Spleen And Lymphatic SySTEM

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Spleen And Lymphatic System - Quiz

Quiz 1


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The spleen is the largest mass of ______ tissue in the body and therefore is the largest unit of the ___________________ system, part of the immune system.

    Explanation
    The spleen is the largest mass of lymph tissue in the body and therefore is the largest unit of the reticuloendothelial system, part of the immune system. The spleen plays a crucial role in filtering and removing old or damaged red blood cells, as well as producing and storing white blood cells, which are essential for fighting infections and diseases.

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  • 2. 

    Is the spleen an intraperitoneal organ or an extraperitoneal organ?

    Explanation
    The spleen is an intraperitoneal organ, meaning it is located within the peritoneal cavity. The peritoneal cavity is the space in the abdomen that is lined by the peritoneum, a thin membrane that covers the organs and structures within the abdominal cavity. Since the spleen is located within this cavity, it is considered an intraperitoneal organ.

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  • 3. 

    The spleen is almost completely covered by ____________, except for the hilum.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "peritoneum." The peritoneum is a membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the organs within it. It forms a protective layer around the spleen, except for the hilum, which is the area where blood vessels and nerves enter and exit the organ. Therefore, the spleen is almost completely covered by the peritoneum, except for this specific region.

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  • 4. 

    The spleen lies in the _____ (which quadrant) between the left ______________ and the stomach.

    Explanation
    The spleen lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) between the left hemidiaphragm and the stomach. The LUQ is the area of the abdomen located on the left side, above the belly button. The hemidiaphragm is the muscular partition that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. It plays a role in respiration. The spleen is an organ located in the upper left side of the abdomen, and its position is in close proximity to the hemidiaphragm and the stomach.

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  • 5. 

    The ______________ surface of the spleen is bordered by the left hemidiaphragm.

    Explanation
    The spleen is an organ located in the upper left side of the abdomen. It has different surfaces, and in this case, the correct answer is "superior." The superior surface of the spleen is the one that is bordered by the left hemidiaphragm. This means that the upper part of the spleen is in contact with the left side of the diaphragm, which separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity.

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  • 6. 

    The medial surface or _________ surface of the spleen has ______ where it comes in contact with the _______, pancreatic _____, ______ kidney, and splenic flexure of colon.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "visceral". The medial surface of the spleen is the surface that faces towards the organs in the abdominal cavity. It has indentations where it comes in contact with the stomach, tail of the pancreas, left kidney, and splenic flexure of the colon.

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  • 7. 

    The left kidney lies _______ and _______ to the spleen.

    Explanation
    The left kidney is positioned below and towards the midline in relation to the spleen.

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  • 8. 

    The fundus of the _________ and the _______ sac are medial and anterior to the splenic hilum.

    Explanation
    The fundus of the stomach and the lesser sac are located on the medial and anterior side of the splenic hilum. This means that they are positioned closer to the center and front of the spleen. The fundus of the stomach refers to the upper, rounded part of the stomach, while the lesser sac is a small cavity located behind the stomach. Together, they are situated in this specific position in relation to the splenic hilum.

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  • 9. 

    The tail of the pancreas lies __________ to the stomach and lesser sac and approaches the hilum of the spleen, in close relation with the splenic _______ and ______.

    Explanation
    The tail of the pancreas is located behind the stomach and lesser sac, and it is in close proximity to the splenic artery and vein.

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  • 10. 

    The size and weight of the spleen varies with _____, ______ and nutritional state of an individual.

    Explanation
    The size and weight of the spleen varies with age and sex. This means that the spleen can be different sizes and weights depending on the individual's age and their biological sex. Age can affect the size and weight of the spleen as it may grow or shrink over time. Additionally, biological sex can also play a role in determining the size and weight of the spleen as males and females may have different average sizes and weights for this organ.

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  • 11. 

    Length of Spleen is approximately __ to ___cm.

    Explanation
    The length of the spleen is approximately 12 to 14 centimeters. It can also be referred to as either 12 or 14 centimeters in length.

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  • 12. 

    The width of spleen is approximately ___cm.

    Explanation
    The width of the spleen is approximately 7 cm.

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  • 13. 

    The AP dimensions of the spleen is approxmately __ to __cm.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is 3-4 cm. The spleen is typically measured in its AP (anterior-posterior) dimension, which refers to the distance from the front to the back of the organ. The normal range for the AP dimensions of the spleen is approximately 3-4 cm. The answer also includes the individual measurements of 3 cm and 4 cm, which fall within this range.

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  • 14. 

    Splenomaegaly is seen when the spleen measures more than ___cm.

    Explanation
    Splenomegaly is a condition in which the spleen becomes enlarged. In this question, the correct answer is 14 cm. When the spleen measures more than 14 cm, it is considered to be enlarged. This can be caused by various underlying conditions such as liver disease, infections, or blood disorders. The enlargement of the spleen can lead to symptoms like abdominal pain, fatigue, and easy bleeding. It is important to diagnose and treat the underlying cause of splenomegaly to manage the condition effectively.

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  • 15. 

    The spleen weighs more in females than in males.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    female weighs 150g and in males weighs 180g

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  • 16. 

    The spleen is supplied by the _______ artery, which courses along the ______ border of the pancreas and enters the hilum. Once in the hilum, it divides into ___ branches (#)

    Correct Answer
    splenic, superior, 6
    Explanation
    The spleen is supplied by the splenic artery, which courses along the superior border of the pancreas and enters the hilum. Once in the hilum, it divides into 6 branches.

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  • 17. 

    Drainage of the spleen is done by the ________ _______, emerging from the splenic hilum.  It courses transversely along the _________ aspect of the pancreas to join the SMV which in turn forms the ______ vein.

    Correct Answer
    splenic vein, posterior, portal
    Explanation
    The drainage of the spleen is carried out by the splenic vein, which emerges from the splenic hilum. It then courses transversely along the posterior aspect of the pancreas to join the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), which in turn forms the portal vein.

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  • 18. 

    The spleen is a very vascular organ, but is not essential for life.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The spleen is a highly vascular organ, meaning it has a rich blood supply. However, it is not essential for life. This means that even if the spleen is removed or not functioning properly, a person can still survive. The spleen plays a role in filtering and storing blood, as well as producing certain types of immune cells. While it has important functions, other organs and systems in the body can compensate for its absence or dysfunction.

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  • 19. 

    The spleen is covered in a capsule of _____________ tissue that contains projecting fibers that __________ into the spleen.

    Correct Answer
    connective, invaginate
    Explanation
    The spleen is surrounded by a capsule made of connective tissue. This connective tissue contains projecting fibers that invaginate, or extend into the spleen. These fibers help to provide structural support and maintain the shape of the spleen.

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  • 20. 

    The connective tissue that covers the spleen, forms small spaces or ______________.  These invaginating "___________" or finger like projections form compartments within the _______ tissue. __________ is found in these finger like projections.

    Correct Answer
    compartments, triveculi, splenic, pulp
    Explanation
    The connective tissue that covers the spleen forms small spaces called compartments or triveculi. These compartments or triveculi are invaginating or finger-like projections that create compartments within the splenic tissue. The pulp is found in these finger-like projections.

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  • 21. 

    Physiology of Spleen: (check all that apply)

    • A.

      Formation of bile pigment

    • B.

      Breakdown of hemoglobin

    • C.

      Formation of antibodies and immunity

    • D.

      Filter and reservoir for blood

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Formation of bile pigment
    B. Breakdown of hemoglobin
    C. Formation of antibodies and immunity
    D. Filter and reservoir for blood
    Explanation
    The spleen is an important organ involved in various physiological processes. It plays a role in the breakdown of hemoglobin, which is the process of breaking down old or damaged red blood cells. The breakdown of hemoglobin also leads to the formation of bile pigments. The spleen is also involved in the formation of antibodies and immunity, as it contains white blood cells that help in fighting off infections. Additionally, the spleen acts as a filter and reservoir for blood, helping to remove old or damaged blood cells and store blood for emergencies.

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  • 22. 

    _______  _______ is involved in the immune function of the spleen (helps to produce antigens and antibodies), it is lymphatic tissue, mostly comprised of lymphocytes,  arranged around the splenic arteries.

    Correct Answer(s)
    white pulp
    Explanation
    White pulp is involved in the immune function of the spleen as it helps to produce antigens and antibodies. It is a type of lymphatic tissue that is mostly comprised of lymphocytes. The white pulp is arranged around the splenic arteries, allowing for efficient filtration and immune response within the spleen.

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  • 23. 

    The immune process of the spleen functions in the production of _________ and the production of _______ cells important for the formation of antibodies.

    Correct Answer(s)
    lymphocytes, plasma
    Explanation
    The immune process of the spleen involves the production of lymphocytes, which are important cells involved in the immune response. These lymphocytes include B cells, which are responsible for the production of antibodies. The spleen also plays a role in the production of plasma cells, which are specialized B cells that produce and secrete antibodies. Therefore, the correct answer is lymphocytes and plasma.

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  • 24. 

    White pulp makes up 15% of splenic tissue.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the white pulp does indeed make up 15% of splenic tissue. The spleen is composed of two main types of tissue: red pulp and white pulp. The white pulp is responsible for immune functions and contains lymphocytes, which are important for fighting infections. It is typically found in small, discrete clusters within the spleen and makes up about 15% of the overall splenic tissue.

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  • 25. 

    ________  ________ is the venous component of the spleen and is important in the breakdown of RBCs.

    Correct Answer
    red pulp
    Explanation
    The red pulp is the venous component of the spleen and is important in the breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs). It contains a network of specialized cells called macrophages, which phagocytose and remove old or damaged RBCs from circulation. Additionally, the red pulp acts as a reservoir for blood, storing and releasing it as needed.

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  • 26. 

    _____ blood cells are important in the production of bile component or bile pigments.  Bile pigments (bilirubin) are sent to the liver to be ___________.

    Correct Answer
    red, conjugated
    Explanation
    Red blood cells are important in the production of bile component or bile pigments. Bile pigments, specifically bilirubin, are formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells. These pigments are then sent to the liver to be conjugated. Conjugation of bilirubin in the liver makes it water-soluble and allows it to be excreted in bile.

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  • 27. 

    _______________ is the formation of RBCs and occurs in the liver and spleen in the fetus and occurs in the bone marrow in adults.

    Correct Answer
    erythropoiesis
    Explanation
    Erythropoiesis is the process of producing red blood cells (RBCs). In the fetus, erythropoiesis takes place in the liver and spleen, while in adults it occurs in the bone marrow. This process is essential for maintaining a healthy level of RBCs in the body, which are responsible for carrying oxygen to the tissues.

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  • 28. 

    Check all that apply to the sono technique and appearance of the spleen:

    • A.

      Comma shaped organ with larger superior portion

    • B.

      Can enlarge up to 10X its size because of capsule

    • C.

      Has smooth contour because of capsule

    • D.

      3.5-5.0 transucer

    • E.

      Patient has to be NPO

    • F.

      Usually scan patient supine

    • G.

      Patient does not have to be NPO

    • H.

      Make note of adjacent pleural space

    • I.

      Usually scan patient left side up

    • J.

      Spleen should not be mistaken for an enlarged liver

    • K.

      Parenchyma should be homogenous with mid level echoes, isoechoic, or slightly less echogenic than the liver

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Comma shaped organ with larger superior portion
    B. Can enlarge up to 10X its size because of capsule
    C. Has smooth contour because of capsule
    D. 3.5-5.0 transucer
    G. Patient does not have to be NPO
    H. Make note of adjacent pleural space
    I. Usually scan patient left side up
    J. Spleen should not be mistaken for an enlarged liver
    K. Parenchyma should be homogenous with mid level echoes, isoechoic, or slightly less echogenic than the liver
    Explanation
    The correct answer choices for this question are all related to the sono technique and appearance of the spleen. The spleen is described as a comma-shaped organ with a larger superior portion, which can enlarge up to 10 times its size because of the capsule. The spleen has a smooth contour due to the capsule. The recommended transducer for scanning the spleen is 3.5-5.0. It is not necessary for the patient to be NPO (nothing by mouth) before the scan. It is important to make note of the adjacent pleural space during the scan. The patient is usually scanned with the left side up. The spleen should not be mistaken for an enlarged liver. The parenchyma of the spleen should be homogenous with mid-level echoes, isoechoic, or slightly less echogenic than the liver.

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  • 29. 

    Polycythemia is ___________ RBCs.

    Correct Answer(s)
    increased
    Explanation
    Polycythemia is a condition characterized by an increased number of red blood cells (RBCs). This can occur due to various factors such as bone marrow disorders, genetic mutations, or high altitude. The increased number of RBCs leads to a higher concentration of hemoglobin in the blood, which can result in thickening of the blood and impaired circulation. Symptoms may include fatigue, shortness of breath, and increased risk of blood clots. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, phlebotomy (removing blood), or bone marrow transplantation.

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  • 30. 

    Pancytopenia is a _________ in RBCs.

    Correct Answer(s)
    decrease
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "decrease" because pancytopenia refers to a condition where there is a decrease in the number of red blood cells (RBCs) along with a decrease in the number of white blood cells and platelets. Therefore, pancytopenia is characterized by a decrease in RBCs.

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  • 31. 

    If RBCs are increased, it can indicate ______________   ________ or severe __________ or dehydration.

    Correct Answer(s)
    polycythemia vera, diarrhea
    Explanation
    An increased number of red blood cells (RBCs) can indicate the presence of polycythemia vera, a rare blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of RBCs. This condition can lead to an increase in hematocrit levels and thicker blood, which can cause complications such as blood clots. Diarrhea, on the other hand, can lead to dehydration, which can cause an increase in RBC count due to hemoconcentration. Therefore, an increase in RBCs can be indicative of either polycythemia vera or severe diarrhea leading to dehydration.

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  • 32. 

    This is bone marrow hyperplasia producing RBCs at a rate too great for the spleen to handle

    Correct Answer(s)
    polycythemia vera
    Explanation
    Polycythemia vera is a condition characterized by the overproduction of red blood cells in the bone marrow. This excessive production of RBCs overwhelms the spleen's ability to handle them, leading to bone marrow hyperplasia. The term "hyperplasia" refers to the abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue. In this case, the bone marrow is producing RBCs at a rate that is too great for the spleen to handle, resulting in polycythemia vera.

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  • 33. 

    Check all that apply to decreased RBC count:

    • A.

      Acute blood loss

    • B.

      Anemia

    • C.

      Kidney disease

    • D.

      Excessive IV fluids

    • E.

      Certain cancers

    • F.

      Later stages of Hodgkins disease

    • G.

      Cirrhosis

    • H.

      Leukemia

    • I.

      Multiple myeloma

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Acute blood loss
    B. Anemia
    C. Kidney disease
    D. Excessive IV fluids
    E. Certain cancers
    F. Later stages of Hodgkins disease
    G. Cirrhosis
    H. Leukemia
    I. Multiple myeloma
    Explanation
    A decreased RBC count can be caused by various factors. Acute blood loss can lead to a decrease in RBC count as the loss of blood reduces the overall number of red blood cells. Anemia, a condition characterized by a deficiency in red blood cells or hemoglobin, can also cause a decreased RBC count. Kidney disease can affect the production of erythropoietin, a hormone necessary for RBC production, resulting in a decrease in RBC count. Excessive IV fluids can dilute the blood, leading to a decrease in RBC count. Certain cancers, including Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and multiple myeloma, can disrupt the production and function of red blood cells, causing a decrease in RBC count. Cirrhosis, a liver disease, can also contribute to a decreased RBC count.

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  • 34. 

    What is the term used to describe increased WBC count:

    Correct Answer(s)
    leukocytosis
    Explanation
    Leukocytosis is the term used to describe an increased white blood cell (WBC) count. This condition can be caused by various factors such as infections, inflammation, and certain medical conditions. Leukocytosis is a common response of the body to fight off infections or to indicate an underlying health issue. By identifying leukocytosis, healthcare professionals can further investigate the cause and provide appropriate treatment if necessary.

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  • 35. 

    When there is a decrease in WBCs this is known as _____________

    Correct Answer(s)
    leukopenia
    Explanation
    Leukopenia is the medical term used to describe a decrease in the number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the body. WBCs play a crucial role in fighting off infections and diseases, so a decrease in their count can weaken the immune system and make individuals more susceptible to infections. Leukopenia can be caused by various factors, such as certain medications, viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, or bone marrow disorders. Regular blood tests are conducted to monitor WBC count and diagnose leukopenia.

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  • 36. 

    _____________ is when the spleen rapidly and prematurely destroys blood cells; the normal function accelerates and the spleen automatically begins to remove cells.

    Correct Answer(s)
    hypersplenism
    Explanation
    Hypersplenism is a condition where the spleen becomes overactive and starts destroying blood cells at a faster rate than normal. This leads to a decrease in the number of healthy blood cells in the body. The spleen, which is responsible for filtering the blood and removing old or damaged cells, begins to remove even healthy cells in this condition. This can result in anemia, low platelet counts, and a decrease in white blood cells.

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  • 37. 

    Increased wbc count:

    • A.

      Acute infection

    • B.

      Hemorrhage

    • C.

      AIDS

    • D.

      Carcinoma

    • E.

      Diabetes

    • F.

      Mono

    • G.

      Appendicitis

    • H.

      Acute stages of leukemia

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Acute infection
    B. Hemorrhage
    D. Carcinoma
    F. Mono
    G. Appendicitis
    H. Acute stages of leukemia
    Explanation
    The given answer includes various conditions that can cause an increased white blood cell (WBC) count. Acute infection, hemorrhage, carcinoma, mono (mononucleosis), appendicitis, and acute stages of leukemia are all known to be associated with an elevated WBC count. In these conditions, the body's immune system is activated, leading to an increase in the production of white blood cells to fight off the infection, respond to tissue damage, or combat cancerous cells. This increase in WBC count is a normal response to these conditions.

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  • 38. 

    Decreased WBC count:

    • A.

      Hypersplenism

    • B.

      AIDS / viral infections

    • C.

      Later stages of leukemia

    • D.

      Aplastic anemia

    • E.

      Diabetes

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Hypersplenism
    B. AIDS / viral infections
    C. Later stages of leukemia
    D. Aplastic anemia
    E. Diabetes
    Explanation
    The given answer options are all conditions or diseases that can cause a decreased white blood cell (WBC) count. Hypersplenism is a condition where the spleen removes blood cells, including WBCs, from circulation. AIDS and viral infections can suppress the immune system, leading to a decrease in WBCs. In the later stages of leukemia, the bone marrow may not produce enough healthy WBCs. Aplastic anemia is a condition where the bone marrow does not produce enough blood cells, including WBCs. While diabetes is not directly related to WBC count, uncontrolled diabetes can weaken the immune system, potentially leading to a decrease in WBCs.

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  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 24, 2011
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