically significant and unlikely to have occurred by chance alone. Therefore, the null hypothesis, which assumes that there is no significant difference or relationship, is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis.
35.
All disease originates from
Correct Answer
A. An agent
Explanation
All diseases originate from an agent, which can be a bacteria, virus, or other microorganisms that cause the disease. The agent is responsible for infecting the host, which can be a person or an animal, and causing the symptoms and effects of the disease. The host's immune system then responds to the agent, leading to the development of the disease. Therefore, the correct answer is "an agent" as it encompasses all possible disease-causing agents.
36.
The following research question would be an example of what kind of research study design; What do you think are future trends in the HIM profession?
Correct Answer
C. Qualitative
Explanation
This research question is an example of a qualitative research study design because it seeks to understand and explore subjective opinions and perspectives about future trends in the HIM profession. Qualitative research focuses on gathering in-depth information, using methods such as interviews or focus groups, to gain insights into people's experiences, beliefs, and attitudes. In this case, the researcher would likely conduct interviews or surveys to gather qualitative data on the participants' thoughts and predictions about future trends in the HIM profession.
37.
Correlational studies or ecological studies would be an example of what type of study?
Correct Answer
B. Descriptive
Explanation
Correlational studies or ecological studies are examples of descriptive studies because they aim to describe the relationship between variables or the characteristics of a population. These types of studies do not involve manipulation or control of variables, but rather focus on observing and documenting patterns or associations. Therefore, the correct answer is descriptive.
38.
In this type of study researchers can not control for potential confounders.
Correct Answer
B. Correlational studies
Explanation
Correlational studies involve the examination of the relationship between two or more variables without any manipulation or control of variables by the researchers. Therefore, researchers cannot control for potential confounding variables in correlational studies. Confounding variables are factors that may influence the relationship between the variables being studied and can lead to inaccurate or misleading results. In analytical studies, researchers can control for potential confounders through various methods such as randomization or matching. Case reports involve the detailed analysis of a single individual or a small group, while cross-sectional studies examine a population at a specific point in time.
39.
Which of the following would be TRUE about case series study?
Correct Answer
C. It consists of the careful detailed report by one or more clinicians of the profile of a single patient.
Explanation
A case series study involves the careful detailed report by one or more clinicians of the profile of a single patient. This means that the study focuses on describing and analyzing the characteristics and outcomes of a group of patients with a similar condition or disease. It does not involve comparing different groups or calculating incidence rates or relative risks. Additionally, the question does not provide any information about the use of case series studies for rare outcomes or the selection of cases from only one source.
40.
Which of the following is NOT True about Experimental studies?
Correct Answer
D. Researchers cannot establish a temporal relationship in this type of study.
Explanation
Experimental studies involve random assignment of subjects to either the treatment or control group, blinding of subjects to the treatment they receive, and the researcher determining who gets the treatment and dosage. However, researchers can establish a temporal relationship in this type of study, as they can control the timing of the treatment and measure the effects over time.
41.
In a contingency table b + d would represent?
Correct Answer
C. The total number of individuals without the disease
Explanation
In a contingency table, b + d represents the total number of individuals without the disease. This is because b represents the number of individuals who are exposed and without the disease, while d represents the number of individuals who are unexposed and without the disease. Adding these two values together gives us the total number of individuals without the disease.
42.
Which of the following would NOT be a characteristic of an observational study?
Correct Answer
A. Interventions are applied and measured overtime
Explanation
An observational study is a type of study where researchers observe and analyze subjects without any interventions or manipulations. They simply observe the natural course of events or behaviors. In this type of study, researchers do not apply any interventions or measure them over time. Instead, they collect data through observation and analyze it to draw conclusions. Therefore, the characteristic that would NOT be a part of an observational study is "interventions are applied and measured overtime".
43.
An r value less than 1 indicates a high degree of correlation between the variables.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
An r value less than 1 does not indicate a high degree of correlation between the variables. The correlation coefficient, represented by r, ranges from -1 to 1. A value of 1 represents a perfect positive correlation, while a value of -1 represents a perfect negative correlation. Therefore, an r value less than 1 can still indicate a correlation, but it may not be a high degree of correlation.
44.
Inferential statistics goes beyond a simple description of our study sample or population.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Inferential statistics involves making inferences or drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample. It goes beyond simply describing the characteristics of the sample or population and aims to make generalizations or predictions about the entire population. By using statistical techniques, we can estimate parameters, test hypotheses, and make predictions about the population. Therefore, the statement that inferential statistics goes beyond a simple description of our study sample or population is true.
45.
Which of the following studies would you NOT calculate relative risk for?
Correct Answer
B. Case-control
Explanation
Relative risk is a measure used to assess the strength of association between an exposure and an outcome in a population. It is calculated by dividing the risk of the outcome in the exposed group by the risk of the outcome in the unexposed group. Case-control studies, however, do not calculate relative risk directly. Instead, they use odds ratios to estimate the association between exposure and outcome. Therefore, case-control studies would not involve the calculation of relative risk.
46.
What would be the best way to display and present large volumes of data?
Correct Answer
D. Tables
Explanation
Tables would be the best way to display and present large volumes of data because they provide a structured format to organize and compare data in a systematic manner. Tables allow for easy sorting, filtering, and analysis of data, making it easier to identify patterns, trends, and relationships. They also provide the ability to include multiple variables and categories, making it suitable for complex data sets. Additionally, tables can accommodate a large amount of data without sacrificing clarity and readability.
47.
Which of the following would NOT be a statistical software?
Correct Answer
A. MS Word
Explanation
MS Word is not a statistical software because it is primarily a word processing program used for creating and editing documents, while statistical software such as SPSS, SAS, and Crystal Report are specifically designed for data analysis and statistical calculations. MS Word does not have the necessary features and functions to perform statistical analysis, making it unsuitable for such tasks.
48.
Which of the following would NOT be acceptable for illustration or graphic placement on a report or research publication?
Correct Answer
D. Bold prints
Explanation
Bold prints would not be acceptable for illustration or graphic placement on a report or research publication because bold prints are typically used for emphasizing text or headings, not for displaying visual content. Illustrations and graphics should be clear, visually appealing, and relevant to the content they are supporting. Using bold prints for illustrations would not meet these criteria and may distract or confuse the reader.
49.
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary thesaurus used by the National Library of Medicine to index all articles contained in the database.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is indeed a controlled vocabulary thesaurus used by the National Library of Medicine to index all articles in their database. This means that MeSH terms are assigned to articles to provide a standardized way of categorizing and organizing the information. Therefore, the statement "Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary thesaurus used by the National Library of Medicine to index all articles contained in the database" is true.
50.
One can test the null hypothesis (i.e., there is no difference) and accept or reject the findings on the basis of statistical outcomes by looking at statistical differences in means which are t -tests for two groups and ANOVA for two or more groups.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
This statement is true because t-tests and ANOVA are commonly used statistical tests to compare means between groups. T-tests are used when comparing means between two groups, while ANOVA is used when comparing means between two or more groups. These tests help determine if there is a statistically significant difference between the groups being compared, allowing researchers to accept or reject the null hypothesis.