# Data Analysis In Psychology

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This is a quiz concerning Data analysis in experimental psychology. So, let's try out this quiz.

• 1.

### Failing to reject the null hypothesis states that you have ____ population(s)?

• A.

2

• B.

1

• C.

0

• D.

4

B. 1
Explanation
When failing to reject the null hypothesis, it means that there is not enough evidence to support the alternative hypothesis. In this case, it suggests that there is only one population being considered.

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• 2.

### What do you need in order to determine whether or not the groups differed by chance?

• A.

Standard deviation

• B.

Index of variability

• C.

Mean score

• D.

Between score

B. Index of variability
Explanation
In order to determine whether or not the groups differed by chance, you need the index of variability. The index of variability measures the spread or dispersion of data within a group or between groups. It provides information on how much the scores vary from the mean, allowing you to assess the level of difference between groups. By comparing the index of variability between groups, you can determine if the differences observed are statistically significant or occurred by chance.

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• 3.

### What does central tendency refer to?

• A.

Mean median and mode

A. Mean median and mode
Explanation
Central tendency refers to the statistical measures that represent the center or typical value of a dataset. These measures include the mean, which is the average of all the values in the dataset; the median, which is the middle value when the data is arranged in ascending or descending order; and the mode, which is the value that appears most frequently in the dataset. These measures provide insights into the central or typical value of the data and help in understanding its overall distribution.

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• 4.

### What can skew the mean?

• A.

Outliers

A. Outliers
Explanation
Outliers are extreme values that are significantly different from the other values in a dataset. When calculating the mean, outliers can greatly impact the result since they pull the average towards their value. This is because the mean takes into account all the values in the dataset. Therefore, the presence of outliers can skew the mean, making it an unreliable measure of central tendency.

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• 5.

### What are three ways to calculate variability?

• A.

Range, variance and standard deviation

A. Range, variance and standard deviation
Explanation
The three ways to calculate variability are range, variance, and standard deviation. Range measures the difference between the highest and lowest values in a data set, providing a simple measure of spread. Variance calculates the average squared deviation from the mean, indicating how much the data points differ from the average. Standard deviation is the square root of variance and provides a measure of the average distance between each data point and the mean, giving a more intuitive understanding of the spread of the data.

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• 6.

### What is the alpha level of the error rate?

• A.

.05

A. .05
Explanation
The alpha level of the error rate is .05. This indicates that there is a 5% chance of making a Type I error, which is rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true. In hypothesis testing, the alpha level is the threshold used to determine the statistical significance of the results. A lower alpha level means a stricter criterion for rejecting the null hypothesis, reducing the likelihood of false positive results. In this case, an alpha level of .05 suggests a moderate level of significance.

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• 7.

### What are two ways to eliminate chance occurance

• A.

Repetition and statistics

A. Repetition and statistics
Explanation
Repetition and statistics are two ways to eliminate chance occurrence. By repeating an experiment or event multiple times, we can reduce the influence of random factors and increase the reliability of the results. This allows us to identify patterns and trends that are not simply due to chance. Additionally, by using statistical analysis, we can quantify the likelihood of an event occurring by calculating probabilities and making informed decisions based on data. Both repetition and statistics provide methods to minimize the impact of chance and increase the accuracy of our observations and predictions.

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• 8.

### Statistical test selected is based on______?

• A.

Design

• B.

Variability

• C.

Likelihood of chance

• D.

Standard deviation

A. Design
Explanation
The statistical test selected is based on the design of the study. The design refers to the way the study is structured, including the type of data collected, the sampling method, and the experimental or observational approach. The choice of statistical test depends on the specific design of the study, as different tests are appropriate for different types of data and research questions. Therefore, the design of the study plays a crucial role in determining the appropriate statistical test to be used.

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• 9.

### List the 4 characteristics we need to know about a design

• A.

How many IV's, how many levels, scale of measurement, and between or within subjects

A. How many IV's, how many levels, scale of measurement, and between or within subjects
Explanation
The four characteristics that need to be known about a design are: the number of independent variables (IV's), the number of levels within each independent variable, the scale of measurement used, and whether the design is between-subjects or within-subjects. These characteristics are important in order to understand and analyze the design of a study or experiment. The number of IV's and levels determine the complexity and scope of the study, while the scale of measurement helps in determining the type of statistical analysis that can be applied. Lastly, knowing whether the design is between-subjects or within-subjects helps in understanding how the data is collected and analyzed.

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• 10.

### What are the three scale of measurements?

• A.

Nominal, ordinal and interval ratio

A. Nominal, ordinal and interval ratio
Explanation
The three scales of measurements are nominal, ordinal, and interval ratio. Nominal scale is the simplest, where data is categorized into distinct groups or categories. Ordinal scale is used to rank or order data, but the intervals between values are not equal. Interval ratio scale is the most precise, as it not only ranks and orders data, but also has equal intervals between values and a true zero point.

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• 11.

### What does a ordinal measurement measure?

• A.

Continuous variables

• B.

Discrete variables

• C.

Categorical information

• D.

Ranking numbers

D. Ranking numbers
Explanation
Ordinal measurement is a type of measurement that involves assigning numbers to objects or events based on their relative position or rank. It does not involve precise numerical values, but rather focuses on the order or sequence of the items being measured. Therefore, the correct answer is "ranking numbers" as ordinal measurement is used to measure and compare the relative rankings or positions of items.

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• 12.

### What type of statistical test is used with a between participants design with one IV and two levels?

• A.

Independent samples t-test

A. Independent samples t-test
Explanation
The independent samples t-test is used in a between participants design with one independent variable (IV) and two levels. This statistical test is appropriate when comparing the means of two independent groups to determine if there is a significant difference between them. In this design, participants are randomly assigned to one of the two levels of the IV, and their scores are compared using the t-test to assess if the difference between the groups is statistically significant.

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• 13.

### A t-test gives us ______ that is the ratio of the between group mean difference to the average within group variability.

• A.

T- value

A. T- value
Explanation
A t-test gives us the t-value, which is the ratio of the between group mean difference to the average within group variability. The t-value is used to determine the statistical significance of the difference between the means of two groups. It indicates how much the means differ from each other relative to the variability within each group. A higher t-value suggests a larger difference between the means and a lower probability that the difference occurred by chance alone.

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• 14.

### What aspect of the t-test gives you the t-value?

• A.

Standard deviation

A. Standard deviation
Explanation
The t-value in a t-test is calculated by dividing the difference between the sample mean and the population mean by the standard deviation of the sample. The standard deviation measures the spread or variability of the data points in the sample. Therefore, it is the standard deviation that gives us the t-value in a t-test.

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• 15.

### If the t-value obtained is greater than the t-value critical then you can...

• A.

Reject the null

A. Reject the null
Explanation
If the obtained t-value is greater than the critical t-value, it indicates that the difference between the sample means is statistically significant. This means that the likelihood of observing such a difference by chance is very low. Therefore, we can conclude that there is evidence to reject the null hypothesis, which states that there is no difference between the sample means.

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• 16.

### What kind of statistical test do you have when your IV is a with-in subject variable

• A.

Dependent samples t-test

A. Dependent samples t-test
Explanation
When the independent variable (IV) is a within-subject variable, it means that the same participants are being tested under different conditions or at different time points. In such cases, a dependent samples t-test is used to compare the means of two related groups. This test is appropriate because it takes into account the dependency between the observations, allowing for a more accurate assessment of the significance of any differences observed.

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• 17.

### What statistical test do you use when there are more than 2 levels, in a between group and 1 DV

• A.

One way ANOVA

A. One way ANOVA
Explanation
One way ANOVA is the appropriate statistical test to use when there are more than two levels in a between-group design and one dependent variable. It allows for the comparison of means across multiple groups to determine if there are any significant differences. By analyzing the variance between the groups and within the groups, the test can provide insights into whether the observed differences are due to chance or if they are statistically significant.

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• 18.

### Overall variation in the scores calculated from the scores of all of the participants is known as

• A.

Total variance

A. Total variance
Explanation
Total variance refers to the overall variation in the scores calculated from the scores of all participants. It takes into account the differences between individual scores and provides a measure of the total spread or dispersion of the data. By considering the scores of all participants, total variance provides a comprehensive understanding of the variability in the data set.

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• 19.

### What is the formula for total variance

• A.

Between group variance divided by within group variance

A. Between group variance divided by within group variance
Explanation
The formula for total variance is the between group variance divided by the within group variance. This formula is used to measure the overall variation or dispersion of data in a sample or population. The between group variance represents the variation between different groups or categories, while the within group variance represents the variation within each group. By dividing the between group variance by the within group variance, we can obtain a ratio that indicates the extent to which the groups differ from each other relative to the variation within each group.

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• 20.

### What is a variance estimate?

• A.

Mean square

A. Mean square
Explanation
A variance estimate is a measure used to quantify the dispersion or spread of a set of data points. It is calculated by taking the average of the squared differences between each data point and the mean of the data set. The mean square is a type of variance estimate that specifically refers to the average of the squared differences.

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• 21.

### How do you convert the between and within groups variation into mean squares?

• A.

By dividing them by their degrees of freedom

A. By dividing them by their degrees of freedom
Explanation
To convert the between and within groups variation into mean squares, you divide them by their degrees of freedom. This is because mean squares are calculated by dividing the sum of squares by the corresponding degrees of freedom. Dividing the variation by its degrees of freedom helps to standardize the measure and make it comparable across different groups or conditions. By doing so, we can better understand the variability between groups and within groups, and make meaningful statistical inferences.

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• 22.

### What does ANOVA stand for?

• A.

Analysis of Variance

A. Analysis of Variance
Explanation
ANOVA stands for Analysis of Variance. It is a statistical method used to compare the means of two or more groups to determine if there are any significant differences between them. It analyzes the variance between groups and within groups to assess whether the differences observed are due to random chance or actual differences in the population means. ANOVA is commonly used in various fields, including psychology, biology, and social sciences, to examine the effects of different factors on a dependent variable.

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• 23.

### What does mean square measure

• A.

The average amount of variable

A. The average amount of variable
Explanation
Square measure refers to the unit used to measure the area of an object or space. It is commonly used in geometry and is calculated by multiplying the length of one side of a square by itself. Therefore, the term "mean square measure" would refer to the average amount or value of the area being measured.

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• 24.

### How do you determine the degrees of freedom in an ANOVA test?

• A.

Levels minus 1

A. Levels minus 1
Explanation
The degrees of freedom in an ANOVA test are determined by subtracting 1 from the number of levels. This is because in an ANOVA test, the degrees of freedom represent the number of independent pieces of information available for estimating the population parameters. In this case, each level represents a piece of information, but since one level is used as a reference point, it is subtracted from the total number of levels to calculate the degrees of freedom.

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• 25.

### How do you determine the degrees of freedom in a t-test

• A.

Sample size minus 1

A. Sample size minus 1
Explanation
The degrees of freedom in a t-test are determined by subtracting 1 from the sample size. This is because in a t-test, one degree of freedom is used to estimate the population mean. Therefore, the remaining degrees of freedom are equal to the sample size minus 1.

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• 26.

### How do you determine the degrees of freedom in a within subject design

• A.

Participants minus levels

A. Participants minus levels
Explanation
In a within-subject design, the degrees of freedom can be determined by subtracting the number of levels of the independent variable from the number of participants. This is because each participant serves as their own control, and the levels of the independent variable represent the different conditions or treatments being tested. By subtracting the number of levels from the number of participants, we can calculate the degrees of freedom, which represent the number of independent pieces of information available for statistical analysis in the study.

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• 27.

### What is the formula for mean square between?

• A.

Between groups variation divided by degrees of freedom.

A. Between groups variation divided by degrees of freedom.
Explanation
The formula for mean square between is obtained by dividing the between groups variation by the degrees of freedom. This formula helps in calculating the average variation between different groups or categories in a dataset. By dividing the variation by the degrees of freedom, we can obtain a measure of the average variability between groups, which can be useful in analyzing and comparing different groups in a statistical analysis.

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• 28.

### What is the formula for the f-ratio in a one-way between group ANOVA?

• A.

Ms between divided by ms within

A. Ms between divided by ms within
Explanation
The formula for the f-ratio in a one-way between group ANOVA is calculated by dividing the mean square (ms) between groups by the mean square within groups. This ratio is used to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of the groups being compared. A higher f-ratio indicates a larger difference between the group means, suggesting that there is a significant effect. Conversely, a lower f-ratio suggests that the group means are similar and there is no significant effect.

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• 29.

### What does the f-ratio equal if there is no treatment effect

• A.

1

A. 1
Explanation
If there is no treatment effect, it means that all the groups or conditions in the experiment are the same. In this case, the numerator of the f-ratio, which represents the variability between the groups, will be zero because there is no difference to measure. The denominator of the f-ratio, which represents the variability within the groups, will also be zero because there is no variability within the groups if they are all the same. Therefore, the f-ratio will be 0/0, which is undefined.

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• 30.

### What does stastical conclusion refer to?

• A.

Wether or not you reject the null?

A. Wether or not you reject the null?
Explanation
The term "statistical conclusion" refers to the decision made regarding the null hypothesis in a statistical analysis. It determines whether or not the null hypothesis is rejected based on the data collected and analyzed. In other words, it is the conclusion drawn about the population based on the sample data, indicating whether there is enough evidence to support rejecting the null hypothesis or not.

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• 31.

### What is the formula for the F ratio in an ANOVA within group subjects design?

• A.

The between conditions divided by error rate

A. The between conditions divided by error rate
Explanation
The F ratio in an ANOVA within group subjects design is calculated by dividing the between conditions variance by the error rate. This ratio helps to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of the different conditions. By comparing the variability between conditions to the variability within conditions, the F ratio allows researchers to assess the strength of the effect being studied.

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• 32.

### How many IV's are in a two-way ANOVA?

• A.

2

A. 2
Explanation
A two-way ANOVA involves two independent variables (IVs), which are factors that are manipulated in an experiment. Each IV has two or more levels or conditions. In this case, the question asks how many IVs are in a two-way ANOVA, and the answer is 2. This means that there are two factors being studied, each with two or more levels, and their interaction is examined to determine their combined effect on the dependent variable.

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• 33.

### What type of design does a two way ANOVA collect data from?

• A.

Factorial

A. Factorial
Explanation
A two-way ANOVA collects data from a factorial design. In a factorial design, multiple factors or independent variables are manipulated simultaneously to examine their main effects and interactions. In the case of a two-way ANOVA, there are two factors being investigated, and each factor can have multiple levels or categories. By collecting data from a factorial design, researchers can analyze the effects of each factor individually as well as their interactions on the dependent variable of interest.

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• 34.

### What does factorial mean?

• A.

The variables are between

A. The variables are between
• 35.

### The effect of one level of the IV is dependent on another level of another IV is called

• A.

Interaction variation

A. Interaction variation
Explanation
Interaction variation refers to the phenomenon where the effect of one level of an independent variable (IV) is dependent on another level of another IV. In other words, the relationship between the IVs is not simply additive, but rather there is an interaction effect between them. This means that the effect of one IV on the dependent variable is influenced by the different levels of the other IV.

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• 36.

### Total variation in a two-way ANOVA is broken into what 3 areas

• A.

Between variation for each IV, Interaction Variation, & measure of chance.

A. Between variation for each IV, Interaction Variation, & measure of chance.
Explanation
In a two-way ANOVA, the total variation is divided into three areas. The first area is the between variation for each independent variable (IV), which represents the differences in the dependent variable caused by each IV separately. The second area is the interaction variation, which accounts for the combined effect of the two IVs on the dependent variable. The third area is the measure of chance, which represents the random variation or error in the data that cannot be attributed to the IVs or their interaction.

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• 37.

### How do you determine what kind of number a factorial design is?

• A.

The level of one IV multiplied by the level of another IV

A. The level of one IV multiplied by the level of another IV
Explanation
A factorial design is determined by multiplying the levels of one independent variable (IV) by the levels of another IV. This means that each combination of the levels of the two IVs is tested in the experiment. The resulting design allows for the examination of the main effects of each IV as well as any interaction effects between them.

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• 38.

### Multiplying the degrees of freedom of one variable by the degrees of freedom of another freedom is called

• A.

The interaction of degrees of freedom

A. The interaction of degrees of freedom
Explanation
The term "interaction" refers to the combined effect or influence of two or more factors. In this context, the degrees of freedom of one variable are being multiplied by the degrees of freedom of another variable, indicating that their effects are interacting or combining with each other. Therefore, the correct term for this process is "the interaction of degrees of freedom."

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• 39.

### What are the three types of ANOVAs?

• A.

Between, within and factorial

A. Between, within and factorial
Explanation
The three types of ANOVAs are between, within, and factorial. Between ANOVA is used when comparing the means of different groups. Within ANOVA is used when comparing the means of the same group at different time points or conditions. Factorial ANOVA is used when there are two or more independent variables and their interactions need to be analyzed. These three types of ANOVAs allow researchers to examine different aspects of the data and draw conclusions about the effects of different factors on the dependent variable.

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• 40.

### What is a type I error?

• A.

Falsely reject the Null

A. Falsely reject the Null
Explanation
A type I error refers to the incorrect rejection of a null hypothesis when it is actually true. In other words, it is the false detection of a significant effect or relationship when there is none. This error is typically caused by a significant level set too low or insufficient sample size, leading to misleading conclusions.

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• 41.

• A.

Type I

A. Type I
• 42.

### What is the power affected by

• A.

Alpha level, sample size and treatment effect.

A. Alpha level, sample size and treatment effect.
Explanation
The power of a statistical test is affected by the alpha level, sample size, and treatment effect. The alpha level, also known as the significance level, determines the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true. A lower alpha level increases the likelihood of making a Type II error (false negative). The sample size plays a crucial role in determining the power of a test. A larger sample size increases the power, as it reduces the variability and increases the precision of the estimate. Lastly, the treatment effect refers to the difference or effect that the treatment or intervention has on the outcome variable. A larger treatment effect increases the power of the test.

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• 43.

### What does effect size say?

• A.

How much can one variable explain the difference

A. How much can one variable explain the difference
Explanation
The effect size refers to the magnitude or strength of the relationship between two variables. It quantifies how much one variable can explain the difference in another variable. In other words, it measures the extent to which a change in one variable can account for or predict the change in another variable. A larger effect size indicates a stronger relationship between the variables, while a smaller effect size suggests a weaker or negligible relationship.

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